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# Topic: Hypothesis

###### In the News (Sun 23 Sep 18)

 Continuum hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis is a hypothesis, advanced by Georg Cantor, about the possible sizes of infinite sets. Cantor believed the continuum hypothesis to be true and tried for many years to prove it, in vain. This is a generalization of the continuum hypothesis since the continuum has the same cardinality as the power set of the integers. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Continuum_hypothesis   (1075 words)

 Hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. In due course, a confirmed hypothesis may become part of a theory or occasionally may grow to become a theory itself. Sometimes, but not always, they can also be formulated as existential statements, stating that some particular instance of the phenomenon being studied has some characteristic and causal explanations, which have the general form of universal statements, stating that every instance of the phenomenon has a particular characteristic. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hypothesis   (1029 words)

 Hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) In this hypothesis, the unmeasurable variable "quality of school" must be replaced with something that can be measured. One hypothesis Darwin worked with with was the testable idea that the fossil species of a particular region of the world should resemble the living species in that same region. A hypothesis is the way conceptual explanations of a theory are connected to and tested in the real world. www.bigbend.edu /soc/tcas/hypoth.htm   (862 words)

 Alternate Hypothesis Account @ InnerMan.com (Inner Man)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The alternate hypothesis, or alternative hypothesis, together with the null hypothesis are the two rival hypotheses whose likelihoods are compared by a statistical hypothesis test. Usually the alternate hypothesis is the possibility that an observed effect is genuine and the null hypothesis is the rival possibility that it has resulted from random chance. Incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis is a Type I error; incorrectly failing to reject it is a Type II error. www.innerman.com /encyclopedia/Alternate_hypothesis   (464 words)

 Hypothesis Test A hypothesis might also be a statement about the distributional form of a characteristic of interest, for example that the height of ten-year-old boys is normally distributed within the Scottish population. The critical value(s) for a hypothesis test is a threshold to which the value of the test statistic in a sample is compared to determine whether or not the null hypothesis is rejected. The null hypothesis for the two-sample t-test is: www.eng.morgan.edu /~dswann/IEGR410/hypte.htm   (2248 words)

 Scientific method - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The element of experimental design must consider the elements of hypothesis development, prediction, and the effects and limits of observation because all of these elements are typically necessary for a valid experiment. The history of the discovery of the structure of DNA is a classic example of the elements of scientific method: in 1950 it was known that genetic inheritance had a mathematical description, starting with the studies of Gregor Mendel. A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon, or alternately a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between or among a set of phenomena. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scientific_Method   (6803 words)

 Significance Tests / Hypothesis Testing If t were -3.7 or 2.6, we would reject the hypothesis that the population mean difference is 0 because we've observed a value of t that is unusual if the hypothesis were true. The null hypothesis is usually stated as the absence of a difference or an effect. To illustrate this, suppose we are testing the hypothesis that two population means are equal at the 0.05 level of significance by selecting equal sample sizes from the two populations. www.tufts.edu /~gdallal/sigtest.htm   (1474 words)

 The Gaia Hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) This hypothesis, known as the Gaia Hypothesis, states that the Earth is alive. The key point here is the hypothesis that the Earth acts as a single system - it is a coherent, self-regulated, assemblage of physical, chemical, geological, and biological forces that interact to maintain a unified whole balanced between the input of energy from the sun and the thermal sink of energy into space. This is the crux of the Gaia hypothesis. www.oceansonline.com /gaiaho.htm   (4185 words)

 Hypothesis testing A hypothesis test is a way of using statistical data to test a theory or answer a question. So the null hypothesis is that he hits the bullseye 98% of the time, and the alternate would be that he hits the bullseye less than 98% of the time. However, if you were doing this hypothesis test because you had hundreds of employees who were complaining of allergies, you might choose a higher level of significance (probably 0.05), since, if you are going to make an error, you would rather error on the side of protecting your employees. www.smccd.net /accounts/case/biol690/hypothesis.html   (1165 words)

 catastrophic hypothesis The earliest version of it was the cometary collision hypothesis of Buffon (1749), but this was largely ignored in favor of the nebular hypothesis, proposed by Kant and Laplace. The Chamberlin-Moulton planetesimal hypothesis appealed to a remote passage of a second star, while the Jeans-Jeffreys tidal hypothesis involved a close passage or (in the version due to Jeffreys) a grazing collision. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, it was widely accepted that some version of the catastrophic hypothesis held the key to the origin of the Solar System and, consequently, because close stellar encounters must be very infrequent, that life in the Universe was exceptional. www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/C/catashypoth.html   (583 words)

 Hypotheses Hypothesis A is a speculation, not a hypothesis. Since Hypothesis C states that any pair of objects behaves in a certain way, in order to prove it correct, all possible combinations of objects that exist (or have ever, or will ever exist) must be tested. Hypothesis D is a scientific hypothesis - it is testable, and it is falsifiable. www.batesville.k12.in.us /physics/PhyNet/AboutScience/Hypotheses.html   (1595 words)

 Some Consequences of Four Incapacities Hypothesis may be defined as an argument which proceeds upon the assumption that a character which is known necessarily to involve a certain number of others, may be probably predicated of any object which has all the characters which this character is known to involve. The function of hypothesis is to substitute for a great series of predicates forming no unity in themselves, a single one (or small number) which involves them all, together (perhaps) with an indefinite number of others. At any moment we are in possession of certain information, that is, of cognitions which have been logically derived by induction and hypothesis from previous cognitions which are less general, less distinct, and of which we have a less lively consciousness. www.peirce.org /writings/p27.html   (10590 words)

 The Formulation and Predictions of the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Note that at this point, we are not concerned with the origin, since the alternative hypothesis is simply that the objects exist without regard to the origin of the objects. The misidentification hypothesis is an utter failure in both logical process and in explanatory appeal, as detailed in the page on skeptical logical trickery and as judged by the inability to explain the most challenging cases, but the ETH is scientifically valid and superior to the alternative. The misidentification hypothesis has a gaping flaw in its ability to explain the observations, and the ETH is a scientifically valid hypothesis that is the simplest available to explain globally repeating, highly reliable observations by eminently qualified observers of solid objects under intelligent control with propulsion technology irreproducible by human knowledge. www.nicap.dabsol.co.uk /zeller.htm   (1082 words)

 [No title] Besides being scientifically tractable hypotheses, the Aristotelian hypothesis of four causes, the mechanical hypothesis, the pythagorean/platonic hypothesis, and to a lesser extent Darwin's evolutionary hypothesis and Freud's hypothesis of the unconscious, are examples of metascientific hypotheses. Consequently, the design hypothesis allows for hypotheses that would typically be rejected from the very start under a naturalistic metaphysics because they are suggestive of design, even though each of these hypotheses only appeal to natural entities and processes, and thus fall under the strictures of methodological naturalism. Viewing the design hypothesis as a metascientific hypothesis shows that the ID framework could be less dogmatic and has the potential of being more scientifically fertile than the naturalistic framework, since it allows for a far broader range of possible hypotheses. home.messiah.edu /~rcollins/Intell3.htm   (6705 words)

 Talk:Documentary hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Documentary hypothesis has been listed as a good article for meeting the criteria for this category of articles. I would fully expect that academics in the field of biblical scholarship would largely accept the hypothesis (or some variant thereof), for the same reasons that I would expect traditional, religious theologians to be largely against it. The decree of the Inquisition "Lamentabili" (3 July, 1907) and the encyclical "Pascendi Dominici Gregis" (8 September, 1907) reasserted against the Modernists the sound, Catholic principles to be followed in the study of Sacred Scripture. higherpower.org /encyclopedia/Talk:Documentary_hypothesis   (2951 words)

 Welcome to TalkDesign.org!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Under the hypothesis that this was true, Dembski calculates the probability of drawing 40 or more Ds as about 1 in 50 billion ("40 or more Ds" is the specification), and decides that this probability is sufficiently low to justify rejecting this hypothesis. In this case, the natural hypothesis which Dembski considers is the hypothesis that the flagellum appeared as a result of a purely random combination of proteins. The hypothesis of purely random combination is already universally rejected by biologists (it is the old creationist "tornado in a junkyard" straw man), so Dembski's consideration of this hypothesis serves no useful function, and the probability calculation which he uses to reject the hypothesis is irrelevant. www.talkdesign.org /index.html   (4217 words)

 Hypothesis Testing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Hypothesis testing is one of the most important tools of application of statistics to real life problems. Always the null hypothesis is tested, i.e., we want to either accept or reject the null hypothesis because we have information only for the null hypothesis. Although hypothesis tests are a very useful tool in general, they are sometimes not appropriate in the environmental field. ewr.cee.vt.edu /environmental/teach/smprimer/hypotest/ht.html   (2437 words)

 Hypothesis Testing In statistics a hypothesis is a claim or statement about a property of a population. The critical region is the region under the normal curve that cause a rejection of the null hypothesis. Since the null hypothesis is rejected, the alternate hypothesis is supported. math.elon.edu /statistics112/hyp_testing.html   (534 words)

 Halfway There: The Church of the Null Hypothesis The concept of null hypothesis is a stumbling block to many statistics students. You return to the null hypothesis, the claim that there is no effect, and calculate the probability that the improvement could have occurred purely by chance. That is, we do not reject the null hypothesis (nothing is happening) for the alternative hypothesis (something is going on) if our experimental results could easily occur under the null hypothesis. zenoferox.blogspot.com /2005/11/church-of-null-hypothesis.html   (1974 words)

 Type I and Type II Errors In statistics the alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis the researchers wish to evaluate. In statistics the standard is the maximum acceptable probability that the effect is due to random variability in the data rather than the cause being investigated. Like any analysis of this type it assumes that the distribution for the null hypothesis is the same shape as the distribution of the alternative hypothesis. intuitor.com /statistics/T1T2Errors.html   (1524 words)

 Michael Tye, "Knowing What It Is Like: the Ability Hypothesis and the Knowledge Argument One’s knowledge of the state of pain, when one knows what it is like, consists in the possession of certain cognitive abilities, all of which pertain to that state (e.g., the ability to recognize it when it comes again, the ability to imagine it, etc). Perhaps knowing what it is like should be identified not with the cluster of abilities Lewis cites—for they may all be lacking while knowing what it is like is present—but rather with the more basic ability to apply an indexical concept to the phenomenal character of her experience via introspection. If we agree with Lewis that what experience E is like is the same as E, then the difference seems well captured by saying that while she is attending to her experience Mary has knowledge-that she didn’t have before, knowledge (in part) that this is the experience of red. www.utexas.edu /cola/depts/philosophy/faculty/tye/Knowing.html   (6941 words)

 Null hypothesis (1 of 4)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The null hypothesis is an hypothesis about a population parameter. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to test the viability of the null hypothesis in the light of experimental data. The null hypothesis is often the reverse of what the experimenter actually believes; it is put forward to allow the data to contradict it. davidmlane.com /hyperstat/A29337.html   (172 words)

 Gold This hypothesis is applied particularly to gold deposits located in or near masses of granitic rock, which represent solidified magma. A third hypothesis is applied mainly to gold-bearing veins in metamorphic rocks that occur in mountain belts at continental margins. This hypothesis suggests that water is expelled from the rocks and migrates upwards, precipitating ore materials as pressures and temperatures decrease. pubs.usgs.gov /gip/prospect1/goldgip.html   (2937 words)

 Hypotheses There is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research. The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship. Usually, we call the hypothesis that you support (your prediction) the alternative hypothesis, and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis. www.socialresearchmethods.net /kb/hypothes.htm   (788 words)

 WTM :: Articles :: THE DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Sometimes referred to as the “J E D P Hypothesis”, the Documentary Hypothesis dates back to the critical analysis of the first five books of the Bible by literary critics in the 18th century, but which found its fullest expression in the work of Julius Wellhausen in 1895. The Documentary Hypothesis’ main target is the Pentateuch, arguing that it was not written by Moses as the Bible claims but that it was compiled and edited several years - as many as one thousand - after the death of Moses. There is good reason to believe that the Documentary Hypothesis developed as an offshoot of the age of reason, which saw a complete shift from the theology of the Reformation period built on the harmony between Scripture and reason. www.wtmkenya.org /resources/art15.htm   (5446 words)

 The Riemann Hypothesis The unproved Riemann hypothesis is that all of the nontrivial zeros are actually on the critical line. In 1900 Hilbert listed proving or disproving this hypothesis as one of the most important unsolved problems confronting modern mathematics and it is central to understanding the overall distribution of the primes. Another way to generalize Euler's sum is to leave the field of rational numbers, and replace the denominators with the norms of the non-zero ideals (special sets of elements) in a finite field extention of the rationals K (called a number field). primes.utm.edu /notes/rh.html   (735 words)

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