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Topic: Hydrothermal vent


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In the News (Mon 18 Feb 19)

  
  hydrothermal vent - Encyclopedia.com
Symbiosis of the hydrothermal vent gastropod Ifremeria nautilei (Provannidae) with endobacteria - structural analyses and ecological considerations.
Genetic and morphometric characterization of mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents.
Thermal tolerances of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals from the Northeast Pacific.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-hydrotherm.html   (1241 words)

  
 New type of hydrothermal vent looms large: Science News Online, July 14, 2001   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A newly found hydrothermal vent system, which its discoverers have dubbed the Lost City, rises on an undersea mountain in the Atlantic Ocean.
The mineral-laden waters that spew from the vents are driven by heat-generating chemical reactions in the rocks of Earth's crust.
Hydrothermal activity plays an important part in moving dissolved minerals and other substances through the Earth's crust and into the ocean, says Andrew T. Fisher, a hydrogeologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
www.sciencenews.org /20010714/fob3.asp   (984 words)

  
 The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Advances in Marine Biology Vol.23. Academic Press. -
Hydrothermal vent communities were first discovered in 1977, at a depth of 2 500 m on the Galapagos Rift but occur in many areas of tectonic activity.
Hydrothermal vent communities are of particular interest because they flourish in the dark at high pressures and low temperatures, and unique because they are supported by chemolithoautotrophic archeans and bacteria, notably Thiomicrospira species, which form dense microbial carpets and derive their energy chiefly from oxidising hydrogen sulphide.
Vent communities are separated by gaps of between 1 and 100 km, and although they may persist only for several years or decades, sites of vent activity move relatively slowly allowing dispersal of vent organisms.
www.oceansatlas.org /cds_static/en/ecology_deep_sea_hydrothermal_vent_advances__en_18529_18534.html   (311 words)

  
 Newswise
The remarkable hydrothermal vents discovered last December in the mid-Atlantic, including an 18-story vent taller than any seen before, are formed in a very different way than previously studied vents: Fluids are apparently driven by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks, not by volcanic heat.
The new vents are nearly 100 percent carbonate, the same material as limestone in caves, and range in color from a beautiful clean white to cream or gray, in contrast to fl smoker vents that are a darkly mottled mix of sulfide minerals.
Hydrothermal circulation appears to be driven by seawater that permeates into the deeply fractured surface and transforms olivine in the mantle rocks into a new mineral, serpentine, in a process called serpentinization.
www.newswise.com /articles/view/?id=VENTS.UWA   (859 words)

  
 Habitats: Hydrothermal Vent - Characteristics
These vents are found in some of the deepest places in the ocean, far beyond the reach of normal submarines or divers.
Hydrothermal vents are formed where two oceanic plates pull apart and erupting lava replaces the sea floor.
The cold seeps support organisms similar to the hydrothermal vents though the exact make-up of the biological community surrounding them depends on the chemicals, such as hydrogen sulfide, methane, iron, manganese and silica, found in the cold-seep fluid.
www.onr.navy.mil /focus/ocean/habitats/vents1.htm   (249 words)

  
 McGraw-Hill AccessScience: Hydrothermal vent   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Most hydrothermal vents occur along the central axes of mid-oceanic ridges, which are underwater mountain ranges that wind through all of the deep oceans.
The best-studied vents are at tectonic spreading centers on the East Pacific Rise and at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Hydrothermal vent sites, or closely grouped clusters of vent deposits and exit ports, may cover areas from hundreds to thousands of square feet (tens to hundreds of square meters).
www.accessscience.com /Encyclopedia/3/33/Est_330950_frameset.html?doi   (247 words)

  
 MBARI News - MBARI Scientist Uses Genetics to Study Hydrothermal Vent Animals
When the first hydrothermal vent was discovered in 1977, it presented scientists with the opportunity to study a type of ecosystem unlike any they had seen before.
Vents, and their lesser-known cousins, cold seeps, are found where chemically enriched seawater that has circulated beneath the oceanic crust escapes back into the water column through cracks in the seafloor.
Hydrothermal vents and seeps are particularly important to those interested in marine biogeography.
www.mbari.org /news/news_releases/2002/oct17_vrijenhoek.html   (973 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, tectonic plates that are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots.
Active hydrothermal vents are believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, and ancient hydrothermal vents have been speculated to exist on Mars.
Submarine hydrothermal vents, specifically "fl smokers", were discovered along the Galapagos Rift, a spur of the East Pacific Rise, in 1976 by a group of marine geologists studying ocean temperatures.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=hydrothermal_vent   (1125 words)

  
 Fathom :: The Source for Online Learning
Hydrothermal vents have characterised parts of the seafloor since oceans first formed, and modern vents are sites of thriving faunal communities developed around chemical energy sources in the total absence of light.
The vents are hollow in the centre, with concentric rings of minerals that have grown from the precipitating fluid.
Hydrothermal vents are not the only candidate for the origin of life, but most scientists now believe that life must have began as chemosynthetic life.
www.fathom.com /feature/122185   (2970 words)

  
 Hydrothermal Vents
A hydrothermal vent is a geyser on the seafloor.
As the vent water bursts out into the ocean, its temperature may be as high as 400°C (750°F).
Chimneys top some hydrothermal vents, or "hot smokers." These smokestacks are formed from dissolved metals that precipitate out (form into particles) when the super-hot vent water meets the surrounding deep ocean water, which is only a few degrees above freezing.
www.ocean.udel.edu /deepsea/level-2/geology/vents.html   (617 words)

  
 Deep-sea: Hydrothermal Vents   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The chemosynthetic vent bacteria are the base of the food chain at hydrothermal vents.
But, the vent communities are thriving areas with many species and no plants - instead it was discovered that the vent bacteria were capable of producing 'cell food' by chemosynthesizing the minerals (especially sulfur compounds) in the water.
The vents were areas where the seawater had extreme concentrations of dissolved minerals and these bacteria used them to manufacture 'cell food.' As the bacteria bloom there are a large number of filter feeders that exist here (feather duster worms, mussels and clams) and feed on the bacteria in the water.
www.biosbcc.net /ocean/marinesci/04benthon/dsvents.htm   (558 words)

  
 WWF - Deep sea ecology: hydrothermal vents and cold seeps
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents form as a result of volcanic activity on the ocean floor.
Indeed, vent animals on opposite sites of the globe are more closely related to each other than to those living outside the vent ecosystem, just a few metres away.
Vent creatures generally grow fast - giant vent tube worms are one of the fastest-growing animals on Earth.
www.panda.org /about_wwf/what_we_do/marine/blue_planet/deep_sea/vents_seeps/index.cfm   (890 words)

  
 Ocean Planet: Popular Science - Creatures of the Thermal Vents
Vents form where the planet's crustal plates are slowly spreading apart and magma is welling up from below to form mountain ranges known as mid-ocean ridges.
A few vents have also been found at seamounts, underwater volcanoes that are not located at the intersection of crustal plates.
Hydrothermal vents are underwater oases, providing habitat for many creatures that are not found anywhere else in the ocean.
seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov /OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/ps_vents.html   (1715 words)

  
 Dive and Discover : Hydrothermal Vents : Vent Basics
Hydrothermal vents are one of the most spectacular features on the seafloor.
The hydrothermal fluids exit the chimney and mix with the cold seawater.
In white smokers, the hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater under the seafloor.
www.divediscover.whoi.edu /vents/vent-infomod.html   (658 words)

  
 Hydrothermal vent system unlike any seen before found in Atlantic
A new hydrothermal vent field, which scientists have dubbed "The Lost City," was discovered Dec. 4 on an undersea mountain in the Atlantic Ocean.
Perhaps most surprising is that the venting structures are composed of carbonate minerals and silica, in contrast to most other mid-ocean ridge hot spring deposits, which are formed by iron and sulfur-based minerals.
She added that "the venting towers are very spectacular and, although they bring up a whole new set of questions, we will learn about the evolution of the mountain itself as we study the vents carefully in the future."
www.washington.edu /newsroom/news/2000archive/12-00archive/k121200.html   (837 words)

  
 Hydrothermal circulation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The heat source for the active vents is the newly formed basalt, and, for the highest temperature vents, the underlying magma chamber.
Hydrothermal vents are locations on the seafloor where hydrothermal fluids mix into the overlying ocean.
Hydrothermal circulation, particularly in the deep crust, is a primary cause of mineral deposit fomation and a cornerstone of most theories on ore genesis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hydrothermal   (428 words)

  
 GLWI | Porewater and Hydrothermal Vent Water Inputs to Yellowstone
Vent samples were collected with the Remotely Operated Vehicle, on board the R/V Cutthroat, with an articulated arm, outfitted with a thermistor probe in the end to measure the temperature of the water as it was collected.
Vents waters from West Thumb and Mary Bay showed enrichment in chloride and silicate, although vents in West Thumb were highly variable (Table 1, Selected chemistry of Yellowstone National Park vents, Yellowstone River inlet and outlet, and water column values).
One of the factors that seemed to influence the vent activity throughout the lake was the amount of water in the lake.
www.glwi.uwm.edu /research/biogeochemistry/hydrothermal/yellowstone/pwYNP02.php   (4405 words)

  
 hydrothermal vent
Following the discovery of a plethora of new species, including many previously-unknown types of microbial extremophiles in the vicinity fl smokers, deep-sea vents have been touted as sites where the origin of life may have taken place (see life, origin of), not only this world but elsewhere, including possibly Mars and Europa.
To test this theory, Koichiro Matsuno and colleagues at the University of Tokyo built an artificial vent in which water is heated to between 110°C and 350°C in one chamber, pressurized to 200 atmospheres, and cooled to near-freezing in another.
When they added copper, a trace element commonly found in the water from natural vents, they observed that the peptides grew still longer.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/H/hydrothermal.html   (288 words)

  
 Recent Activity At Loihi Volcano - Hydrothermal Vents
These vents, while remarkably similar to those found at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers, had some compositional and thermal differences, leading researchers to believe that (possibly) mid-plate volcanoes supported a unique style of hydrothermalism.
These vents were considered as "low temperature vents" by the scientific community as their waters were only 30°C or so.
Additionally, in Sept. 1996, high temperature vents were observed on the floor of Pele's Pit but temperature readings were not made and, unfortunately, it was deemed too unsafe for the October Expedition participants to visit go to Forbidden Vents at this time (so temperature readings were not made).
www.soest.hawaii.edu /GG/HCV/loihivents.html   (753 words)

  
 SCIENCE/TECHNOLOGY
Hydrothermal vent Hector discovered on the Southern East Pacific Rise near Easter Island in October is viewed from the manned submersible Alvin.
What comes out in the vent fluids very early after an eruption is, in some cases, so different from what has been measured at older active vents that "it's changed our ideas dramatically" about the impact these systems have on the chemistry of the oceans as a whole, she says.
Hydrothermal vent fluids can also affect overall ocean chemistry after they enter the ocean, says Richard A. Feely, a chemical oceanographer with PMEL in Seattle.
pubs.acs.org /hotartcl/cenear/981221/vents.html   (3406 words)

  
 Sea and Sky: Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents
These vents occur in geologically active regions of the ocean floor.
Over time, the rim of the vent is built up into a tall, chimney-like structure.
The real surprise was the discovery that a myriad of life forms actually live and thrive around these vents, totally cut off from the world of sunlight.
www.seasky.org /monsters/sea7a6.html   (496 words)

  
 Hydrothermal Vents
The Vents Program has become increasingly global in scope to reflect the nature of seafloor volcanism and to explore the full range of processes that occur in the wide range of volcanic environments beneath the sea surface.
Vents Program scientists have led expeditions to explore venting on the remote, super-fast-spreading East Pacific Rise from 11 to 32°S, on the Explorer ridge in the NE Pacific, and on the Mariana volcanic arc in the western Pacific.
Hydrothermal Fluid and Particle Sampler mounted on the ROV ROPOS.
www.oar.noaa.gov /oceans/t_vents.html   (893 words)

  
 CSA - Discovery Guides: Hydrothermal Vent Communities
The prospect of studying hydrothermal vents presents a number of challenges, as site locations are frequently remote and found at great depths, and obtaining samples can require considerable ingenuity and complicated equipment.
Childress, J. & Fisher, C. The biology of hydrothermal vent animals: physiology, biochemistry, and autotrophic symbioses.
Tsurami, M. & Tunnicliffe, V. Characteristics of a hydrothermal vent assemblage on a volcanically active segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific.
www.csa.com /discoveryguides/vent/review7.php   (743 words)

  
 nsf.gov - Discoveries - Scientists Discover Secrets of 'Lost City' - US National Science Foundation (NSF)
Hydrothermal vent structures serendipitously discovered on Dec. 4, 2000, in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, including a massive 18-story vent taller than any seen before, are formed in a very different way than ocean-floor vents studied since the 1970s.
This new class of hydrothermal vents apparently forms where circulating seawater reacts directly with mantle rocks, as opposed to where seawater interacts with basaltic rocks from magma chambers beneath the seafloor.
The new vents are nearly 100 percent carbonate, the same material as limestone in caves, and range in color from a clean white to cream or gray, in contrast to fl smoker vents that are a darkly mottled mix of sulfide minerals.
www.nsf.gov /discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=100653&org=   (727 words)

  
 New Science: A Deep Sea Expedition (04/25/01)
Most of the research into hydrothermal vent ecosystems has been done in the northern region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and along the East Pacific Rise, which runs roughly parallel to the west coast of South America.
Oceanographers will search for the vents, biologists will study the life living around the vents, geochemists will investigate the chemistry of the life-sustaining fluids spewing out of the seafloor, and geologists will explore the volcanic rocks and terrain of the surrounding seafloor to understand the geological forces that create hydrothermal vents.
The study of how animal populations evolve and move geopgraphically is called "biogeography." Hydrothermal vents are great places for biogeographical studies because the underwater environment is not effected by factors like latitude and climate.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /news/2001/news-thermalvent.asp   (1606 words)

  
 Chemical Oceanography - Vents Program
Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater penetrates into the ocean crust, becomes heated, reacts with the crustal rock, and rises to the seafloor.
Some hydrothermal tracers (especially helium) can be mapped thousands of kilometers from their hydrothermal sources, and can be used to understand deep ocean circulation.
Hydrothermal vents are the interface between the hot, anoxic upflow zone and cold, oxidized seawater.
www.pmel.noaa.gov /vents/chemocean.html   (182 words)

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