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Topic: Horizontal gene transfer

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In the News (Thu 25 Apr 19)

  BioMed Central | Abstract | Using the nucleotide substitution rate matrix to detect horizontal gene transfer
Because transferred genes perform many medically important functions, such as conferring antibiotic resistance, improved detection of horizontally transferred genes from sequence data would be an important advance.
First, we introduce a new class of methods for detecting HGT based on the changes in nucleotide substitution rates that occur when a gene is transferred to a new organism.
These novel indicators of horizontal transfer will be widely useful in detecting HGT events linked to the evolution of important bacterial traits, such as antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity.
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2105/7/476/abstract   (380 words)

  Horizontal gene transfer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Horizontal gene transfer is common among bacteria, even very distantly-related ones.
Horizontal gene transfer is a potentially confounding factor in inferring phylogenetic trees based on the sequence of one gene.
For example, the most common gene to be used for constructing phylogenetic relationships in prokaryotes is the 16s rRNA gene, since its sequences tend to be conserved among members with close phylogenetic distances, but variable enough that differences can be measured.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Horizontal_gene_transfer   (702 words)

 Activist : Transgenic Transgression of Species Integrity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Vector-mediated horizontal gene transfer and recombination have been shown to be responsible for the rapid evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance and for the emergence of new and old pathogens.
Among the 75 references on horizontal gene transfer are documentations for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance genes carried on plasmids or on the bacterial chromosome among bacterial populations (Heaton and Handwerger, 1995; Coffey et al, 1995; Kell et al, 1993; Amabilecuevas and Chicurel, 1993; Bootsma et al, 1996).
This route cannot be ignored, as horizontal transfers of transgenes and marker genes have been experimentally demonstrated in the laboratory: from transgenic potato to a bacterial pathogen (Schluter et al, 1995), and between transgenic plants and soil fungi under co- cultivation (Hoffman et al, 1994).
users.westnet.gr /~cgian/wanho.htm   (6836 words)

 Horizontal gene transfer -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Most thinking in (The branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms) genetics has focussed on the more prevalent vertical transfer, but there is a recent awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a significant phenomenon.
Horizontal gene transfer is common among ((microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants) bacteria, even very distantly-related ones.
For example, given two distantly related bacteria that have exchanged a gene, a (additional info and facts about phylogenetic tree) phylogenetic tree including those species will show them to be closely related because that gene is the same, even though most other genes have substantially diverged.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/h/ho/horizontal_gene_transfer.htm   (820 words)

 ngin articles : horizontal gene transfer
Successful transfers of marker genes to the soil bacterium Acinetobacter were obtained using DNA extracted from homogenized plant leaf from a range of transgenic plants: Solanum tuberosum (potato), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Beta vulgaris (sugar beet), Brassica napus and Lycopersicon esculentum.
Despite the misleading title in one of the publications, a high "optimal" gene transfer frequency of 6.2 x 10-2 was found in the laboratory from transgenic potato to a bacterial pathogen.
Transfer may occur to pollinators and other insects feeding on the plant, and via the insects, the genes may be transferred to unrelated species of higher plants.
members.tripod.com /~ngin/article9.htm   (2442 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer Happens - II
The evidence for horizontal gene transfer is accumulating.
The researchers investigated the survival of DNA from transgenic maize and the transfer of the antibiotic resistance bla gene to bacteria in the presence of saliva, rumen fluid and silage effluent, which are relevant to horizontal gene transfer in the oral cavity, the rumen, and in silage.
Not surprisingly, researchers found the highest frequencies of horizontal gene transfer in both the rhizosphere and spermosphere when the GM cassette was in a conjugative plasmid, somewhat lower when it was in a mobilizable plasmid, but could not be detected when it was inserted into the bacterial chromosome.
www.biotech-info.net /HGT_happens.html   (1317 words)

 GEO-PIE Project: Horizontal Gene Transfer
Genes from fields of crop plants can be transmitted by pollination to plants in the same or other fields, or in some cases even to other closely-related non-crop plants.
In the popular press, gene flow is also referred to variously as outcrossing, gene escape, horizontal gene transfer, introgression, or even "pollen drift" (although this term is more associated with the movement of pollen itself, rather than the genes it contains).
Genes are as likely to move from non-GE crops as they are from GE crops.
www.geo-pie.cornell.edu /issues/hgt.html   (1199 words)

 Espinosa Horizontal Gene Transfer -
Conjugative transfer of bacterial plasmids is the most efficient way of horizontal gene spread, and it...
and consequences of horizontal gene transfer are apparent in...
Patufet, the gene encoding the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of selenophosphate...
gene.facdt.com /index.php?k=espinosa-horizontal-gene-transfer   (1173 words)

 Plant genes imported from unrelated species more often than previously thought, IU biologists find
Scientists have long thought gene exchange between individuals of unrelated species to be an extremely rare event among eukaryotes -- the massive group of organisms that counts among its members humans, oak trees, kelp and mushrooms -- throughout the group's 2 billion year history.
While the mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer are still unknown, various explanations suggest that viruses, bacteria and fungi pack errant genetic material, or that accidental cross-species mating may play a role.
Half of this gene was captured by horizontal transfer from an unrelated plant over 100 million years distant in time, while the other half had been transmitted faithfully from parent to offspring in the lineage leading to bloodroot.
newsinfo.iu.edu /news/page/normal/1028.html   (695 words)

 Who's Afraid of Horizontal Gene Transfer?
Horizontal gene transfer- the direct uptake and incorporation of foreign DNA into cells – is something pro-biotech scientists don’t like to mention and top scientific journals like Nature are extremely reluctant to discuss.
The molecular data under dispute are suggestive of horizontal gene transfer, and a lot of the confusion is created by a failure to acknowledge this possibility.
If horizontal gene transfer were involved, the transgenic DNA would most likely have been transferred to the plant cells as fragments.
www.i-sis.org.uk /hgt.php   (1794 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Heinemann and Sprague 1989 demonstrated conjugative gene transfer between a bacterium and a yeast.
Transfer among compartments (i.e., chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus) is well documented.
Delwiche, C. and Palmer, J. Rampant horizontal transfer and duplication of rubisco genes in eubacteria and plastids.
www.life.umd.edu /labs/delwiche/bsci348s/lec/GeneTransfer.html   (348 words)

 ISIS News no.5 index
But, researchers have earlier found evidence of horizontal gene transfer of GM genes to soil bacteria in the field where GM sugar beet was planted, and this has been reported in the scientific literature (1).
Besides, horizontal gene transfer cannot be prevented by this technology, and it is not clear that the technology can ‘mitigate’ the effects of horizontal gene transfer (see "Terminator in new Guises" ISIS News #3).
The genes and proteins may be released during plant wounding or breakdown of roots and rootlets and pollute surface and ground water.
www.i-sis.org.uk /isisnews/i-sisnews5.php   (16890 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
There are even a few cases where one sequence segment of a protein with an origin in one kingdom is attached to a segment with an origin in another kingdom (ref).
The wide transfer of genes that must have occurred naturally weakens the argument that human intervention through genetic engineering is placing genes where they have never been before.
Horizontal transfer is also called lateral gene transfer and may account for 10 to 50% of all the genes in a bacterial or archaeal genome.
opbs.okstate.edu /~melcher/MG/MGW3/MG334.html   (290 words)

Under the hypothesis that genes from distantly related species have different nucleotide compositions, these deviated genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.
Not all the acquired genes have anomalous codon usage or G+C content, and other forces may be responsible for the codon usage or G+C content heterogeneity of a genome.
A more conclusive proposal for a gene to be considered as being acquired by HGT usually needs an individualized study that includes orthologous analysis and confirmation of an inappropriate positioning in a phylogenetic tree.
www.fut.es /~debb/HGT   (356 words)

 ESR - Specialist Science Solutions : Horizontal Gene Transfer in the New Zealand Environment
It has been suggested that the ability of a gene to transfer from one organism to another is enhanced by the degree of homology between the two sequences.
However, the risk posed by the presence of the antibiotic resistance gene in the plant depends on whether the gene itself is already present in the environment in which the plant is grown.
Should the same resistance genes be present in both the GMO and the soil population then release of these genes may pose less risk to the natural ecology of the soil bacteria.
www.esr.cri.nz /competencies/populationhealth/genetransfer.htm   (1146 words)

 Papers on horizontal gene transfer by Michael Syvanen, PhD ( UC Davis, CA)
This paper ends with the suggestion that the highly variable rates of evolution observed with the Eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes is a consequent of the hypothesized longevity sensor that possibly resides in these genes.
orizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material between distinct species, a process that plays a major role in the evolution of the genome.
Written by the most prominent gene transfer and genome analytical scientists, this book details experimental evidence for the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer and discusses further evidence provided by the recent completion of genomic sequences from Archea, Bacteria, and Eucarya members.
www.yvm.net /vme/hgt   (1044 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer - DNA in the Soil AgBio View 15may01
Secondly, horizontally acquired (native) genes from distantly related species are less likely to be retained and function in the recipient bacterium due to differences between the donor organism and the recipient i= n nucleotide sequence, gene expression, codon usage, and possibly posttranslational modification and protein interactions.
DrF6ge et al., Horizontal gene transfer among bacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats as assessed by microcosms and field studies, Biology and Fertility of Soils 29 (1999) 221-245.
Nielsen et al., Dynamics, horizontal transfer and selection of novel DNA in bacterial populations in the phytosphere of transgenic plants, Annals of Microbiology 51 (2001) (June issue, in press) [28] P. Shen and H. Huang, Homologous recombination in Escherichia coli: dependence on substrate length and homology, Genetics 112 (1986) 441-457
www.mindfully.org /GE/GE2/Horizontal-Gene-Soil.htm   (1385 words)

 DuPont Biotechnology: Horizontal Gene Transfer
Therefore, the factor that distinguishes HGT from reproductive gene transfer is the mechanism by which is occurs, not the degree of similarity between the two species.
There are two related factors that indicate HGT involving genes from biotech-derived plants is virtually non-existent: The barely perceptible rate of plant gene transfer to soil bacteria, intestinal bacteria or intestinal cells; and the comparatively trivial number of genes from biotech-derived plants in decaying or ingested plant material.
This is confirmed by extensive field studies that have revealed no HGT from biotech crops to soil microorganisms, and laboratory studies on HGT of genes from biotech-derived plants to intestinal bacteria and intestinal cells.
www2.dupont.com /Biotechnology/en_US/science_knowledge/horizontal_transfer/horizontal_transfer.html   (1399 words)

 Horizontal gene transfer: Do bacteria absorb plant genes?
Yet all research projects that have dealt with this issue have come to the same conclusion: although horizontal gene transfer is possible in theory, it is an extremely rare event.
Horizontal gene transfer: overview of research projects and results
A current biosafety research project is investigating whether gene transfer could occur between Agrobacteria and other bacteria living in the plant tissue.
www.gmo-safety.eu /en/focus/gene_transfer   (192 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer--Hidden Hazards of GE
Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material between cells or genomes belonging to unrelated species, by processes
frequency of horizontal gene transfer 10 to 10 000 fold(5).
Genetic parasites are vectors for horizontal gene transfer.
online.sfsu.edu /~rone/GEessays/horizgenetransfer.html   (4620 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer Happens - II
Horizontal Gene Transfer Happens - II The evidence for horizontal gene transfer is accumulating.
The nptII gene in transgenic potato plants coding for kanamycin resistance, transforms naturally competent cells of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter BD413 (both harboring a plasmid with an nptII gene containing a small deletion (hence nonfunctional) with the same high efficiency as nptII genes on plasmid DNA (3x10
The rhizosphere - surfaces around the plant roots - and the spermosphere - surfaces around the germinated seeds – are recognised hotspots for horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.
www.i-sis.org.uk /hgthappens.php   (1491 words)

 Horizontal gene transfer - new evidence
gene transfer events were independent and must have occurred very recently.
transferred into transgenic plants can be up to 30 times more likely to
carriers, to transfer genes horizontally between unrelated species.
www.netlink.de /gen/Zeitung/1998/981204c.htm   (514 words)

 Viruses and Other Gene Transfer Mechanisms. by Brig Klyce   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
24 Feb 2005: Prokaryote to eukaryote gene transfer is evident in the sequenced genome of an intesinal parasite.
Horizontal gene transfer as a significant evolutionary driver may require an addendum to the Darwinian synthesis.
Certainly the case for horizontal gene transfer as a major factor in evolution is not in jeopardy.
www.panspermia.org /virus.htm   (7101 words)

 Horizontal Gene Transfer - GM Free Scot   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Transfers have been identified between very different bacteria, between fungi, between bacteria and protozoa (single-cell organisms), between bacteria and higher plants and animals, between fungi and between insects (1).
The recent sequencing of the entire genome of E. coli 0157 revealed that 1,387 genes (out of a total of about 5000) had been acquired by horizontal gene transfer (2).
It was also stated in court evidence that ''The occurrence and mechanisms for horizontal transfer of genes have been remarkably little studied'' although many possible DNA uptake mechanisms involving both free DNA and a variety of vectors, such as viruses, were described (3).
www.gmfreescotland.net /hgt.html   (623 words)

 Who's Afraid of Horizontal Gene Transfer?
Horizontal gene transfer- the direct uptake and incorporation of foreign DNA into cells is something pro-biotech scientists don't like to mention and top scientific journals like Nature are extremely reluctant to discuss.
Transgenic pollution by horizontal gene transfer?" Science in Society 13/14, February 2002), and has escalated since (see current issues of Nature and Science).
This observation is consistent with our warning that CaMV 35S promoter has a recombination hotspot, and is hence expected to enhance horizontal gene transfer and recombination.2-4 We have demanded all transgenic crops with CaMV 35S promoter to be immediately withdrawn in 1999.
www.biotech-info.net /whos_afraid2.html   (1644 words)

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