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Topic: Hypothalamus

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In the News (Wed 20 Feb 19)

In the monkey and human, presumably the visceral afferent influence from the NTS is relayed to the hypothalamus via the projection of the NTS to the parabrachial nucleus.
Another route by which the hypothalamus receive somatosensory and auditory input is the peripeduncular area, which lies in the area ventral to the medial geniculate body.
The hypothalamus also projects directly to the nucleus tractus solitarius and parabrachial nucleus, and may thus ‘gate’ the flow of specific from the IX and X nerve to the thalamus and cerebral cortex.
zlab.rutgers.edu /modules/teaching/Hypoth-Foundations-01-27-05.htm   (11361 words)

The sustained high levels of estradiol act at the hypothalamus and pituitary to cause a positive feedback effect such that a large outpouring of LH and FSH is released from the pituitary.
In contrast, lesions of the caudal hypothalamus produces somnolence, suggesting that this region is involved in arousal.
This distribution of leptin receptors is consistent with a large body of literature implicating the ventrobasal hypothalamus in feeding, as shown by large lesions of the VMH that produced increased food intake and obesity.
zlab.rutgers.edu /classes/hypothalamus.html   (7244 words)

Ontogeny of thymidine kinase and DNA in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of the rat: effects of neonatal estrogen.
Postnatal ontogeny of uridine kinase in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex of the rat.
Age-related alterations in tanycytes of the mediobasal hypothalamus of the male rat.
www.arclab.org /node_pages/20.html   (7267 words)

 Hypothalamus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The hypothalamus is thus richly connected with many parts of the CNS, including the brainstem reticular formation and autonomic zones, the limbic forebrain (particularly the amygdala, septum, diagonal band of Broca, and the olfactory bulbs, and the cerebral cortex).
Projections to areas rostral to the hypothalamus are carried by the mammillothalamic tract, the fornix and stria terminalis.
intermediate/middle/tuberal/pituitary hypothalamus: infundibulum, median eminence, arcuate nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, tuber cinereum, pituitary gland (anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary)
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hypothalamus   (1962 words)

 NDI Terminology - hypothalamus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The hypothalamus may be divided into four regions (anterior, dorsalis, intermedia, and posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone).
The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics.
The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis portion of the pituitary gland.
www.ndif.org /Terms/hypothalamus.html   (155 words)

 Hypothalamus and ANS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis, or maintaining the body's status quo.
To achieve this task, the hypothalamus must receive inputs about the state of the body, and must be able to initiate compensatory changes if anything drifts out of whack.
The hypothalamus, as you would expect from the name, is located below the thalamus on either side of the third ventricle.
thalamus.wustl.edu /course/hypoANS.html   (1805 words)

 Brain-Mind.com - sex, sex, sex, religion, sex, god, sex, memory, emotion, paranormal, health
The hypothalamus is fully functional at birth and is highly involved in all aspects of endocrine, hormonal, visceral and autonomic functions and mediates or exerts controlling influences on eating, drinking, the experience of pleasure, rage, and aversion.
Overall, it appears that the lateral hypothalamus is involved in the initiation of eating and acts to maintain a lower weight limit such that when the limit is reached the organism is stimulated to eat.
For example, portions of the septal nuclei, hippocampus, and medial hypothalamus have been repeatedly shown to be generally involved in the generation of negative and unpleasant mood states, whereas the lateral hypothalamus and amygdala, and portions of the septal nuclei, are associated with pleasurable feelings.
brainmind.com /LimbicPrimer.html   (8975 words)

 Hypothalamus - Rosacea Support Group: Supplements & Resources
The hypothalamus is a small almond-shaped gland located in the lower mid-brain between the thalamus and the pituitary gland.
To cool the body, the hypothalamus invokes parasympathetic pathways that stimulate sweating and vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels).
The hypothalamus also plays vital roles in controlling metabolism, blood pressure, circadian rhythm (sleep-wake cycle), blood sugar, and perception of pleasure and pain.
www.rosacea-research.org /wiki/index.php/Hypothalamus   (281 words)

 [No title]
Date: Thu, 10 Aug 2000 To: Bettym19@pop.mindspring.com From: "Russell Blaylock, M.D." Subject: Hypothalamus Aspartame, MSG and other Excitotoxins and the Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a small area of the brain, no larger than the fingernail, that despite its small size, is responsible for controlling some of the most vital neural systems in the body.
The wiring of the hypothalamus is some of the most complex in the nervous system, with connections not only to the pituitary, but also to the limbic system (emotional control system), hippocampus, striatum and brain stem.
The hypothalamus is one of the areas of the brain not protected by the blood- brain barrier.
www.dorway.com /hypot.txt   (1104 words)

 The Role of the Hypothalamus
The tiny hypothalamus serves as the Health Maintenance Organization of the body, regulating its homeostasis, or stable state of equilibrium.
The hypothalamus also generates behaviors involved in eating, drinking, general arousal, rage, aggression, embarrassment, escape from danger, pleasure and copulation.
The medial and posterior hypothalamus regulate activation: acceleration of pulse and breathing rates, high blood pressure, arousal, fear and anger.
www.geocities.com /hhugs2001/roleofhyp.htm   (2044 words)

 Endotext.com - Neuroendocrinology, Hypothalamus, And Pituitary, Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Discovery of the connection between the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (supraoptic-hypophysial tract) by Ramon Cajal in 1894, and subsequent work on neurosecretion in fish hypothalamus by the Sharrers in 1928, set the groundwork for rapid advancement in the understanding of the hypothalamus that unraveled throughout the 20th century and continues into the 21st century.
Once mature, however, the ability of the hypothalamus to communicate with the pars distalis is dependent upon the hypophysial portal system, a vascular link that connects the base of the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
Due to the location of pars tuberalis cells in the pituitary stalk and ventral surface of the median eminence, adjacent to the portal capillary plexus, it is likely that these cells also contribute to the humoral substances that are carried by a vascular route to the pars distalis (20), although its physiological significance is unknown.
www.endotext.org /neuroendo/neuroendo3b/neuroendo3b.htm   (2259 words)

 Hypothalamus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Hypothalamus is the small brown structure in the head.
Along with its nervous system functions, the hypothalamus produces and releases hormones, so it can be considered a neuroendocrine organ.
Recall that the pituitary gland "hangs" from a stalk from the hypothalamus on the under surface of the brain.
www.ucalgary.ca /~mlnelso/hypothalamus.html   (206 words)

 The Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is an integral part of the substance of the brain.
Isolated deficiency of GHRH (in which there is normal functioning of the hypothalamus except for this deficiency) may be the cause of one form of dwarfism, a general term applied to all individuals with abnormally small stature.
First, the hypothalamus primarily inhibits rather than stimulates the release of prolactin from the pituitary (the hypothalamus stimulates the release of all other pituitary hormones).
www.becomehealthynow.com /article/bodynervousadvanced/956   (2467 words)

 Olympus FluoView Resource Center: Confocal Gallery - Rat Brain Tissue Sections
The hypothalamus is one of the main components of the diencephalon, which develops from the embryonic forebrain.
The floor and part of the walls of the third ventricle of the brain are formed by the hypothalamus, which is very small, only accounting for about 4 grams of the total weight of the human brain.
Rat Brain Hypothalamus Tissue Triple Stained with Alexa Fluor 488, Alexa Fluor 568, and DRAQ5 - The proximity between glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, both of which are members of the class III intermediate filament protein family, was visualized in rat hypothalamus tissue presented in this section.
www.olympusfluoview.com /gallery/ratbrain/hypothalamus.html   (848 words)

 Hypothalamus - A Personal Theory
In normal brain the ratio of small neurons to large neurons in the corpus striatum is approximately 160:1 in Huntingtons patients the ratio is reduced to 40:1 with a marked decrease in the number of astrocytes.
The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of body temperature, water balance, blood sugar, and fat metabolism.
A key to understanding the endocrine relationship between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is to appreciate the vascular connections between these organs.
endoflifecare.tripod.com /juvenilehuntingtonsdisease/id273.html   (2746 words)

 Meeting Summary - The Hypothalamus and Addiction
Karen Skinner, Ph.D. Jonathan Pollock, Ph.D. On July 10, 2001, NIDA sponsored a workshop entitled "The Hypothalamus and Addiction." The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the extent to which gene expression studies in the hypothalamus may inform biological studies on the anatomy and function of the hypothalamus in varying "states" including addiction.
Studies elucidating the functional neuroanatomy of the hypothalamus -- including cell types and their control states -- would be valuable for addiction research and other areas of study.
The hypothalamus is an excellent brain region for studying functional neuroanatomy because of its diverse cell types, its rich peptide content, its evolutionary conservation, and its role in mediating homeostasis and basic behaviors.
www.drugabuse.gov /MeetSum/HypothalMtg.html   (444 words)

Neurovascular Hypothesis: Harris (1955) postulated that regulation of pituitary hormone secretion was controlled by “humoral” factors from the hypothalamus that reached the pituitary through the hypophysial portal system.
The hypothalamus is the basal part of the diencephalon, below the thalamus.
The endocrine hypothalamus is composed of those nuerons which release neurohormones (called hypophysiotropic hormones) which, in turn, regulate the activity of the anterior pituitary.
core.ecu.edu /biol/singhasc/Hypothalamus.htm   (600 words)

 Hypothalamus gland
The white part of the image is the hypothalamus gland itself; the roundish part is the pituitary gland.
Fear or excitement causes signals to travel to the hypothalamus, which triggers a rapid heartbeat, faster breathing, widening of the pupils, and increased blood flow.
The hypothalamus triggers behaviors such as putting on or removing clothes, turning on the heat, or moving into the shade.It also regulates other glands such as thyroid, pancreas, ovaries etc.
www.heumann.org /body.of.knowledge/k1/hypothalamus.html   (889 words)

 The Hypothalamus and Hypertension -- De Wardener 81 (4): 1599 -- Physiological Reviews
hypothalamus particularly from the anterior hypothalamic and the
The locus coerulus caudal to the hypothalamus in the floor of the fourth ventricle strongly influences the function of the
ANP immunoreactive cells are particularly prominent in the anterior hypothalamus.
physrev.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/81/4/1599   (10165 words)

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, but it works with the pituitary gland to control most of the rest of the major endocrine glands.
Through its connections with the rest of the brain dorsally and the pituitary gland ventrally it serves as a link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are produced in the hypothalamus and carried down to the posterior pituitary where they are stored and released.
www.ndsu.nodak.edu /instruct/tcolvill/135/hypothalamus.htm   (83 words)

 hypo   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The hypothalamus has deep evolutionary roots in the chemical sense of smell (see AROMA CUE).
As the forebrain's main chemical-control area, the hypothalamus regulates piscine adrenal medullae, chemical-releasing glands which, in living fish, consist of two lines of cells near the kidneys.
In higher vertebrates, the olfactory system and the hypophysis [i.e., the pituitary gland (which is linked to the hypothalamus)] "are derived from a single patch of embryonic [neuro]ectoderm" (Stoddart 1990:13).
members.aol.com /nonverbal3/hypo.htm   (234 words)

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