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Topic: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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In the News (Sat 16 Feb 19)

  MSN Encarta - Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV transmission occurs when a person is exposed to body fluids infected with the virus, such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk.
The primary modes of HIV transmission are (1) sexual relations with an infected person (see Sexually Transmitted Infections); (2) sharing hypodermic needles or accidental pricking by a needle contaminated with infected blood; and (3) transfer of the virus from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or through breast-feeding.
HIV uses its glycoproteins to attach itself to receptors on the surface of a lymphocyte.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579757   (680 words)

 Circumcision Status, HIV Infection and AIDS
HIV infection and vaginal douching in central Africa.
HIV infection among youth in a South African mining town is associated with herpes simplex virus-2 seropositivity and sexual behaviour.
Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV in Africa: cry the beloved paradigm.
www.cirp.org /library/disease/HIV   (5248 words)

 HIV Tutorial
AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a retrovirus of the lentivirus family that was unknown until the early 1980's, but since that time has been spread around the world to infect millions of persons.
Primary HIV infection is followed by a burst of viremia in which virus is easily detected in peripheral blood in mononuclear cells and plasma.
HIV can be present in a variety of body fluids and secretions, but the presence of HIV in genital secretions and in blood, and to a lesser extent breast milk, is significant for spread of HIV.
www-medlib.med.utah.edu /WebPath/TUTORIAL/AIDS/HIV.html   (3162 words)

 Frequently Asked Questions
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS.
HIV is spread by sexual contact with an infected person, by sharing needles and/or syringes (primarily for drug injection) with someone who is infected, or, less commonly (and now very rarely in countries where blood is screened for HIV antibodies), through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors.
HIV is found in varying concentrations or amounts in blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk, saliva, and tears.
www.aegis.com /topics/FAQ.html   (3809 words)

 National Cancer Institute - Dictionary of Cancer Terms
A virus that causes hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).
Human immunodeficiency virus, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
www.cancer.gov /dictionary/db_alpha.aspx?expand=h   (4164 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Treatment Information Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
HIV is frequently spread among injection drug users - by the sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with minute quantities of blood from someone infected with the virus.
HIV also can be spread to babies through the breast milk of mothers infected with the virus.
Many people infected with HIV have no symptoms and there is no way of knowing with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected unless he or she has not engaged in risky behavior, or has been repeatedly tested for the virus.
www.marylandhivtreatment.com   (1347 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood, especially by sharing needles, syringes, or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus.
The HIV virus may cause flu-like illness within a month or two after exposure, although there may not be any symptoms at all.
www.chw.org /display/router.asp?DocID=3409   (403 words)

 ICTVdB Virus Description - Human immunodeficiency virus 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Virus infects during its life cycle a single type of vertebrate host.
Information about this virus have been posted on the web by an internet source (Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection has been presented by "Cell alive" at http://www.cellsalive.com/hiv0.htm).
All virus descriptions are based on the character list and natural language translations from the encoded descriptions are automatically generated and formatted for display on the Web.
phene.cpmc.columbia.edu /RothamstedMirror/ICTVdB/61065hiv.htm   (714 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2
Since the first descriptions of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981 and the subsequent discovery of the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1983-84, both patients and the public have become very much aware of the potential for acquiring this disease through blood transfusion or therapy with blood-derived products.
Both infect human cells principally through the binding of the virus outer membrane glycoprotein, gp120, to the CD4 antigen receptor on T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and microglia cells.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection in the United States.
www.mdanderson.org /~citm/H-93-10.html   (1858 words)

 Evaluation and Treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1--Exposed Infant -- King et al. 114 (2): 497 -- Pediatrics
Abbreviated regimens of zidovudine prophylaxis and perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus.
Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction and qualitative and quantitative RNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus 1-exposed infants.
Lactic acidemia in human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected infants exposed to perinatal antiretroviral therapy.
pediatrics.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/114/2/497   (5084 words)

 [Clinical Preventive Services] Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Diagnosing infection in infants born to HIV- infected mothers is difficult, since maternal antibodies to HIV are present in both infected and uninfected infants.
Resolution of infection status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seroindeterminate donors and high-risk seronegative individuals with polymerase chain reaction and virus culture: absence of persistent silent HIV type 1 infection in a high- prevalence area.
Childhood immunizations, vaccine-preventable diseases and infection with immunodeficiency virus.
cpmcnet.columbia.edu /texts/gcps/gcps0038.html   (5436 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: HIV infection
HIV infection is a viral infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that gradually destroys the immune system, resulting in infections that are hard for the body to fight.
Acute HIV infection may be associated with symptoms resembling mononucleosis or the flu within 2 to 4 weeks of exposure.
HIV is a chronic medical condition that can be treated, but not yet cured.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/000602.htm   (840 words)

 eMedicine - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection : Article by Richard E Frye, MD, PhD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
A proportion of the increased incidence of pediatric HIV is because of earlier identification, and the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a previously healthy child is not rare.
HIV infection is the fourth and fifth leading cause of death in young fl children and Hispanic children, respectively.
HIV resistance develops because of low antiretroviral drug levels due to several factors, including variations in drug absorption and metabolism and lack of compliance because of adverse effects or a poor understanding of the importance of the medication.
www.emedicine.com /ped/topic1027.htm   (11041 words)

 The Big Picture Book of Viruses - Retroviruses
Observe the daughter hiv cells leave the infected t-cell for a new host.
The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus (type 1) is shown in this schematic diagram.
This computer generated art quality graphics of HIV was done by Russell Kightley of Canberra, Australia.
www.virology.net /Big_Virology/BVretro.html   (736 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection -- Topic Overview
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight infection and disease.
HIV is the same virus that also causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Once HIV enters the body, it infects a type of white blood cell called CD4+ cells.
my.webmd.com /hw/hiv_aids/hw151411.asp   (166 words)

New strains and subtypes of HIV-1 and HIV-2 arise in the human population.
Except in parts of West Africa, most human cases are caused by members of Group M. HIV-2 appears to have jumped from sooty magabeys to humans on at least 4 different occasions (there are 4 clades).
HIV is not influenza or measles which spread like wildfire.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/AIDS.html   (1777 words)

 CDC-NCHSTP-Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Fact Sheet - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
In 1986, a second type of HIV, called HIV-2, was isolated from AIDS patients in West Africa, where it may have been present decades earlier.
However, when HIV testing is to be performed, tests for antibodies to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 should be obtained if demographic or behavioral information suggests that HIV-2 infection might be present.
Given the slower development of immunodeficiency and the limited clinical experience with HIV-2, it is unclear whether antiretroviral therapy significantly slows progression.
www.cdc.gov /hiv/pubs/facts/hiv2.htm   (1308 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection -- Medications
Medications are the primary treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Medications used to treat HIV are called antiretrovirals, and several of these medications are combined for treatment called highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.
Medications also are used to prevent other illnesses that can occur with HIV as the result of a weakened immune system.
my.webmd.com /hw/hiv_aids/hw151460.asp   (217 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS is a disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV--pictured at left, courtesy of Health and Development Initiative-India).
This virus is spread from person to person through the exchange of contaminated body fluids, like blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk.
The virus contains a protein that causes the white blood cells to produce new HIVs, which attach to other white blood cells and are carried to all areas of the body.
www.aidsprojectoftheozarks.org /hiv.htm   (195 words)

 Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 -- Reeves and Doms 83 (6): 1253 -- Journal of General Virology
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys.
Dern, K., Rubsamen-Waigmann, H. and Unger, R. Inhibition of HIV type 1 replication by simultaneous infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.
Itescu, S., Simonelli, P. F., Winchester, R. and Ginsberg, H. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in the lungs of infected individuals evolve independently from those in peripheral blood and are highly conserved in the C-terminal region of the envelope V3 loop.
vir.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/83/6/1253   (6936 words)

 HIV and AIDS Tutorial   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the pathogen which causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
This section includes information about HIV's interaction with the immune system, current treatments, and a problem set to test your knowledge.
To learn about diagnosing HIV infection, complete the ELISA Assay and Western Blotting Analysis activities in the Biology Project's Immunology section.
www.biology.arizona.edu /immunology/tutorials/AIDS/main.html   (55 words)

 Screening: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
The USPSTF makes no recommendation for or against routinely screening for HIV adolescents and adults who are not at increased risk for HIV infection (go to Clinical Considerations for discussion of risk factors).
The USPSTF concluded that the benefit of screening adolescents and adults without risk factors for HIV is too small relative to potential harms to justify a general recommendation.
Early detection of maternal HIV infection also allows for discussion of elective cesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding, both of which are associated with lower HIV transmission rates.
www.ahrq.gov /clinic/uspstf/uspshivi.htm   (508 words)

 DermAtlas: Online Dermatology Image Library dermatology image,syphilis, primary,syphilis, secondary,Human ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
His serological tests for syphilis and HIV test were positive, and histopathology of the ulcer was consistent with a primary syphilitic chancre.
This 35-year-old woman with a history of advanced Human imminodeficiency virus infection developed asymptomatic umbilicated papules with a molluscum-like appearance.
This 45-year-old woman with Human imminodeficiency virus infectgion developed painful subcutaneous nodules on her scalp, abdomen, and back.
dermatlas.med.jhmi.edu /derm/result.cfm?Diagnosis=165   (790 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hematology -- Volberding et al. 2003 (1): 294 -- Hematology
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hematology -- Volberding et al.
specialist in comprehensive HIV care and demand ongoing education.
She addresses current controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV
www.asheducationbook.org /cgi/content/abstract/2003/1/294   (250 words)

 Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Children orphaned due to HIV infection: 11.2 Million
HIV new infection rates growing in specific groups
HIV is present in other fluids, but not transmitted
www.fpnotebook.com /HIV11.htm   (210 words)

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