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Topic: Iapetus Ocean

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In the News (Wed 17 Oct 18)

  Stage II: Growth of the Iapetus Ocean
The ocean included some fragments of continental material (stop 13) similar to Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.
Near the edges of the ocean, rivers eroding the continental interiors deposited their sediments along the continental margins.
On a distant side of the ocean, the microcontinent Avalonia was located far from the tropics and accumulated its own continental margin deposits (stop 29).
www.geosc.psu.edu /~dbr/Quebec/Intro05.shtml   (224 words)

 General Programme - IGCP Project 497
The evolution of the Appalachian-Caledonide Orogen is commonly described in terms of the Iapetus Ocean whose opening produced the rifted margin of eastern Laurentia and whose closure resulted in the collision of this margin with Baltica and a variety of peri-Gondwanan terranes.
Closure of the Rheic Ocean produced the vast Ouachita-Alleghanian-Variscan Orogen and was one of the principal events in the Late Palaeozoic assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea.
The Rheic Ocean is generally held to have opened between Gondwana and a number of terranes that rifted from the Amazonian-West African margin of Gondwana.
www.snsd.de /igcp497/gen_prog.htm   (899 words)

  Middle Devonian (370 Ma) Antler arc collides with long-lived North American passive margin
Iapetus Ocean to S and E, Panthalassa Ocean to N and W
Early patterns of convergence in N Iapetus Ocean marked by Finnmarkian and Grampian orogenies
Iapetus Ocean closes as Baltica-Avalonia collides with NAM – Scandian and Acadian phases of Calledonian orogeny
jan.ucc.nau.edu /~rcb7/hist_by_period.html   (1903 words)

  Ocean   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Ocean currents greatly affect Earth's climate by transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds.
Mirovia, the ocean that surrounded the Rodinia supercontinent.
Pan-African Ocean, the ocean that surrounded the Pannotia supercontinent.
www.tocatch.info /en/Ocean.htm   (1809 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Iapetus
Also known as Saturn VIII (or S8), Iapetus is 907 mi (1460 km) in diameter, orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 2,212,885 mi (3,561,300 km), and has equal orbital and rotational periods of 79.33 earth days.
He was the son of the Titan Iapetus and the nymph Clymene (or Asia) and the brother of Prometheus.
He was the son of the Titan Iapetus and of Clymene or Themis.
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Iapetus   (658 words)

 The National Maritime Center - Oceans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
This global, interconnected body of salt water, called the World Ocean, is divided by the continents and archipelagos into the following five bodies, from the largest to the smallest: the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water.
The oceans are essential to transportation: a huge portion of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.
www.thenmc.org /oceans.html   (0 words)

 Ocean - WATESUB MAN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Oceans (from Ὠκεανός Okeanos in Greek, the ancient Greeks noticing the strong current that flowed off Gibraltar and assuming it was a great river) cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the world's marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.
This global, interconnected body of salt water, called the World Ocean, is generally divided by the continents and archipelagos into the following bodies, from the largest to the smallest: the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.
The original concept of "ocean" goes back to notions of Mesopotamian and Indo-European mythology, imagining the world to be encircled by a great river, Okeanos, "Ωκεανός" in Greek, Samudra in Hindu mythology (compare also Jörmungandr, the sea serpent living in that outer ocean in Norse mythology).
firedragon.wetpaint.com /page/Ocean/revision/3   (1756 words)

 Wilson Cycle-Stage A: Stable Continental Craton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
On the surface is a blanket of mature quartz sandstone (QFL, yellow field), the result of millions of years of weathering and erosion and sorting.
Ocean basins are composed of mafic igneous rocks (basalt and gabbro), and because these are relatively heavy rocks they isostatically "float" on the underlying mantle a little over 5 miles below sea level.
Continents and oceans are thus natural divisions on the earth, not only because they are composed of very different rocks, but also because one lies naturally above sea level, and the other naturally far below sea level.
csmres.jmu.edu /geollab/Fichter/Wilson/StageA.html   (0 words)

 Iapetus Ocean - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Iapetus Ocean was an ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Laurentia (Scotland and North America) and Baltica (Scandinavia) between 400 and 600 million years ago.
The Iapetus Ocean and the geology of the British Isles
Iapetus Ocean, along with its sister ocean, Khanty Ocean, formed when the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia rifted into three separate continents - Baltica, Laurentia, and Siberia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Iapetus_Ocean   (0 words)

 How do continents choose to split? Geology study shows new picture
The amount of each element was typical of rock created in the ocean, away from larger continental masses.
The research is part of Nance's larger interest in the Rheic Ocean, which he has been studying for more than a decade.
He is part of a multinational UNESCO project to examine the history of this ocean and has conducted work in Mexico and Europe.
www.scienceinafrica.co.za /2006/june/geology.htm   (596 words)

 [No title]
As the Iapetus Ocean basin became deeper and wider, finer-grained silty sediments were deposited over the sands of the Weverton Formation and eventually hardened into a rock known as the Harpers Formation, named for rocks exposed at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
Eventually, the Iapetus Ocean basin widened to the extent that silt and sand did not influence sedimentation, and instead the tiny shells and skeletons of planktonic marine organisms rained down onto the ocean floor.
As had happened during the formation of the Iapetus Ocean, basaltic magma intruded the crust and crystallized into rock called diabase, or "traprock." Photo: Dense summer foliage on Old Rag As Pangea split into the earth's present-day continents, a new ocean basin developed to the east of the Blue Ridge.
pubs.usgs.gov /of/2000/of00-263/guide.txt   (0 words)

 Newfoundland Story: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage
Opening of the Iapetus Ocean and the formation of a mid-ocean ridge 540 million years ago during the Middle Cambrian period.
As the continents converged, pieces of ocean crust and the underlying mantle were pushed onto the continental margin of Laurentia about 470 million years ago.
When the Iapetus Ocean closed, slope deposits and giant slabs of the old ocean floor (ophiolite) were transported westward across the old continental margin.
www.heritage.nf.ca /environment/nfld_story.html   (796 words)

 Global Tectonic Cycles
Most Georgia rocks north of the Fall Line -- and rocks beneath Coastal Plain sediments -- formed during opening and closure of the Iapetus Ocean, ancestor of today's Atlantic Ocean.
The Corbin meta-granite, among Georgia's oldest rocks, may have formed during closure of an "Atlantic" ancestor ocean more than a billion years ago, like Pennsylvanian granites formed during closure of Iapetus.
Ocoee meta-sediments (in the Cohutta mountains) probably were deposited in rift basins during breakup of Pangea's ancestor supercontinent.
home.att.net /~cochrans/tectcy01.htm   (443 words)

 New Georgia Encyclopedia: Valley and Ridge Geologic Province   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The continent lay close to the equator, and sequences of shallow-marine limestone and shale were deposited with occasional incursions of deltaic or shallow-marine sandstone.
This change in sediment source indicates, as does such other evidence as the occurrence of volcanic ash beds within Middle Ordovician rocks, both that the Iapetus Ocean was beginning to close as a consequence of subduction (when one plate descends below the edge of another) and that mountain uplift was occurring at the continental margin.
During the Paleozoic era, the Iapetus Ocean was converted from an ocean resembling the Atlantic, with passive continental margins (during the Cambrian and Early Ordovician), to an ocean surrounded by subduction zones, earthquakes, and a ring of fiery volcanoes like those around the Pacific (Middle Ordovician and Pennsylvanian).
www.georgiaencyclopedia.org /nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1163   (0 words)

 The Orogeny Zones and Virginia Geology
Along the shoreline of Virginia 600 million years ago, as the Iapetus Ocean widened and the continental plates drifted apart, Virginia sediments washed to the ocean.
When the Iapetus Ocean began to close and the ocean crust began to move towards North America, the islands were carried towards the continent too.
On the ocean floor between the islands and the continent, new sediments fell along with the limestone skeletons - volcanic ash, blown in on the approaching islands on the tradewinds.
www.virginiaplaces.org /geology/rocksdui3.html   (1715 words)

 Scotland Story
Underneath the ocean, cold dense oceanic crust was diving down under the lighter continental crust moving the continents ever closer- the process is called subduction.
The granites are further evidence of the closing Iapetus ocean - they were formed from the subducting crust between 500 and 400 million years ago.
The rocks are called greywackes are made of mud, silt and sandstones which formed at the edge of the Iapetus ocean basin.
www.moorlandschool.co.uk /earth/scotland.htm   (655 words)

 Ba-Bm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
It formed the southeastern margin of the Iapetus Ocean and was moved by the subduction of that ocean (during the Caledonian orogenic event) such that it made contact with North America and Greenland during the Silurian and Early Devonian.
It comprises the terrestrial vegetation, the continental fauna, and the flora and fauna of the oceans.
A variation of this that occurs in Languedoc (near the Mediterranean coast), the ``bise noir'', is distinguished from the mistral in that it is accompanied by heavy clouds.
www-ocean.tamu.edu /~baum/paleo/paleogloss-old/node5.html   (0 words)

 Carolina Geology
The Iapetus Ocean was completely consumed as the Cat Square and Carolina Terranes obliquely docked with Laurasia, dextrally decoupling the Western Inner Piedmont from the Eastern Blue Ridge along the Brevard Fault Zone.
The Cat Square Terrane(Eastern Inner Piedmont) was deposited in the remnant Iapetus Ocean between the Tugaloo and Carolina Terranes, possibly as an accretionary prism in front of the oncoming Carolina Terrane.
Iapetus Ocean seafloor spreading reached the Carolinas from the north and completed the separation of Laurentia from South America.
www.main.nc.us /sams/nc.geosummary.html   (0 words)

 Caledonian Structures of the Southern Uplands - GCR block
On one side of the ocean lay the supercontinent of Laurentia, which is represented today largely by the Precambrian basement rocks of North America, Greenland, the north of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands.
A separate continent, ‘Baltica’ (the basement of Scandinavia and Russia), was separated from Gondwana by an arm of the Iapetus Ocean, known as the ‘Tornquist Sea’.
It is generally accepted that sedimentation and igneous activity took place at, or near, the margins of an ocean (the Iapetus) that separated the Laurentian and Gondwanaland plates, over a period from the Precambrian through the early Palaeozoic.
www.jncc.gov.uk /earthheritage/gcrdb/GCRblock.asp?block=14   (0 words)

 J23 The Wilson cycle
Frederick J. Vine and Drummond H. Mathews emphasized in 1963 that the newly formed ocean crust moves orthogonally away from the ridge from the evidence that geomagnetic field polarity reversal anomalies in it remain parallel to the ridge.
As the lithosphere ages it cools and increases in thickness and column density, and in near isostatic equilibrium with the column height of the asthenosphere at the ridge, the seafloor deepens and the margin of the continent, which is in it, subsides.
The Iapetus ocean between the Avalon terrane and the Piedmont was still closing when Laurasia was already formed to the north by continent-continent joining of Laurentia and Baltica.
geowords.com /histbooknetscape/j23.htm   (1543 words)

 Scotland Geology
Before that time the rocks of Scotland, Scandanavia and North America were one continent, while on the other side of the now-vanished Iapetus Ocean lay the rocks of England and the rest of northern Europe.
The Caledonian Orogeny was a continental collision which closed the Iapetus Ocean, collided the rocks of England and Scotland, and fused the main jigsaw pieces of Scotland together.
Here we find the remains of the Iapetus Ocean, the sediments that were once on the ocean floor and have been crumpled up and attached to the rest of Scotland during the Caledonian Orogeny.
www.visitscotland.com /aboutscotland/Geography/geology   (1173 words)

 ScienceDaily: Geologist Looks At Mystery Of Ancient Sea: Did The Iapetus Ocean Ever Exist?
The best way to determine whether the ocean existed is to look at the land masses which would have surrounded it.
If large land masses were locked together, there would have been no room for an Iapetus Ocean to exist.
If they were spread farther apart, the ocean would have filled the gap between ancient continents.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/1997/10/971023070233.htm   (959 words)

 UCMP Glossary: Paleogeography
A relatively small ocean that existed between the continents of Laurentia, Baltica, and Avalonia from the Late Precambrian to the Devonian.
A large ocean that originated between eastern Gondwana, Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Baltica in the Ordovician and finally closed in the Jurassic; replaced by the Tethys Ocean as eastern Pangea was assembled.
A vast ocean that existed from the Late Precambrian to the Jurassic, circling the globe and connecting to smaller oceans that developed throughout the Phanerozoic; also known as the Panthalassa.
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu /glossary/glossary_9.html   (533 words)

 Ia-Im   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
A paleogeographic term for the ocean that lay between Baltica and Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic.
An ocean basin located to the west of Spain in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean.
W. It adjoins the waters of the Norwegian Sea to the east, the Greenland Sea to the north, the Denmark Strait to the west, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the south.
www-ocean.tamu.edu /~baum/paleo/paleogloss/node21.html   (0 words)

 Geology of Two Lights and Crescent Beach State Parks - Glossary - Maine Geological Survey
Glacial buildup subtracts water from the ocean and results in lowering of sea level; glacial melting results in the return of water to the ocean causing a rise of sea level.
Iapetus: An ocean that once extended through the New England area from Late Cambrian to Early Devonian time.
Island arc: A chain of volcanic islands adjacent to a deep ocean trench where subduction is occurring.
www.maine.gov /doc/nrimc/mgs/explore/bedrock/2-lights/glossary.htm   (1307 words)

A paleogeographic term for the ocean that lay between Baltica and Laurentia during the late Precambrian and early Paleozoic.
The front separates the waters of the Atlantic Ocean to the south from the cold, low salinity waters of the Arctic Mediterranean to the north.
W. It adjoins the waters of the Norwegian Sea to the east, the Greenland Sea to the north, the Denmark Strait to the west, and the North Atlantic Ocean to the south.
stommel.tamu.edu /~baum/paleo/ocean/node17.html   (2814 words)

It seems as though the warranty on an ocean or a supercontinent is only good for about 200 million years, because by 450 million years ago, the Iapetus Ocean had begun to close.
Ocean-bottom crust was being subducted; which occurs when the denser (3.0), basaltic crust of the ocean floor is overridden by the less dense (2.7), granitic continental crust.
As the ocean closed and pressures increased, ductile thrusting (movement along a nearly horizontal fault) and retrograde metamorphism was occurring in the Blue Ridge.
www.etsu.edu /biology/friendsofnature/Species/BMP_chronology.htm   (1072 words)

 Culpeper Basin
The Iapetus Ocean opened approximately where the present-day Atlantic Ocean is. During the opening, this area would have presented an alien landscape.
As the continental margin subsided farther and became the bottom of a shallow ocean, various kinds of particles were deposited on the sand and silt.
As with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean, the process was initiated by cracking, stretching and thinning of continental crust.
gen.culpepper.com /archives/va/basin.htm   (2753 words)

 Scottish Geology Website
On the final closure of the Iapetus Ocean, the continents collided and a period of mountain building took place.
Iapetus Ocean An ancient ocean that no longer exists and is only recognisable by the sediments that were laid down in it.
The ratio of oxygen isotopes found fixed in shells in ocean sediments, or in old layers of ice, is largely determined by the relative size of the Earth’s ice sheets in the past.
www.scottishgeology.com /glossary/glossary.html   (3336 words)

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