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Topic: Hussein McMahon Correspondence


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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  
 Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hussein ibn Ali was born in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Istanbul, Turkey) and was the last of the Hashemite rulers over the Hejaz to be appointed by the Ottoman Empire.
Hussein bin Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (حسین بن علی) (died 1931) was the Sharif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king of Hejaz, which received international recognition.
Hussein was the official leader of the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sherif_Hussein_ibn_Ali   (532 words)

  
 Hussein-McMahon Correspondence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
McMahon's promises are seen by Arab nationalists as a pledge of immediate Arab independence.
The ambiguity that rose from the letter concerned Palestine, which was not explicity mentioned in the correspondence.
The districts of Mersin and Alexandretta, and portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo, cannot be said to be purely Arab, and must on that account be excepted from the proposed delimitation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hussein-McMahon_Correspondence   (280 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Pan-Arabism
In 1915-16, the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence resulted in an agreement between Britain and the Arab world that if the Arabs successfully revolted against the Ottomans, Britain would support claims for Arab independence.
Pan-Arabism was first pressed by Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sherif of Mecca, who sought independence from the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of a unified state of Arabia.
A more formalized pan-Arab ideology than that of Hussein was first espoused in the 1940s in Syria by Michel Aflaq, a founder of the Ba'ath (Renaissance) Party, combining elements of both socialism and Italian fascism.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Arab_unity   (385 words)

  
 Misc Study: King Hussein of Jordan - An Historical View
Hussein and his sons Abdullah and Faisal (who had been educated as members of the Ottoman elite as well as trained for their roles as Arab chieftains) had spent the years 1893 to 1908 under enforced restraint in Constantinople.
Hussein and the conservatives suspected that Nabulsi was maneuvering to abolish the monarchy.
Hussein and his sons opposed the mandate's terms on the ground that Article 22 of the League of Nations Covenant adopted at Versailles had endorsed the Wilsonian principle of self-determination of peoples and thereby, they maintained, logically and necessarily supported the cause of the Arab majority in Palestine.
philologos.org /bpr/files/Misc_Studies/ms043b.htm   (17246 words)

  
 The Lofty
While Arabs view the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence as a clear agreement of delineation of a future Arab state, and it appears to be such by all accounts, it is also clear that there was unresolved disagreement on the future of Arab policy among the various British imperial outposts and even within the Cairo-based Arab Bureau itself.
In his second letter to McMahon, Hussein retorted that McMahon’s response was one of "ambiguity" and that its tone was "cold" and "hesitant." Clearly Hussein had not expected his authority, based on little tangible evidence as it may be, to be questioned by the High Commissioner.
Hussein was a resigned loyal Arab leader in the Hijaz during the reign of Sultan Abd Hamid II, though his loyalty was only as deep as it was forced to be.
lofgren.blogspot.com /2003_12_07_lofgren_archive.html   (6433 words)

  
 1910's Timeline
Sharif Hussein Ibn Ali al Hashimi of Mecca is persuaded by his sons, Abdullah and Feisal, to use the Damascus Protocol as a basis for his negotiations with the British.
McMahon states that Mersina, Alexandretta and portions of Syria west of the districts of Damasacus, Homes, Hama and Aleppo are excluded.
Hussein argues that Aleppo, Beirut and the Mesopatamian territories are part of the pure Arab Kingdom but he was willing to agree to this arrangement.
www.middleeasttimeline.net /1910.htm   (5081 words)

  
 Hussein, Saddam - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Hussein, Saddam
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Hussein,+Saddam   (876 words)

  
 Britain's Promise to the Arabs, 1915 (map/atlas/picture/photograph/cartoon)
Indeed, one merely has to check Sir Henry McMahon's letter oneself: see a copy at Stanford University or, if one prefers a Zionist source, see the copy of the correspondence at the World Zionist Organization web-site.
McMahon excluded "portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo".
It shows McMahon as excluding Palestine from the area in which Britain recognized Arab independence.
student.cs.ucc.ie /cs1064/jabowen/IPSC/php/map.php?next=true&mid=73   (265 words)

  
 Free Term Papers on Questioning the McMahon Hussein Corresponances
Beyond that, as mentioned in the correspondence as a simple introductory paragraph is proof that these letters are not the only communication between Hussein and McMahon.
McMahon even goes as far as to let the Arabs know that “it would be premature to consume our time in discussing such details in the heat of war” (correspondence, pg.
It is logical to assume that for the Arabs and Hussein, the correspondence with the British had no ulterior motive then that which is apparent.
www.freefortermpapers.com /show_essay/58058.html   (420 words)

  
 Palestine in Focus
In 1915, correspondence between Hussein and the British High Commissioner in Cairo, Sir Henry McMahon, promised the Arabs independence “in all the regions demanded by the Sharif” in return for Arab support in the Allied attempts to overthrow the Ottomans.
Hussein hoped that he could become leader of an Arab kingdom independent of the Allies if he encouraged the Arabs to help crush the Ottoman Empire.
The Western allies saw Hussein as a suitable candidate to garner Arab support, and thus what proved eventually to be a treacherous liaison was sealed.
www.islamonline.net /English/In_Depth/PalestineInFocus/British/01.shtml   (1928 words)

  
 Three Promises
Many British policymakers believed that an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire would help the chances of Allied success, and so Sir Henry McMahon, the British High Commissioner in Cairo, was charged with negotiating a deal with Sherif Hussein of Mecca for a revolt in exchange for British support of Arab self-government after the war.
Hussein was also promised the caliphate, since the British felt that destroying the Ottoman caliphate at the end of the war without restoring it elsewhere could hurt their standing with Muslims worldwide, but especially in the Indian colony.
Certainly McMahon's letter is intentionally vague, and sets up a few very important escape clauses (which are marked in italics for the purposes of this explanation).
www.mrswallace.com /arab/mandates.htm   (1850 words)

  
 P.O.V. - Promises . Timeline . 1880 - 1936 PBS
In an exchange of ten letters between Sir Henry McMahon, Britain’s high commissioner in Egypt, and Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca and King of the Arabs (and great, great grandfather of King Abdullah of modern-day Jordan), Britain pledged to support Arab independence if Hussein’s forces revolted against the Ottomans.
Hussein envisioned a unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo (Syria) to Aden (Yemen).
The spirit of the time emphasized the "self-determination of small nations," and the British thought that supporting Zionism was the easiest way of securing lasting British influence of the region east of the Suez Canal.
www.pbs.org /pov/pov2001/promises/timeline1.html   (529 words)

  
 Passport Palestine: Cyber Palestine Library
Lebanon was a creation of the French and, under the Sykes Picot agreement which had begun during the correspondence of between McMahon and Sherif Hussein, was to become part of a French controlled political entity.
The Oct. 24, 1915 letter between Commissioner McMahon and Sherif Hussein is often reproduced as evidence that Palestine was excluded from the British promise to the Arabs.
On the other hand, the Zionists and their sympathizers have always downplayed the importance of these letters, always focusing on one letter in the entire exchange as evidence that there were restrictions on what areas freed from Ottoman control would become independent Arab countries.
www.passportpalestine.com /library/mcmanintro.htm   (229 words)

  
 The McMahon-Hussein correspondence
The British High Commissioner in Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon was responsible for the ensuing correspondence in which he promised the Arabs that in return for an Arab revolt against the Turks, his government would be prepared to recognize Arab independence.
However, McMahon specified that certain areas, namely the districts of Mersina, Adana, Alexandretta, Aleppo, Hama and Homs "cannot be said to be purely Arab" and should therefore "be excluded from the proposed limits and boundaries, of the Arab state."
Regardless, the Arabs hardly fulfilled the expectations of a revolt, and given that the correspondence was never concluded by mutual agreement, there is room to question its significance.
www.wzo.org.il /home/politic/mac.htm   (152 words)

  
 United Nations: I. The Beginnings Of The Palestine Issue
as I interpret the Hussein-McMahon correspondence, Palestine had not been excepted by the British Government from the area in which they had pledged themselves to King Hussein to recognize and support Arab independence.
During the Husain-McMahon correspondence, the British made a determined effort to exclude certain areas from the territories to achieve independence, on the grounds that "the interests of our ally, France, are involved".
McMahon confirmed that "Great Britain is prepared to recognize and support the independence of the Arabs in all the regions within the limits demanded by the Sherif of Mecca".
www.palestineremembered.com /Acre/United-Nations,-The-Palestine-Problem/Story713.html   (1483 words)

  
 CAMERA: Kids Discover
British pledges concerning Arab independence in exchange for Arab support of the British against the Turks were set out in the Hussein-McMahon correspondence from July 14, 1915 to March 10, 1916.
These modifications were the exclusion of the two districts of Mersina and Alexandretta and portions of Syria, "lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homas, Hama, and Aleppo." McMahon cited Britain’s desire not to act to the detriment of its ally, France, on this issue.
I feel my duty to state, and I do so definitely and emphatically, that it was not intended by me in giving this pledge to King Hussein to include Palestine in the area in which Arab independence was promised.
www.camera.org /index.asp?x_context=11&x_outlet=132   (247 words)

  
 Middle East : Israel & Palestine
One agreement, known as the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence pledged the creation of a new Arab state, which would include the Hejaz (the portion of the Arabian Peninsula bordering on the Red Sea), Jordan, Syria, and Iraq in exchange for a revolt by the Arabs against the Ottomans.
Simultaneously, during this period there was a growing sense of Palestinian nationalism based on the pledges of the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence and the concept of self-determination.
A second agreement between the British and the French, known as the Sykes-Picot Pact, was to establish a post-war division of the Middle East.
www.cet.edu /earthinfo/meast/israel/IPtopic2.html   (584 words)

  
 Before Their Diaspora
Sharif Hussein proclaims Arab independence from Ottoman rule on basis of his correspondence with McMahon.
Hussein-McMahon correspondence concludes; Arabs understand it as ensuring postwar independence and unity of Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire, including Palestine.
correspondence between Sharif Hussein of Mecca and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, begins.
www.jerusalemiloveyou.net /article.php3?id_article=18   (1039 words)

  
 Religious Movements Homepage: Islam
This became known as the Hussein- McMahon Correspondence of 1916.
Hussein however, was unaware of a promise the British has made to the French for the same territory in 1915.
They appealed to Sharif Hussein, the Islamic religious leader of Mecca and a descendent of the Prophet.
religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu /nrms/islam.html   (7081 words)

  
 Paradox Interactive Forums - Entente Events
McMahon is now in a position to either send a positive or negative response to Hussein.
However, Sir Henry McMahon has recently arrived in Cairo as the new High Commissioner, and Hussein considers the possibility that he may be more susceptible to his advances.
The British High Commissioner in Cairo, Sir Henry McMahon received a letter from Sharif Hussein, stating that the Arabs shall rise up against their Turkish oppressors, on condition that the British recognise Syria, Palestine and Arabia as within the boundaries of a legitimate Arab state after Turkey’s defeat.
www.europa-universalis.com /forum/showthread.php?t=88195&page=3   (5316 words)

  
 Global Connections . Timeline PBS
The agreement, implemented in 1919, contradicts the agreement the British made with the Arabs at the start of the war (the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence), which promised the Arabs independence of what is now Syria, Palestine (Israel), Jordan, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula.
They do so because of an agreement known as the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence in which Britain promises independence to what is now Syria, Palestine (Israel), Jordan, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula should the Allies win the war.
While the Ottoman Empire enters the war on Germany's side, the Arabs (led by Sherif Hussein of Mecca) agree to side with the Allies (Britain, France, and Russia).
www.pbs.org /wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/timeline/text/time2.html   (2177 words)

  
 Modern History Sourcebook: Sir Henry McMahon: Letter to Ali Ibn Husain, 1915
McMahon was British High Commissioner in Egypt and Ali Ibn Husain was the Sherif of Mecca during the First World War.
In a series of ten letters from 1915 to 1916 McMahon tried to attract Arab support against the Ottoman Empire.
The following excerpt is from a letter from October 24, 1915.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1915mcmahon.html   (384 words)

  
 Greater Syria
This was the basic aim behind the correspondence between the British government on the one hand and on the other the sharif of Mecca, the so called Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, which set the terms upon which some of Arabs entered the war on the Allied side.
Britons ran a zone roughly equivalent to what later became Israel; the French ran the coastal region between what are now Israel and Turkey; and Prince Faysal as per the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence and agreements set up a military government in Damascus and controlled Transjordan as well as the rest of the interior.
These demands were countered in a letter from McMahon, dated October 24, 1915, which excluded as not "purely Arab" the districts of Mersin and Alexandretta and the entire area lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Horns, Hama, and Aleppo.
www.geocities.com /CapitolHill/Parliament/2587/syria.html   (6735 words)

  
 The Arab Revolt
Sharif Hussein’s objective in undertaking the Great Arab Revolt was to establish a single independent and unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo (Syria) to Aden (Yemen), based on the ancient traditions and culture of the Arab people, the upholding of Islamic ideals and the full protection and inclusion of ethnic and religious minorities.
Sharif Hussein bin Ali, King of the Arabs and King of the Hijaz.
But the agreement excluded three areas: the wilayets (Ottoman provinces) of Basra and Baghdad, the Turkish districts of Alexandretta and Mersin, and, most importantly, “portions of Syria lying to the west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Aleppo.” The interpretation of the last section was to be the source of great controversy.
www.balgawi.com /Jordan/History/arabrevolt.html   (895 words)

  
 The McMahon to Hussein Correspondence
Sir Henry McMahon wrote to Sharif Hussein on October 24
It was this letter that convinced Palestinians that Britain would support their right to their own homeland (Palestine) once the Ottoman Empire had been defeated.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /mcmahon2.htm   (340 words)

  
 History House: Dyin' for Zion
Various British government documents declare eventual control of Palestine to the Palestinians (the Hussein-McMahon correspondence), to the Jews (the Balfour declaration), or to an ill-defined "international administration" (the Sykes-Picot Agreement).
Napoleon's commitment to this idea has been contested quite a bit, not least because the proclamation seems to have been intentionally left out of his correspondence following his military defeat in the region.
Napoleon, poised to conquer substantial portions of what is modern-day Israel, issued a sweeping proclamation in 1799 that boldly announced to the "Rightful heirs of Palestine" that it was his intention to found a Zionist state, that is, a political construction created solely for Jewish folks.
www.historyhouse.com /in_history/zion   (2732 words)

  
 36-1Essays
, is the author's answer—an unequivocal ‘No.’ In his meticulously annotated study he shows that McMahon’s letter of 24 October 1915 to the Sharif Hussein of Mecca was never relevant to Palestine.
These authentic documents demonstrate that Palestine was not included in the area over which Great Britain was prepared to acknowledge the independence of the Arabs, and that Hussein was fully aware of it.
Although this claim is not new, it is here substantiated through photocopies of the Arabic version of McMahon’s letter and its original English translation.
w3fp.arizona.edu /mesassoc/Bulletin/36-1/36-1Halamish.htm   (811 words)

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