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Topic: Imbangala

In the News (Sun 24 Jun 18)

  Imbangala --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The Imbangala, sometimes mistakenly identified with the Jaga, probably left the Lunda state of Shaba in the 15th century under a leader entitled kinguri.
By the end of the 16th century well-organized military bands of marauders, known as the Imbangala, began to appear along the coast south of Luanda.
As a result, the Ovimbundu kingdoms on the Bié Plateau, which probably were formed by refugees from the Imbangala and Mbundu kingdoms in the late 16th and 17th centuries, displaced Kasanje as the main source of...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9042178   (458 words)

 The Slave King   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
During the seventeenth century the territory the Portuguese called Angola was disrupted by factors that included the pressure of the Portuguese slave trade and occupation of the coast, by the collapse of states such as the Kingdom  of the Kongo to the north, and by invasions principally from the northeast.
Nganga a nzumbi was a religious title among the Imbangala whose responsibilities included relieving sufferings caused by an unhappy spirit of a lineage ancestor (nzumbi).
Despite the title and apparent official function of Bantu origin, the Ganga-Zumba known to history was possibly a native Palmarino of the Ardra Nation, identifiable with the Ewe-speaking Allada state on the Slave Coast.
www.uaia.org /uaia/brazil/zumbi.htm   (3633 words)

 History News Network
Had either read Cavazzi de Montecuccolo's Istorica Descrittione de Tre Regni Congo, Matamba e Angola (1687-90), upon which Miller in part draws, they would know there is a separate Imbangala priest, the nganga a nzumba (head of the billy-goat cult) to go along with the nganaga a nzumbi, the priest in charge of spiritual purity.
And any number of people, relying on their credentials and publication history (and they are both good scholars, as far as I can tell), would bet they are right and believe them.
Certainly we know the Imbangala leader lived in the capital, though, which would seem to count against the 1645 document as establishing Imbangala rule or describing the nganga a nzumbi.
hnn.us /readcomment.php?id=45850   (1023 words)

 Central Africa, 1600-1800 A.D. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Luba processes of "colonization," personified in oral histories as the culture hero Chibinda Ilunga, introduce new governmental concepts such as divine kingship (balopwe) southward to the Lunda peoples and stimulate the development and dispersal of courtly art forms.
In this period, the Imbangala also develop kilombo, a system of initiation in which youths renounce family ties and are raised communally in quasi-military formations.
This term resurfaces in nineteenth-century Brazil as quilombo, where it refers to hidden communities of escaped slaves, many of whom are of Central African descent.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/ht/09/sfc/ht09sfc.htm   (830 words)

 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Angola / Bibliography
"The Date and Significance of the Imbangala Invasion of Angola," Journal of African History [London], 6, No. 2, 1965, 143-52.
"The Imbangala and the Chronology of Early Central African History," Journal of African History [London], 13, No. 4, 1972, 594-674.
"Imbangala Lineage Slavery (Angola)." Pages 205-33 in Suzanne Miers and Igor Kopytoff (eds.), Slavery in Africa.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/angola/ao_bibl.html   (3707 words)

 Nzingha, Queen of Ndongo (1582--1663)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The Mbundu were divided into tribes, including the Songo, Lenge, Libolo, Hungu, Pende, Ndongo, and Imbangala.
Every group was made up of clans descended from their mother's side of the family.
Nzingha's childhood friend, Njali, helped her make an alliance with the Imbangala tribes.
nzinghaofangola.tripod.com   (1295 words)

 Nzinga von Matamba
Im Kampf dem rivalisierenden Nachbarreich Imbangala gewann das Ngola-Reich militärische Stärke geriet jedoch zugleich in Konflikt den Portugiesen die für ihre Besitzungen in große Mengen an Sklaven ausführten.
Der Druck durch die Imbangala war so stark geworden dass dem die Entspannung mit den Portugiesen reizvoll genug um in Verhandlungen einzutreten.
Diese Zeit des politischen und militärischen währte bis 1629 als einige Kriegsherren der dahin verbündeten Imbangala zu den Portugiesen überliefen Nzinga wegen der fehlenden Volkszugehörigkeit den Titel wollten.
www.uni-protokolle.de /Lexikon/Nzinga_von_Matamba.html   (1399 words)

 Privatkriege, Warlords, Afrika (Friedensratschlag)
Zeitgenössische portugiesische Berichte betonen Kannibalismus und den Gebrauch magischer Medizinen in ihren Beschreibungen der Imbangala.
Die Imbangala Banden, die marodierend weite Teile Angolas im 17.
Auch dieses Charakteristikum teilen die präkolonialen Kriegsherren-Banden der Imbangala und Oorlam.
www.uni-kassel.de /fb10/frieden/themen/Privatkriege/kriegsheren.html   (2825 words)

 Nzinga von Matamba - netlexikon
Im Kampf mit dem rivalisierenden Nachbarreich Imbangala gewann das Ngola-Reich (Ndongo) militärische Stärke, geriet jedoch zugleich in Konflikt mit den Portugiesen, die für ihre Besitzungen in Amerika große Mengen an Sklaven ausführten.
Der Druck durch die benachbarten Imbangala war so stark geworden, dass dem Ngola die Entspannung mit den Portugiesen reizvoll genug erschien, um in Verhandlungen einzutreten.
Diese Zeit des politischen und militärischen Erfolges währte bis 1629, als einige Kriegsherren der bis dahin verbündeten Imbangala zu den Portugiesen überliefen und Nzinga wegen der fehlenden Volkszugehörigkeit den Titel absprechen wollten.
www.lexikon-definition.de /Nzinga-von-Matamba.html   (1589 words)

 The Story of Africa| BBC World Service
Among the many independent groups were the Portuguese pombeiros who went deep into western central Africa in the 16th century, initially acting on behalf of the Portuguese traders on the coast.
There were also the Yaka and Imbangala, who although of different origins, were equally adept at making a living off other communities, ruthlessly pillaging crops and cattle, as well as slaves.
With the defeat of the Kongo in 1665, the Vili, (located north of the Kongo estuary), took on a greater commercial role, travelling regularly the 800 km to Kasanje, a new powerful broker state bordering on the Lunda kingdom.
www.bbc.co.uk /worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/10chapter3.shtml   (1020 words)

 Oppression and Resistance in Jamaican Reggae and Afro-Brazilian Music
The coast was occupied by the Portuguese and dominated by slave trade, while neighboring African nation-states were constantly putting military pressure on the area through numerous invasions.
In order to cope with the constant military conflict and political upheaval of the region, the Imbangala instituted kilombo, which they found to be a unifying social paradigm for a people under constant military alert.
Amongst the burgeoning population of Palmares, there were numerous descendants of Angolan slaves and possibly recent arrivals of the Imbangala, leading to their naming of the region Angola Janga, ‘Little Angola’ (Anderson, 1996, p.
debate.uvm.edu /dreadlibrary/davila.html   (6776 words)

 MALUNGU: The African Origin of the American Melungeons - Tim Hashaw - Eclectica Magazine v5n3
The Imbangala maintained their numbers exclusively by training the children of their victims to be warriors.
The conduct of rampaging Imbangala mercenaries was chronicled by Vogado Sotomaior, the ouvidor geral de Angola, who complained of the destruction of the royal Ndongo city of Kabasa, that it was "sacked in such a way that many thousands of souls were captured, killed and eaten".
Those surviving Ndongo who had not been slaughtered and eaten by the Imbangala, were packed into flimsy, hastily built facilities, which could not nearly contain them all.
www.eclectica.org /v5n3/hashaw.html   (16668 words)

 The Imbangala (from Southern Africa) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The Imbangala (from Southern Africa) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
More results on "The Imbangala (from Southern Africa)" when you join.
More from Britannica on "The Imbangala (from Southern Africa)"...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-234042   (1042 words)

 Woman Ruler Woman Rule   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
I call the bloodthirsty Imbangala, sister and brother.
She has fled southeast to the kingdom of the Imbangala.
After her death in 1663 women ruled for more than eighty years out of the next hundred and four.
www.womanrulers.com /nzinga.html   (745 words)

 James H. Sweet - Recreating Africa: Culture,Kinship, and Religion in the Portuguese World,1441-1770 - 0807854824 - ...
Exploring the cultural lives of African slaves in the early colonial Portuguese world, with an emphasis on the more than 1 million Central Africans who survived the journey to Brazil, James Sweet lifts a curtain on their lives as Africans rather than as incipient Brazilians.
Focusing first on the cultures of Central Africa from which the slaves came--Ndembu, Imbangala, Kongo, and others--Sweet identifies specific cultural rites and beliefs that survived their transplantation to the African-Portuguese diaspora, arguing that they did not give way to immediate creolization in the New World but remained distinctly African for some time.
Slaves transferred many cultural practices from their homelands to Brazil, including kinship structures, divination rituals, judicial ordeals, ritual burials, dietary restrictions, and secret societies.
bookpicker.com /book/0807854824/Recreating+Africa:+Culture,Kinship,+and+Religion+in+the+Portuguese+World,1441-1770.html   (242 words)

 SLAVERY IN GREECE, ROME, AND AFRICA. Free term papers for college, book reports and research papers. Welcome to Great ...
It became a fundamental principle of Islamic jurisprudence that the natural condition, and therefore the presumed status, of mankind was freedom, just as the basic rule concerning actions is "permittedness": what is not expressly forbidden is permitted; whoever is not known to be a slave is free.
In some regions of Africa, slaves were simply "victims of kidnapping." In addition, slaves were also acquired through trading as with the Imbangala.
In these instances, people such as the Imbangala did not have to resort to war to obtain slaves.
www.greatessay.com /essay/014904.html   (3215 words)

 Portuguese to Asia and Africa
Some others returned to the Kongo where they took concubines and joined slave trading communities along Kongo trade routes.
Involved in the slave trade, Portuguese governors at Luanda allied themselves with roving African bands known as the Imbangala, who appeared along the coast.
The Imbangala were led by warlords and participated in the taking of slaves.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h17port.html   (2482 words)

In 1618 the newly arrived governor of Angola, Luis Mendes de Vasconcellos, made an alliance with the Imbangala, dreaded cannibal mercenaries from the south, and used their assistance to crush the Kingdom of Ndongo.
Flushed with these victories, Portuguese governors subsequently picked wars with a variety of the smaller states that lay between Kongo and Angola, and then, in November 1621 a large Angolan force invaded southern Kongo and defeated the local army at Mbumbi.
Njinga came to power in the terror and confusion of the aftermath of Governor Mendes de Vasconcellos' alliance with the Imbangala and his war on Ndongo.
muweb.millersville.edu /~winthrop/Thornton.html   (6590 words)

 História Militar de Roma
Una alianza formal entre los Imbangalas o Jagas y los portugueses fue establecida cerca de 1612.
El estado Imbangala del Kulashingo, así como otros estados Imbangalas de los Mbundus, formaron pueblos mercenarios al margen de los portugueses en Angola.
La connotaciones mágicas asociadas a los gobernantes del kilombo, bien como sus habilidades militares, permitieron que estos grupos de guerreros Imbangalas dominasen los Mbundus, en los años siguientes del siglo XVII.
www.unicamp.br /nee/arqueologia_english/archives/arch_hist_strat/etnicidad.html   (8640 words)

Se sabe que en 1621 Nzinga (conocida como Jinga por los portugueses), la hermana de un ngola kiluanje, consiguió que los portugueses reconocieran a el reino Ndongo como una monarquía independiente y que le ayudaran a expulsar a los Imbangala de su territorio.
Siguiendo su experiencia anterior con el reino Ndongo, los portugueses aprovecharon las intrigas palaciegas para apoyar al candidato al trono favorable a sus intereses, Kanini.
Kanini codiciaba el reino cercano de Kasanje, poblado por gentes Mbundu pero gobernado por los Imbangala, para ampliar su fuerza en el comercio de esclavos.
www.ikuska.com /Africa/Etnologia/Pueblos/Mbundo/index.htm   (511 words)

 Virtual Museum Discussion Board
She learns from a captured priest named Father Giovanni.
She learned hunting skills from Njali, a member of the Imbangala people.
She even wants to go hunting with him.
compstrategies.com /discus/messages/280/931.html?...   (186 words)

 [No title]
Vasconcelos, that since he placed the Imbangala at the front, "the wars were
the Imbangala in the frantic rush for slaves.
Ndongo who had not been slaughtered and eaten by the Imbangala, were crammed
freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com /~gowenrf/article2.htm   (2191 words)

 [No title]
into fortified locations, leaving the fields for the Imbangala to harvest.
Once their enemies were weakened by fighting or lack of food, they could make
Portuguese with the Imbangala first hit and defeated the armies of a soba
bz.llano.net /gowen/electronic_newsletter/el200010.htm   (3438 words)

 [No title]
Vasconcellos cannot be excused for patriotic motives for
Soares wrote of Vasconcellos, that as he had Imbangala
Imbangala, were placed in flimsy, hastily built pens
bz.llano.net /gowen/electronic_newsletter/el200011.htm   (4385 words)

She forbade her subjects to call her Queen, preferring to be addressed as King.
An outstanding aspect of her political engagement was the establishment of alliances with Mbundu groups, namely the Imbangala, and even the formation of a coalition in 1635 with neighboring peoples including the Congo, Kassanje, Dembos and Kissama.
A coalition that would later be used against the Dutch as well.
www.egeltje.org /archives/queen_nzinga.php   (668 words)

'Imbangala.' The nascent Imbangala states, in contrast to prior states in the area, which crystallized around a royal lineage of divine kings, constituted diverse peoples in a lineageless community.
, and many may have been recent arrivals from among the Imbangala.
In a fundamentally lineageless society like the Imbangala — or the colonial maroon — this official would have great importance, as it would fall to him to appease ancestral spirits cut lose from descendants who would otherwise propitiate them.
www.bpsindy.com /gooddeeds/zumbi.htm   (3520 words)

 Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle : Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité > Book Isabel de Castro ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle : Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité > Book Isabel de Castro Henriques
Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle : Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité
Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle : Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité - Isabel de Castro Henriques 1 Offer
books.idealo.com /prices/P2738433510K0.html   (223 words)

 Spirits And Spirituality: Alcohol In Caribbean Slave Societies, by Frederick H. Smith
In West Central Africa, in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century, the people of the Kongo were known to "bury their dead on the mountains in cool pleasant places...[and] leave wine and food" (Balandier 1968:251).
According to historian Joseph Miller (1976:177n6), in the seventeenth century the Imbangala of West Central Africa "made extensive use of palm wine in their rituals...pouring the wine over the graves of their ancestors in an attempt to contact the dead."
The use of alcohol in birth and funeral ceremonies may reflect the need to bring the community through an anxious period of spiritual liminality.
www.kislakfoundation.org /prize/200102.html   (10231 words)

 Blithe Spirit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Until the 1800s when explorers and European hunters began expeditions themselves into the interior of central Africa, ivory hunters were African.
Many states, such as the Chokwe of Angola on the western side and the Imbangala of Kasanje on the eastern side, formed armies of professional hunters trading deep into the interior.
The most famous Arab/Swahili trader of the central African interior was Hamed bin Muhammed, commonly known as Tippu Tip, who started his hunting and raiding experience among the Kazembe.
www.beepworld.de /members45/poetryrose/historygun.htm   (6282 words)

 Books : Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle: Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité - Shop for Outdoor ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Books : Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle: Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité - Shop for Outdoor Gear, Outdoor Clothing, and Footwear
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 Commerce et changement en Angola au XIXe siècle: Imbangala et Tshokwe face à la modernité   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
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