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Topic: Ijtihad

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What is clear is that long after the 10th century the principles of ijtihad continued to be discussed in the Islamic legal literature, and other Asharites continued to argue with their Mutazilite rivals about its applicability to sciences.
In Islamic political theory ijtihad is often counted as one of the essential qualifications of the caliph, f.e.
Along with isnah (citation), ijtihad is considered to have been a major influence in the development of the scientific method.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ij/Ijtihad.html   (308 words)

Ijtihad may be used with theology in general, or as a term for the development of law, fiqh.
Ijtihad has never been defined as a technique of fiqh, except when the thoughts of ijtihad are agreed upon in a context of consensus among scholars.
In Twelver Shi'ism, ijtihad is traditionally not allowed, although the 20th century Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini promoted a revised understanding of the application of Islamic theology within which there was room for new judgements.
i-cias.com /e.o/ijtihad.htm   (293 words)

 Ijtihad: Its Meaning, Sources, Beginnings and the Practice of Ra'y
Ijtihad, on the one hand, gives vigour and viability to legal thought and, on the other, does not allow the ahkam to remain in the outdated moulds of obsolete expressions and terms, by expounding them in the language of every age and in accordance with its needs.
Ijtihad is also not a kind of taqlid in the sense of a passive acceptance of ahkam, in whose determination the mujtahid has no role.
Ijtihad and legal deduction was a simpler affair, free of the later tech­nical complexities, because the legists of that period did not face any great difficulty with regard to the identification of trustworthy tradi­tions, the literal and legal meanings and significance of words used in traditions, and the specific features relating to them.
www.al-islam.org /al-tawhid/ijtihad/4.htm   (6575 words)

 Ijtihad and Taqlid
We concluded the first portion of this series by examining the birth of Ijtihad, explaining its significance to the Ummah, and presenting a brief historical outline of how it related to the differences of opinion that arose between Muslims.
For the section of Muslims who did not follow Imams after the Prophet's death and for the overwhelming majority of Muslims after the 3rd century after hijra, Ijtihad was a necessity of daily life.
Because of this seemingly arbitrary codification, only 4 schools were included within the fold of Islam, while others, no matter how relevant or supported by texts their schools may or may not have been, were excluded.
www.oneummah.net /encyclopedia/ijtihad_and_taqlid.html   (821 words)

 The Concept of Ijtihad in Accordance to Shi'i Islam
This was due to the misconceptions surrounding this term during that period amongst the Sunni scholars, who by their definition of Ijtihad placed the use of Ijtihad al-Ra'iy and Qiyas on the same level as the Quran and the Sunnah in the inferring of religious laws.
Given the significance and essential nature of Ijtihad in Islam, it is important to note that closing the gates for Ijtihad opposes one of the fundamental purposes of Islam; that being the all-encompassing religion that addresses the lifestyle of people in all its aspects.
Through their Ijtihad, they were able to command authority among the Shi'a masses and control the destiny of the community with their wisdom and piety.
www.muslimmatrimonial.com /The_Concept_of_Ijtihad_in_Accordance_to_Shi'i_Islam-61   (3029 words)

 IslamiCity.com - Communications & Services
Ijtihad, the dynamic principal of Islamic Law, helps to keep law ever fresh and capable of facing the challenges of new places and times.
The real difference between Islamic ijtihad and secular endeavors is not as much in the nature of the endeavor itself, but in its sources.
Ijtihad worked very well in the past because jurists had good knowledge of the sources and developed a thorough and comprehensive methodology of interpretation.
www.islamicity.com /articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0507-2747   (1172 words)

 [No title]
One is ijtihad in a given problem (ijtihad fil-mas'alah) which means, the injunction you want to apply, and in this application, make (extreme) effort to get guidance for the situation that you know, and one which you do not know.
Ijtihad does not mean mowing and clearing a forest; it simply means that to understand the will of Shariah, if the orders are clear and injunctions established, then these will be accepted.
Ijtihad does not mean that those who know not even the preliminaries of religion, or on the other hand have no understanding of the contemporary problems, be given the right to formulate some wishful view in a given matter.
www.al-huda.com /IqbalIjtihadIslamicMovement.htm   (1270 words)

 Naseeb Vibes - The Largest Muslim E-Zine
Ijtihad is about freedom of thought, rational thinking and the quest for truth through an epistemology covering science, rationalism, human experience, critical thinking and so on.
While ijtihad can be a tool for understanding Islamic principles in a way that fits the needs and challenges of individuals and societies, there is no universal agreement on its proper role.
When modernist Muslims claim that the door of ijtihad has been closed, they are lamenting the loss of the spirit of inquiry that was so spectacularly demonstrated by classical Islamic civilisation at its peak.
www.naseeb.com /naseebvibes/rss.php?id=4828&sub=prose   (2107 words)

 The Principle of Ijtihad in Islam
Broadly speaking, ijtihad has the meaning of being an authority in the matters of Islam; but there are two ways of being an authority and deriving opinions in the matters of Islam in the eyes of us Shi`i Muslims: one which is in accordance with the shari`a, and one which is forbidden by it.
The word ijtihad was used until the fifth hijri century with this particular meaning, i.e., with the meaning of qiyas and ijtihad al­ra'y, a kind of ijtihad which is prohibited in the eyes of the Shi`a.
Up to that time, the Shi`i `ulama included a chapter on ijtihad in their books only because they wanted to refute it, to emphasize that it was null and void, and to proscribe it, as did the Shaykh al­Tusi in some of his works.
www.al-shia.com /html/eng/books/fiqh&usool/the-principle-of-ijtihad-in-islam/the-principle-of-ijtihad-in-islam.htm   (3165 words)

Ijtihad was once an important force in the articulation and interpretation of Shariah.
In order to perform Ijtihad, a Muslim man or woman should be thoroughly familiar with the sciences of Qur'an and the Sunnah, comprehend the wider purposes of the Sharia and understand Arabic correctly.
Some historians say that the door of Ijtihad was closed because Muslim Ummah was under attack from external forces such as the Crusades and Mongol invasion and sacking of Baghdad on June 6, 1258 CE (seventh century Hijra).
www.irfi.org /articles/articles_1_50/ijtihad.htm   (819 words)

 Sic Semper Tyrannis 2006: The Gate of Ijtihad
Ijtihad -- or hermeneutics -- refers to the institutionalized practice of interpreting Islamic law (sharia) to take into account changing historical circumstances and, therefore, different views.
Ijtihad is the independent or original interpretation of problems not covered by the Koran (Islam's holy book), the Hadith (traditions concerning the Prophet's life and utterances), and ijma' (scholarly consensus).
The prospect of the re-opening of the Gate of Ijtihad is incredibly important to both the Sunni World and to the West.
turcopolier.typepad.com /sic_semper_tyrannis/2006/03/the_gate_of_ijt.html   (1436 words)

 pascalsview: The Importance of Learning the Meaning of Ijtihad
Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid, Arabic for "imitation".
Ijtihad is a method of legal reasoning that does not rely on the traditional schools of jurisprudence, or madhabs.
www.pascalsview.com /pascalsview/2006/02/the_importance_.html   (1260 words)

 Anulios » Blog Archive » Appearances
Ijtihad was a philosophical practice inherent in Islam from the very beginning that stated that if something was true then it would not be harmed by questioning it, even in the most extreme manner.
The closing of the gates of ijtihad around 13th century CE was also in response to the invasions of Islamic lands by the Mongolian armies of the Khans from the Far East.
Manji is a good example of the ijtihad debate actually - she is a gay feminist and is still a Muslim (despite death threats and general aggravation).
www.anulios.org /index.php/2005/09/05/appearances   (1967 words)

 Rethinking Islam  - By Professor Ziauddin Sardar
This is why while Muslims have a strong emotional attachment to Islam, Islam per se, as a worldview and system of ethics, has little or no direct relevance to their daily lives apart from the obvious concerns of rituals and worship.
Ijtihad and fresh thinking have not been possible because there is no context within which they can actually take place.
But after the ‘gates of ijtihad’ were closed during the Abbasid era, ilm was increasingly reduced to religious knowledge and the `ulama came to constitute only religious scholars.
www.islamfortoday.com /sardar01.htm   (3005 words)

 Ihsan Yilmaz, Muslim Alternative Dispute Resolution and Neo-Ijtihad in England
Ijtihad is an activity, a struggle, and a process to discover the law from the texts and to apply it to the set of facts awaiting decision and this activity is a very important aspect of Islam regarding its dynamism and universality.
Ijtihad is an activity, a struggle, and a process to discover the law from the texts and to apply it to the set of facts awaiting decision.
The purpose of ijtihad was a return to a purified Islam.(9) Modernists, revivalists and Muslim activists stress the dynamism, flexibility, and adaptability that characterized the early development of Islam.
www.alternativesjournal.net /volume2/number1/yilmaz.htm   (6026 words)

 Ijtihd   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
"Ijtihad" is to suggest solution to a newly risen problem, for which there are no clear injunctions in the two basic sources i.e.
Also, ‘ijtihad’ has to be within the overall ‘Shariah’; scheme, and exercised only by those who are authorized and accepted competent, without question.
Thus, it implies that ‘ijtihad’ is not allowed in matters that are settled by the Qur’an and Sunnah.
www.jamaat.org /qa/ijtihad.html   (433 words)

 Progressive Dawoodi Bohras: The Concept of Ijtihad in Islam-Part Two
It was the later generation of 'Ulama who while accepting the principle of ijtihad in theory de-emphasised it in practice.
In a fast changing world recourse to ijtihad is a must and Islam is among those religions which approves of healthy change and allows its believers to not only grapple with the changes taking place around them but also to strive to reapply Islamic principles of jurisprudence.
Ijtihad could be done only in reapplication of these values and principles in changed circumstances.
www.dawoodi-bohras.com /perspective/isla_ijtihad_1.htm   (2404 words)

 Steven Masood online   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Ijtihad therefore is 'the logical deduction on a legal or theological question by a Mujtahid or learned and enlightened doctor, as distinguished from Ijma, which is the collective opinion of a council of divines.'
The principle of Ijtihad by jurists is considered to have roots in a Hadith, in a discourse between the Prophet and Muadh Ibn Jabl, a qadi, on his way to al-Yaman as judge.
Ijtihad does not arise in respect of matters that have already been dealt with in the Qur'an and the Traditions.
homepage.ntlworld.com /s-masood/miscessays/ijtihad.htm   (2921 words)

 Progressive Dawoodi Bohras: The Concept of Ijtihad in Islam-Part One
The doors of ijtihad remained open for a few centuries specially upto the fall of Baghdad in early 13th century.
It is true that the 'Ulama, after the fall of Baghdad, felt acutely insecure and closed the gates of ijtihad but this may not fully explain the causes of abandoning the concept of ijtihad in Islam.
Ijtihad became highly useful institution for these jurists who had to exercise their intellectual faculties to comprehend new situations and find solutions to them - what the holy Prophet had advised Ma'adh bin Jabal to do.
www.dawoodi-bohras.com /perspective/isla_ijtihad.htm   (2344 words)

 Iqbal’s Reconstruction of Ijtihad
The focal point of this chapter is the observation of Aghnides that "Ijtihad was in fact a mechanical principle that led Islamic society to fossilization and prevented it from progress".
Chapter 4 under the title "Iqbal’s lecture on Ijtihad" tries to solve the riddle as to whether the lecture was written in 1920 or it was still under preparation in 1925.
With regard to Ijtihad, we are introduced to five dynamic elements in Iqbal’s thought i.e., Quran’s anti-classical spirit; dynamic concept of universe, society and culture in Islam; the idea of the changeability of the life, the realism of juristic reasoning in Islam and the evolutionary and dynamic concept of intellect and thought in Islam.
www.allamaiqbal.com /publications/journals/review/apr99/9.htm   (2794 words)

 Development of ijtihad
There is always the danger that if ijtihad in its traditional form is not sufficient for the needs required, it is broadened and changed into something rather looser than what Suyuti and his age might recognize as ijtihad.
Ijtihad is here presented as working directly on the sources of dogma, in particular hadith.
Wael B. Hallaq, "Was the gate of ijtihad closed?", International Journal of Middle East Studies, xvi, 1, 1984, 3-41 and W. Montgomery, Watt, "The closing of the door of igtihad" in Orientalia hispanica, sive studia F M Pareja octogenario dictata edenda curavit J M Barral, Leiden 1974, i, 675-8.
www.hf-fak.uib.no /institutter/smi/paj/Vikor.html   (2768 words)

Ijtihad is a learning (knowing) process and has a important, progressive and civil role in the life of an individual and the society altogether with the state.
Most Muslims are ignorant with the meaning of Ijtihad and some even believe that the process of Ijtihad is related to a certain class of religious men (scholars) because of their religious position as is the case with the post of a pope in a church.
Consequently, Ijtihad and its distinguished experts and scholars are those who spend all their efforts and abilities sincerely in order to supply instinctive knowledge of Ijtihad and the skill of discovering the laws.
home.swipnet.se /islam/books/islamic-laws/04.htm   (4233 words)

 Door to ijtihad
At this time, however, due to the domination of European civilization and the heavy pressure of naturalistic philosophy, and due to the conditions of modern life growing unbearable, minds and hearts are scattered, and efforts and cares divided.
For sure, his faculties have become removed from exerting themselves to be qualified to do ijtihad to the degree of his preoccupation with modern sciences, and have remained backward in regard to it to the ex-tent that he has become learned in physical and worldly matters.
But if such an inclination and desire come from those who abandon the essentials of religion, prefer the worldly life to that of the Hereafter, and are preoccupied with materialistic philosophy, then it is the means of destroying the body of Islam and breaking away from the Shari‘a.
www.islamanswers.net /ijtihad/door.htm   (776 words)

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