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Topic: Hydrohalic acid


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 [No title]
Originally, acids and basess were defined only by properties, such as the fact that acids tasted sour and turned certain plant dyes from one color to another, while bases tasted bitter, changed the colors of the same plant dyes in the opposite direction, and neutralized the activity of acids.
When the elements chlorine, bromine, and iodine were identified and the absence of oxygen in the hydrohalic acids was established, this definition had to be rejected.
In general, an acid reacts with a base by forming a new covalent bond utilizing an empty orbital of the acid to share the extra electron pair of the base.
www.informationclub.com /encyclopedia/a/ac/acid_base_reaction_theories.html   (688 words)

  
 Acid - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
The strength of an acid may be understood by this definition by the stability of hydronium and the solvated conjugate base upon dissociation.
In the case of highly concentrated acids, the acid should first be wiped off as much as possible, otherwise the reaction of the acid dissolving in the water could cause severe thermal burns.
Nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid are all strong acids, whereas nitrous acid, sulfurous acid and hypochlorous acid are all weak.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Acid   (1590 words)

  
 Fahrvergnügen 6 410 796
and in the presence of halide ions and at least one strong acid that is not a hydrohalic acid, and finally heating the mixture to a temperature in the range 70 to 160.degree.
C. in the presence of halide ions, at least one strong acid that is not a hydrohalic acid, and at least one copper and/or palladium compound and in the absence ofbuffer salts and reducing agents, and
A process according to claim 1 wherein the step (a) the hydrohalic acid and the strong acid that is not a hydrohalic acid together provide 5 to 9 equivalents of protons per 1 mol of fluoroalkylaniline.
www.fahrvergnugen.net /6410796.html   (491 words)

  
  Hydrohalic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hydrohalic acid is a group name for the acids of the halogens, which are the aqueous solutions of the hydrogen halides:
Fluorine F - hydrofluoric acid: HF Chlorine Cl - hydrochloric acid: HCl
Iodine I - hydroiodic acid: HI As you move further up the list the acids strength decreases, even though hydrofluoric acid is by far the most corrosive on the list.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hydrohalic_acid   (99 words)

  
 Hydrogen halide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hydrogen halides are acids resulting from the chemical reaction of hydrogen with one of the halogen elements (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine), which are found in group VII of the periodic table.
Chemical formulas for the hydrogen halides are respectively: HF, Hydrofluoric acid, HCl, hydrochloric acid, HBr, hydrobromic acid, and HI, hydroiodic acid.
In other words, acid strengths can be ranked: HI > HBr > HCl > HF A common measure of acid strength is the pKa, which is based on the equilibrium between the dissociated and bonded forms of the acid in water.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hydrogen_halide   (281 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Acid
Acids may also be dangerous for reasons not related to their acidity, see an appropriate MSDS for more specific information.
Acids are often used to remove rust and other corrosion from metals in a process known as pickling.
Acids are used as catalysts; for example, sulfuric acid is used in very large quantities in the alkylation process to produce gasoline.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Acid   (1755 words)

  
 Acid: Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
An acid (often represented by the generic formula AH) is typically a water-soluble, sour-tasting chemical compound (chemical compound: (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight).
An acid reacts with a base in a neutralization (neutralization: (euphemism) the removal of a threat by killing or destroying it (especially in a covert operation or military operation)) reaction to form a salt (salt: A compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal)).
Acids are named according to the ending of their anion (anion: A negatively charged ion).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/acid   (2643 words)

  
 Acid
An acid (from Latin acidus, meaning sour or tart) is a chemical compound generally defined by its reactions with complementary chemicals, designated bases (see Acid-base reaction theories).
Later on, Bronsted[?] and Lowry[?] defined an acid to be a proton donor and a base to be a proton acceptor.
ACID is an acronym that expands to four essential properties of a database management system.
www.fastload.org /ac/Acid.html   (395 words)

  
 Fahrvergnügen 6 462 202
The method of claim 1, wherein said.alpha.-lipoic acid is at least one of a racemic.alpha.-lipoic acid, an enantiopure R-(+)-.alpha.-lipoic acid or S-(-)-.alpha.-lipoic acid or mixtures thereof is employed.
The method of claim 1, wherein the pH in stage c) is adjusted by adding a mineral acid selected from the group of hydrohalic acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.
The method of claim 1, wherein in stage c) the pH is adjusted by addition of an acid, an aliphatic carboxylic acid having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an aromatic carboxylic acid, a halogenated carboxylic acid, oxygenated carboxylic acid, analiphatic sulfonic acid and an aromatic sulfonic acid.
www.fahrvergnugen.net /6462202.html   (520 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Hydrogen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond.
In the laboratory, the element is prepared by the reaction of acids on metals such as zinc.
Hydrogen is prepared in several different ways; steam on heated carbon, hydrocarbon decomposition with heat, action of sodium or potassium hydroxide on aluminum, water electrolysis, or by displacement from acids with certain metals.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Hydrogen   (2828 words)

  
 999 Acid
In general scientific usage an acid is a molecule or ion that is able to give up a proton (H ion) to a base, or accept an unshared pair of electrons from a base.
In this case, the proton (H) is the actual acid and the acidity of the proton-donating-compound, such as an organic acid, is determined by its stability when it donates protons to the solution it is embedded in.
The Acid number is used to quantify the amount of acid present, for example in a sample of biodiesel.
www.999acid.com   (1373 words)

  
 Process for the preparation of a saturated carboxylic acid ester - Patent 20020137964
A process as claimed in claim 10 wherein the hydrohalic acid is selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid and hydro iodic acid.
A process as claimed in claim 10 wherein the protonic acid is selected from the group consisting of para toluene sulphonic acid, methane sulphonic acid, triflouromethane sulphonic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid and trifluoro acetic acid.
A process as claimed in claim 13 wherein the hydrohalic acid is selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid and hydroiodic acid.
www.freepatentsonline.com /20020137964.html   (4515 words)

  
 Industrial Fire World Magazine - Focus on Hazmat
Two processes were developed, the more prevalent one employed hydrofluoric acid (an aqueous solution of the gas hydrogen fluoride, HF) or anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) itself, while the less common one employed anhydrous pyrosulfuric acid (H2S2O7) otherwise known as oleum.
Every facet of industry that would come in contact with hydrofluoric acid or a product that involved the chemical in its production was subject to innovation and the personnel effected had to be trained in the appropriate protocols for safe handling and utilization of this material.
The scenario of change that has been outlined for hydrogen fluoride/ hydrofluoric acid has been repeated many times in the world of commerce and industry as newly discovered chemicals and materials are developed and introduced into the stream of general trade.
www.fireworld.com /ifw_articles/townsend11-06.php   (1505 words)

  
 Chlorine dioxide generation - Patent 4013761
Generally the mineral acid is in an aqueous solution containing about 5% to about 40%, preferably about 20% to about 30%, by weight of mineral acid based on the total weight of the solution.
In this embodiment the sodium hypochlorite solution is combined with the mineral acid and the aqueous sodium chlorite solution at the generation vessel inlet at a rate so that about 0.4 to about 1.0 moles, and preferably about 0.6 to about 1.0 moles, of sodium hypochlorite is combined with each mole of sodium chlorite.
The mineral acid is combined with the other starting materials so that about 0.1 to about 1.0 moles, and preferably about 0.3 to about 0.7 moles of the mineral acid is added per mole of sodium chlorite.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4013761.html   (4037 words)

  
 Houghton Mifflin Textbook - - Chemistry | Sixth Edition | Glossary
a -Amino acid an organic acid in which an amino group and an R group are attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group.
Brønsted—Lowry model a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor.
Oxyacid an acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom.
college.hmco.com /chemistry/general/zumdahl/chemistry/6e/students/protected/glossary   (9374 words)

  
 Patent 6,372,791
The methods of the present invention comprise the use of carnitine and pyruvic acid, or a cosmetically acceptable salt or ester thereof.
Examples of hydroxy acids include, but are not limited, to (i) alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid, (ii) beta-hydroxy acids such as salicylic acid, and/or (iii) polyhydroxy acids.
The term "cosmetically-acceptable topical carrier" refers to a carrier for topical use that is capable of having the components of the present invention (e.g., carnitine and pyruvic acid) dispersed or dissolved therein, and possessing acceptable safety properties.
www.pharmcast.com /Patents/Yr2002/April2002/041602/6372791_Skin041602.htm   (2056 words)

  
 Conversion of methane to methanol - Patent Review 5243098
The obtained methyl chloride and hydrochloric acid are reacted with magnesium oxide to form methyl alcohol and magnesium chloride hydrate.
The obtained metallous chloride is reacted with hydrochloric acid and oxygen to form metallic chloride, and the magnesium chloride hydrate is converted to magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
Gases leaving fluidizer 47, containing hydrochloric acid and air, are delivered through line 44 to cyclone 45, where dust is returned to fluidizer 47, and gases are led through line 46 to line 59 and, together with gases from line 60, enter fluidizer 19.
www.wikipatents.com /5243098.html   (2256 words)

  
 Acid-base reaction theories - Article from FactBug.org - the fast Wikipedia mirror site
Since Lavoisier's knowledge of strong acids was mainly restricted to the oxyacids, which tend to contain central atoms in high oxidation states surrounded by oxygen, such as 3
When the elements chlorine, bromine, and iodine were identified and the absence of oxygen in the hydrohalic acids was established by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, this definition had to be rejected.
That is an acid-base reaction is the combination of HOMO from base and LUMO from acid to form a stable bonding molecular orbital.
www.factbug.org /cgi-bin/a.cgi?a=3038   (901 words)

  
 CFCs - Information at Halfvalue.com
The double bond of the alkene is replaced by two new bonds, one with the halogen and one with the hydrogen atom of the hydrohalic acid.
Tertiary alkanol reacts with hydrochloric acid directly to produce tertiary chloroalkane, but if primary or secondary alkanol is used, an activator such as zinc chloride is needed.
Alkanol may likewise be converted to bromoalkane using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide or iodoalkane using red phosphorus and iodine (equivalent to phosphorus triiodide).
www.halfvalue.com /wiki.jsp?topic=CFCs   (4194 words)

  
 United States Patent Application: 0030139411   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
[0095] Non-ionic surfactants are preferably polyglycol ether derivatives of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic alcohols, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and alkylphenols, said derivatives containing 3 to 30 glycol ether groups and 8 to 20 carbon atoms in the (aliphatic) hydrocarbon moiety and 6 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl moiety of the alkylphenols.
Examples of alkylarylsulfonates are the sodium, calcium or triethanolammonium salts of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, dibutyinaphthalenesulfonic acid or of a condensate of naphthalenesulfonic acid and formaldehyde.
salts of the phosphoric acid ester of an adduct of p-nonylphenol with 4 to 14 mol of ethylene oxide, or phospholipids.
appft1.uspto.gov /netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=20030139411&OS=20030139411&RS=20030139411   (7301 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
hydrohalic acid) addition salts, may be prepared by reaction of a corresponding compound of formula IV in which RI is H, or an acid (e.
In particular, it may be desirable to protect the carboxylic acid functionality of a compound of formula IV (and acid addition salts thereof), with an appropriate protecting group (e.
the compound is optionally in the form of an acid addition salt, and the compound of formula IV is prepared by reaction of a corresponding compound of formula IV in which RI is H, or an acid addition salt thereof, with a compound of formula V, Rla.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=01/56986.010809&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (4148 words)

  
 Naming Acids and Salts
When a Hydrohalic Acid reacts with a base it forms a halide salt plus water.The salt contains the halogen of the acid and the cation of the base.
Hypochorous acid is a weak acid but it will react with a base to form salts that are called hypochlorite salts.
The electron pulling ability of Oxygens shifts bonding electrons within the acid molecule away from the hydrogen and weakens the bond between the Hydrogen and the Oxygen atom it is attached to.
members.aol.com /profchm/acidname.html   (1445 words)

  
 Aqua Regia
Aqua Regia is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid.
We add concentrated hydrochloric acid on the left, concentrated nitric acid on the right, and a mixture of the two in the middle.
The gold reacts with the concentrated acid mixture which is referred to as aqua regia, meaning "royal water".
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /JCEsoft/CCA/CCA3/MAIN/AQREGIA/PAGE1.HTM   (319 words)

  
 Molecular Structure and the Strength of Acids
The strength of an acid depends on a number of factors, such as the properties of the solvent, the temperature, and the molecular structure of the acid.
When we compare the strengths of two acids, we can eliminate some variables by considering their properties in the same solvent and at the same temperature and temperature.
Acids in which OH groups and possibly additional oxygen atoms are bound to a central atom are called oxyacids.
chemistry.twu.edu /tutorial/AcidBaseStrengthSum.html   (654 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
An aliphatic carboxylic acid is, for example, a lower alkanoic or lower alkenoic acid, and an araliphatic carboxylic acid is, for example, a phenyl-lower alkanoic acid.
An acyl radical which is derived from a sulfonic acid is, for example, alkanesulfonyl, arylalkanesulfonyl, cycloalkanesulfonyl or arylsulfonyl.
An acyl radical which is derived from a carbamic acid is, for example, amino-carbonyl which is substituted by alkyl, arylalkyl or aryl.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=99/30695.990624&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (4934 words)

  
 Certain oxy-amino-alkoxy-5,8-dihydronaphthalenes
These acid addition salts frequently provide useful means for isolating the products from reaction mixtures by forming the salt in a medium in which it is insoluble.
For this purpose a compound of formula I or a physiologically acceptable acid addition salt may be incorporated in a conventional dosage form such as tablet, capsule, elixir, injectable or the like along with the necessary carrier material, excipient, lubricant, buffer or the like.
In an alternate procedure, the alcohol is heated with the appropriate acid chloride or acid anhydride (obtained from the appropriate hydrocarbon carboxylic acid) in the presence of anhydrous pyridine or sodium acetate.
www.patentdigi.com /rubber_boat/certain_oxy-amino-alkoxy-5_8-dihydronaphthalenes.html   (1706 words)

  
 acid reflux
In the 1940s Glenn T. identified the transuranium element lanthanides and the gases only have to be constantly fed with new raw material and removal of (enriched) fractions from both vapor and liquid phase (matter), and a bottoms product.
The alternative is batch distillation, acid reflux a still is said to lie within the column to force the rising hot vapors; it vaporizes once more.
The drawback is that of the hydrohalic acids was established by Sir Humphry Davy in 1810, this definition by the application of distillation is usually repeated at various reflux rates.
acid-reflux.albummp3.info   (146 words)

  
 United States Patent Application: 0040198736
A process according to claim 48 where said carboxylic acid is acetic acid and said hydrohalic acid is hydrochloric acid.
The term "hydrohalic acid" refers to an acid comprised of hydrogen and a halogen.
Ethyl 3-hydroxy-4-iso-propylphenylacetate (5c) was prepared by Wittig olefination of 4e and subsequent catalytic hydrogenation of the 2-propenyl substituent to yield 4h.
appft1.uspto.gov /netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1="20040198736".PGNR.&OS=DN/20040198736&RS=DN/20040198736   (5968 words)

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