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Topic: Homosexuals in Nazi Germany

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  History of gays in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nazi ideology held that homosexuality was incompatible with National Socialism because gays did not reproduce and perpetuate the master race.
Hitler believed that homosexuality was "degenerate behavior" which posed a threat to the capacity of the state and the "masculine character" of the nation.
And Nazi doctors often used gay men for scientific experiments in an attempt to locate a "gay gene" to cure any future Aryan children who were gay.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Homosexuals_in_Nazi_Germany   (1257 words)

 Homosexuals in Nazi Germany
When studying the status of homosexuals in Nazi concentration camps, it is important to first understand the role that concentration camps played in Nazi Germany: they were a tool to bring the society to conform with the fascist state.
In the case of homosexuals (and similarly, of Jehovah's Witnesses and political prisoners) the camps were perceived primarily as reeducation centers for Aryans who had deviated from state-imposed social norms.
The few oral histories of homosexuals that we have indicate that homosexuals in concentration camps were cautious of even speaking to one another because this might arouse suspicion and disgust both among the guards and their fellow prisoners.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/homosexuals_in_nazi_germany   (797 words)

 IB Holocaust Project: Unlebenswurdig - Homosexuals
Their statement that the murder of homosexuals evidently corresponded with 'the healthy instincts of the people,' including many which were originally opposed to the regime (188).
Also, the "euthanasia" of homosexuals occurred between 1937-1939 and were not solely caused by the impact of the war as thus implied (197).
1933 was the starting-points for the persecution of homosexuals.
cghs.dade.k12.fl.us /holocaust/homosexuals.htm   (2792 words)

 Homosexuals: Victims of the Nazi Era
HOMOSEXUALS: VICTIMS OF On May 6,1933, Nazis ransacked the "Institute for Sexual Science" in Berlin; four days later' as part of large public burnings of books viewed as "un-German," thousands of books plundered from the Institute's library were thrown into a huge bonfire.
Homosexuality outside Germany (and incorporated Austria and other annexed territories) was not a subject generally addressed in Nazi ideology or policy; the concern focused on the impact of homosexuality on the strength and birthrate of the Aryan population.
After the war, homosexual concentration camp prisoners were not acknowledged as victims of Nazi persecution, and reparations were refused.
www.holocaust-trc.org /homosx.htm   (1427 words)

 Nazi Germany : 14 to 18 years
Nazi and East German Propaganda: Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic.
Nazi and East German Propaganda: Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the postwar German Democratic Republic.
Nazi Propaganda: The story of the Nazi rise to power in the Germany of the 1930s is often seen as a classic example of how to achieve political ends through propaganda.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /REVhistoryNAZI3.htm   (2672 words)

 Homosexuality and the Nazi Party
As the badge used by the Nazis to designate homosexuals in the concentration camps, the pink triangle perfectly expresses the message of "gay rights." That message is that homosexuals are currently and historically victims of irrational prejudice and that those who oppose homosexuality are hateful bigots.
Since long before the Nazis, homosexuals had generally lived clandestine lives, so it was not unusual for revelations of their conduct to come as a surprise to their communities when it became a police matter.
Homosexuals who died in the camps (mostly of disease and starvation) were "a small fraction of less than 1 percent" of homosexuals in Germany (S. Katz:146), compared to more than 85 percent of European Jewry exterminated in the gas chambers.
www.leaderu.com /jhs/lively.html   (8215 words)

The one remarkable exception was in Hebrew culture; homosexuality was expressly prohibited in the Law of Moses.
The punishment for "chronic homosexuals" was incarceration in a concentration camp.
As a consequence, homosexual survivors of the camp experience were still reticent to press their case before the courts since they could still be prosecuted under existing laws.
www.mtsu.edu /~baustin/homobg.html   (3291 words)

 A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust-Homosexuals
One attempt by the Nazis to purify German society was their condemnation of male homosexuals as "socially aberrant." Early in the Nazi regime, male homosexual organizations were banned.
Homosexuals: Victims of the Nazi Era is a booklet published by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
"Homosexuals in Nazi Germany" by Warren Johansson and William A. Percy.
fcit.coedu.usf.edu /holocaust/people/VictHomo.htm   (464 words)

 Views - International Committee for Holocaust Truth: Report #1
Homosexuals in Germany were never forced to wear the pink triangle except as an identification badge in the camps.
Official statements against homosexuality, made primarily by Heinrich Himmler, appear when taken in context to be mere pandering to the German public and to conservative elements of the military.
Many homosexuals were prominent in the government and military organizations of the Third Reich, and many of the concentration camp guards and administrators were homosexual.
www.e-z.net /wtv/v-icht-1.htm   (1944 words)

 A New Perspective on Gay Victims of Nazi Persecution
Pink Triangle: The Social History of Anti-homosexual Persecution in Nazi Germany, written by Ruediger Lautmann and Erhard Vismar and translated by Page Grubb, supports the demand by the Gay Activists Alliance of Washington, an IGA member organization, that Gay victims of Nazi terror should be honored in all activities and exhibitions commemorating the Holocaust.
The emotions aroused by the horrors of the Holocaust are strongly shared by the Gay community and are reinforced by the contemporary awareness of the plight of homosexuals in Nazi Germany.
While such facts hardly exonerate the Nazi treatment of homosexuals, they at the same time do not reflect the ferocity of the monomania which drove the Nazis to genocide of the Jews, even at the expense of their war effort against the Allies.
www.sodomylaws.org /world/germany/genews014.htm   (845 words)

 GAY HOLOCAUST   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
These resources are an introduction to the condition of the gay community in Germany before the Nazis, with especial attention to their organization and visibility.
The Antihomosexual Policies of the Nazis and the Social Consequences for Homosexual Men." In The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, edited by Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J.
   The Persecution of Homosexuals by the Nazis.
www.niulib.niu.edu /lgbt/Gay_Holocaust_Final.htm   (1753 words)

 <! - meta title - > Queer, Gay History: The Third Reich
Used by the Nazis to identify homosexual prisoners in German concentration camps, it is a powerful reminder of a grim episode in the history of gay oppression.
Moreover, many homosexuals were summilarily executed by firing squads; this was particularly the case with gays in the military -- which encompassed nearly every able-bodied man during the final years of the war.
Homosexuals were distinguished from other prisoners by a pink triangle, worn on the left side of the jacket and on the right pant leg.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/pwh/steakley-nazis.html   (3303 words)

 Houston Voice Online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Collin Keel, director of changing exhibits at the museum, said Paragraph 175 was already in force when the Nazis, under Adolf Hitler, strengthened it in an effort to eradicate gays along with others considered to be counter to the goal of creating a master Aryan race.
The Nazis considered homosexuals to carry a “contagious degeneracy” that threatened the New World Order they were building.
The story of Richard Grune, whose artwork is a visual representation of the persecution of homosexuals, is also recounted in the exhibit.
www.houstonvoice.com /print.cfm?content_id=1220   (680 words)

Homosexuals and the Holocaust Ben S. Austin Introduction With the coming of the Christian era in the first century A.D., homo- sexuality was defined as an unnatural act and a violation of God's law.
Homosexuality During the Enlightenment Laws prescribing the death penalty existed in France up to the French Revolution, in England until the early 1860's and in Scotland until the 1880's.
After likening the homosexual who was killed and thrown into a peat bog to the weeding process in a garden, Himmler continued his tirade:...In the SS, today, we still have about one case of homosexuality a month.
www.mail-archive.com /ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg50775.html   (3482 words)

 HOMOSEXUALS AND THE HOLOCAUST   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
While homosexuality has fairly consistently been defined in western culture as deviant, and often illegal and, while homosexuals have frequently been the targets of discrimination and sometimes overt violence, the response of the Nazi regime to homosexuality is unparalled in history.
Furthermore, the political "logic" which allowed Himmler and his SS troops to arrive at an extermination policy for homosexuals stands as one of the most fascinating examples of the manipulation of ideology in modern history.
The entries in this section attempt to clarify Nazi racial policy as it came to be applied to moral, sexual and religious issues and to provide some empirical information regarding the treatment of homosexuals in Nazi Germany.
www.mtsu.edu /~baustin/homosxl.html   (233 words)

 Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals
The caption explains that these people were slave laborers who were deliberately worked to death, many of them homosexuals, “a fact that was common knowledge at the time in Dachau and elsewhere but mentioned only as a “footnote,” or not mentioned at all, by that distinguished group of journalists,”(2).
Although it was clear the Nazi party viewed homosexuals negatively, as was evident from the destruction of Magnus Hirschfeld’s Institute of Sexual Science in Berlin, “some gays [in the SS] may have been reconciled by the knowledge that Hitler’s right hand man, Ernst Rohm, was a homosexual,”(3).
The sensitivity of the weakened state Germany was left in after WWI and the depression is used later in the speech: “Let’s see to it that we once again become strong!”(3).
www.history.ucsb.edu /faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/projects/homo/SanjeNaziExtermination.htm   (843 words)

 Gay Holocaust Survivors Speak
Toward the end of "Paragraph 175," a 92-year-old man weeps at the memory of what was done to him in a concentration camp, and of the silence he was forced to maintain in the years following his release.
It was part of the Nazis’ campaign to eradicate homosexuality, which they viewed as a threat to the "Aryan purity" deemed essential to Germany’s comeback from World War I humiliation.
In fact, illustrating how homosexuality was becoming a political football, communists used Rohm’s gay identity as a propaganda weapon against the Nazis.
www.sodomylaws.org /world/germany/genews008.htm   (569 words)

 News Releases - NAZI PERSECUTION OF HOMOSEXUALS 1933-1945 - SFPL.org
Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany sought domination over Europe and, in what is now called the Holocaust, the total annihilation of Europe's Jews.
Believing them to be carriers of a “degeneracy” that threatened the nation's “disciplined masculinity” and hindered population growth, the Nazi state incarcerated in prisons and concentration camps tens of thousands of men as a means of terrorizing German homosexuals into social conformity.
Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945 is organized and circulated by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
sfpl.lib.ca.us /news/releases/naziexhibition.htm   (431 words)

 Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals -- Bibliography: A-L   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
The book makes only glancing reference to the internment of homosexual men in concentration camps, asserting that the Nazis main interest was in using hard labor to reform the internees into "real men." Bleuel does not discuss the conditions in the camps, the number of men interned, or their actual fate.
Bremer notes that the Nazi law authorizing judges to order punitive castration was imposed in Norway during the German occupation of 1940-45, but claims that neither the frequency nor the circumstances of use of castration in Norway changed significantly from the pre-Occupation period due to resistance by Norwegian doctors.
A very brief summary of the persecution of homosexual men and women under the Nazis, this text adds an assertion that the regime was "by no means the most lethal" for queers in the 20th century, a distinction the authors reserve for the Soviet labor camps under Stalin.
members.aol.com /dalembert/lgbt_history/biblio_al.html   (6609 words)

 The Pink Triangle : The Nazi War Against Homosexuals: Current Amazon U.S.A. One-Edition Data
In this Nazi crusade, homosexual prisoners were confined to death camps where, forced to wear pink triangles, they constituted the lowest rung in the camp hierarchy.
Republican Arlon Lidner claims that no such persecution of gays in Nazi Europe ever occurred and is somehow tying that argument to his proposal to repeal his state's human rights amendment that protects gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered persons from discrimination.
The treatment of homosexuals by the Nazi army was harsh and cruel yet the names of the dead resound silent throughout much of history.
www.ferretexpert.info /stuff-0805006001.html   (1224 words)

 Adolf Brand
In 1939, Heger, a Viennese university student, was arrested and sentenced to prison for being a "degenerate." Within weeks he was transported to Sachsenhausen, a concentration camp in East Germany, and forced to wear a pink triangle to show that his crime was homosexuality.
That Gad Beck, a Jew in the Berlin of Nazi Germany, lived through the Holocaust at all is surprising.
The fact that he lived through it as a homosexual Jew who spent the entire war funneling food, money, and clothing to hidden Jews and helping smuggle others out of the country is amazing.
www.queertheory.com /histories/b/brand_adolf.htm   (804 words)

 UEHS Library - Global History & Geography - Homosexual Victims of the Holocaust
As part of the Nazis’ attempt to purify society and create a "Aryan master race", they condemned homosexuals as "socially Aberrant." Soon after taking office, Hitler banned all homosexual organizations.
Discuss the life of Josef Kohout, a homosexual survivor of the Holocaust.
Discuss how Lesbians were treated in comparison to Homosexuals during the Nazi period.
www.uetigers.stier.org /library/gsholocausthomosexualwq.htm   (235 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Members of the Nazi party also viewed Röhm and some other SA leaders with distaste because they were homosexuals.
This led to his execution without trial during the purge of the SA during the so called Night of the Long Knives (29-30 June, 1934), which was post-legalized in the Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defense.
See also: Nazi Germany, History of Germany, Homosexuals in Nazi Germany
www.online-encyclopedia.info /encyclopedia/e/er/ernst_rohm.html   (140 words)

 Untitled   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
An unnatural sex act committed between persons of male sex or by humans with animals is punishable by imprisonment; the loss of civil rights might also be imposed.
When the Nazi's came to power in 1933, they put a halt to efforts seeking reform of this law.
In 1935, after the murder of Ernst Roem, the NSDAP amended the Paragraph 175 to close what were seen as loopholes in the current law.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/pwh/para175.html   (279 words)

 Genocides in Europe, the Middle East, and the Former Soviet Union
History of Jehovah's Witnesses in Georgia Comparison with History of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany with many links to the treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses during the period of the Third Reich.
Homosexual Genocide in Nazi Germany (1933 - 1945).
This book is a revisionist polemic which claims that male homosexuality was a central feature of Nazi party culture and that gay men were not objects of persecution by the Nazi state.....The authors repeatedly argue that the contemporary gay movement is continuing the work of supposed Nazi homosexuals.
learning.lib.vt.edu /slav/genocide.html   (4444 words)

 Channel 4 - History - Pink Triangle
The author's personal account of persecution in Nazi Germany and surviving the gay holocaust.
A history of the Nazis' attitude toward, and treatment of, homosexuals that draws on documents from the East German State archives.
Contains the essay 'Swastika, Pink Triangle, and Yellow Star: The destruction of sexology and the persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany' by Edwin J Haeberle.
www.channel4.com /history/microsites/H/history/n-s/pink1.html   (408 words)

 Women in WWII Germany   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
German women and suffrage, German women and Nationalism;or the treatment of homosexuals during Nazi Germany.
Freeman, Gillian The confessions of Elisabeth von S.: the story of a young woman's rise and fall in Nazi society.
The efficacy of the Nazi state in the recruitment and utilization of German female labor, 1939-1943.
www.h-net.msu.edu /~women/bibs/bibl-wwiigermany.html   (274 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
Hans Peter Bleuel, Sex and Society in Nazi Germany (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1973).
Edwin J. Haeberle, "Swastika, Pink Triangle, and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany," Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay & Lesbian Past, Martin Bauml Duberman, et al, eds.
Lesbianism and Feminism in Germany, 1895-1910 (New York: _____, 1975).
www.pink-triangle.org /ptps/PTPS-bib.html   (320 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-19)
In this Nazi crusade, homosexual prisoners were confined to death camps where, forced to wear pink triangles, they constituted the lowest rung in the camp
With the generation of Holocaust survivors steadily being silenced to death, the cries from the written accounts like Heger's and others should not and cannot cannot be denied.
Those who forget history are doomed to repeat it.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0805006001   (1038 words)

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