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Topic: Import substitution

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  Import substitution is a strategy that has enjoyed little explicit practice and limited academic study
Import substitution causes the existing level of injections from exports to have a larger multiplier effect on the local community by stemming income leakage.
Import substitution strategies are rarely enacted in isolation, but tend to form one facet of a broader strategy, becoming inextricably linked with other development goals and programs such as economic self-sustainability, entrepreneurial development, or location incentives.
Quite commonly, the import substitution portion of a program or strategy remains implicit or even incidental, and import substitution is not acknowledged as an underlying basis for the economic development measure.
www.humboldt.edu /~envecon/econ_580/sd_discussant_paper.htm   (3429 words)

 Import substitution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Import substitution industrialization (also called ISI) is a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a developing country should attempt to substitute products which it imports, mostly finished goods, with locally produced substitutes.
Hence import substitution policies are not favored by advocates of absolute free trade.
Import substitution policies were adopted by most nations in Latin America in the 1930s and 1940s because of the Great Depression of the 1930s.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Import_substitution   (1062 words)

Quite commonly, the import substitution portion of a program or strategy remains implicit or even incidental - that is, import substitution is not acknowledged as an underlying basis for the economic development measure and in some cases may not even be considered as a potential justification.
Import substitution acts to prevent this leakage, essentially plugging up the system so that all the multiplier effects are contained within the region.
The relationship between import substitution and entrepreneurship is two-sided: entrepreneurs often engage in or further the cause of import substitution, whereas the process of import substitution helps make a region more diverse economically, which creates opportunities for and attracts entrepreneurs.
www.planning.unc.edu /courses/261/drucker/theory.html   (992 words)

 Import substitution as sustainable economic development
The import substitution approach substitutes externally produced goods and services, especially basic necessities such as energy, food, and water, with locally produced ones.
The notion of import substitution was popularized in the 1950s and 1960s as a strategy to promote economic independence and development in developing countries (Bruton 1998).
Despite this, in the 1970s, import substitution came into the U.S. consciousness as a means to promote national (Buy American campaigns) and regional development and the debate continues as to its effectiveness (http://www.planning.unc.edu/courses/261/drucker/history.html).
www.umich.edu /~econdev/importsub   (1627 words)

 International Economics Glossary: I
The requirement that imports be authorized by a special agency before entering a country, similar to import licensing.
A measure of the importance of imports in the domestic economy, either by sector or overall, usually defined as the value of imports divided by the value of apparent consumption.
Import protection under the safeguards, AD, and CVD provisions of the GATT require a finding of serious (for safeguards) or material (for AD/CVD) injury (as determined by, in the U.S., the ITC).
www-personal.umich.edu /~alandear/glossary/i.html   (4042 words)

 Korea - Anti-Dumping Duties on Imports of Polyacetal Resins (ADP/92 and Corr.1) /B   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Thus, the concept of import substitution had occupied a central place in the Determination, and the KTC had relied on the concept of "import substitution" to discount the sharp decline in import volumes.
The presumption of "import substitution" used by the KTC had no factual basis in the investigation record and was therefore unsupported by positive evidence.
If the import substitution theory was deemed at all relevant, or potentially relevant, to the outcome of the case, one would certainly expect to have seen it referenced in one of these three documents.
www.sice.oas.org /dispute/gatt/92RESIN2.asp   (6880 words)

 Freight Forwarder - Import Substitution
The import certificate is a means by which the government of the country of ultimate destination exercises legal control over the internal channeling of the commodities covered by the import certificate.
A means of restricting imports by the issuance of licenses to importers, assigning each a quota, after determination of the total amount of any commodity which is to be imported during a period.
Import restriction, applied by a country with an adverse trade balance (or for other reasons), reflect a desire to control the volume of goods coming into the country from other countries.
www.itintl.com /articles/Import_Export_Definitions_12.php   (1449 words)

 Catching Up -- Section 2
Import substitution and export-oriented industrialization are both explored in depth below.
Once import substitution in the consumer durables sector was chosen as the primary development policy it became difficult to reverse the trends toward greater income disparities.
The import substitution model, at least in its Latin American form, also led to extensive foreign ownership in all industrial sectors except those dominated by state enterprise.
online.bcc.ctc.edu /econ100/ksttext/underdev/catchup2.htm   (3134 words)

 Brazil - The Economy - Import-Substitution Industrialization, 1945-64
The postwar period to 1962 was a phase of intense import substitution, especially of consumer goods, with basic industries growing at significant but lower rates.
The 1974 to 1985 phase was highlighted by import substitution of basic inputs and capital goods and by the expansion of manufactured goods exports.
Under the latter, imports considered essential were brought in at a favored rate; imports of goods that could be supplied domestically faced high rates and were allotted small portions of the available foreign exchange.
countrystudies.us /brazil/62.htm   (905 words)

 Import substitution (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab2.cs.umd.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This usually involves government subsidies and high tariff barriers to protect local industries and hence Import substitution policies are not favored by advocates of absolute free trade.
Import substitution policies were adopted by most nations in Latin America in the 1930s and 1940s because of the crash of the New York Stock Exchange of 1929.
As a result of the East Asian experience, Import substitution policies generally became unpopular by the mid-1980s and was largely rejected by the Washington consensus.
import-substitution.iqnaut.net.cob-web.org:8888   (595 words)

 Chapter 3
At the second level, they choose optimal combinations of imported and locally produced commodities, which are imperfect substitutes, so as to minimize their cost of purchasing predetermined amounts of market commodities.
The determination of the domestic (regional) and imported amounts of a fixed total household demand is the same as presented in equations (3.1.16) to (3.1.19).
Similar to intermediate commodity inputs and household commodity demands, imported and regionally produced commodities are imperfect substitutes in meeting the composite commodity demands.
www.rri.wvu.edu /WebBook/Schreiner/chapter3.htm   (7599 words)

 RRojas Databank: The Róbinson Rojas Archive.-Notes on import-substitution strategies for development. By Róbinson ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
EXTERNAL FACTORS The post-war period was characterised by: --asymmetrical expansion of the main industrial economies (mainly Japan, United States, and Germany-France-UK-Italy competing to dominate international trade maximizing profits in Asia, Africa and Latin America) --the upsurge in the internationalization of capital (industrial and financial capital) under the control of transnational corporations.
The effects of this urban bias were shortages of food which added to polarization of income made of social unrest a characteristic of Latin American political life in the 1950s to 1970s.
Latin American societies found themselves able to finance decreasing amounts of imported manufactured goods from the industrial countries;...various measures were taken to conserve and ration decreased foreign exchange resources: 1.- tariffs were raised, 2.- import quotas were enforced, 3.- restrictions on the use of foreign exchange.
www.rrojasdatabank.org /impsub1.htm   (1553 words)

 Funding sought to upgrade technology: Import substitution -DAWN - Business; April 14, 2006
Besides helping in import substitution, the new venture is also aimed at poverty alleviation and job creation which will be considered a step forward towards future industrialisation and enhanced competitiveness of exports.
Imports of production tools like dies, moulds, jigs, fixture, gauges, precision parts, etc., have two different inherent problems — huge foreign exchange costs and longer lead times — which are not affordable for industries in general.
Due to these constraints businessmen are forced to import tools manufactured abroad which causes problems in the form of foreign exchange spending, longer times and some time is rectifying the imported production tool.
www.dawn.com /2006/04/14/ebr3.htm   (788 words)

 Substitution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Substitution is the replacement of one thing with another.
Substitution mutation is synonymous with point mutation in genetics
Substitution (law), a legal right to change a judge that may be biased.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Substitution   (126 words)

 Ford Foundation: Competition in the U.S. Energy Industry - 303
However the import demand for naphtha—a primary refined product most of which is currently converted into gasoline—is expected to grow rapidly to meet petrochemical feedstock and synthetic gas requirements, providing significant opportunities for import substitutions.
The effectiveness of the import substitution under the oil import program of 1973 depends of course on the size of the import fee.
In the absence of effective products import control, such as a sufficiently high fee, import competition may increase, since other countries, too, are reacting to the price rises and the Arab use of oil as a political weapon by reducing consumption and moving towards substitute energy forms.
www.fordfound.org /elibrary/documents/0150/313.cfm   (661 words)

 The Green Resource - FAQs
The short answer is that import substitution is the replacement of goods and services purchased outside a region with goods and services produced within the region.
In this sense, import substitution creates "growth from within," as local businesses receive supply contracts and local residents earn wages and income.
* Import substitution strategies are rarely practiced or considered on their own, rather they normally form a portion or segment of a broader strategy or set of programs.
www.thegreenresource.com /faqs.asp   (392 words)

 WD97: How to Import Font Substitution Functions in Word
If you are not allowed to open the font substitution dialog box, you can still substitute fonts by using Word's Replace command to replace the font name that appears on the formatting ruler with an available font of your choice.
A font from a foreign document that is not available under is displayed as a "Missing Document Font." The "Substituted Font" is the font the converter and Word have chosen to replace the "missing" font for actual display and printing.
If the substituted default is displayed as "Default," look at the bottom of the dialog box for a description of the actual Windows font to which "Default" refers.
support.microsoft.com /default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;Q197007   (961 words)

If approval is granted, they may go through the import substitution formalities at the the local foreign economic relations and trade departments.
However, they can only approve products imports of which have been included in their medium and long-term import plans or the import plan of a given year and the imports are substitutable by the joint venture or cooperative venture products.
The substitution is considered effective for the same period as covered in the import plans under which such substitution is made.
www.novexcn.com /measn_relat_imp_sub_prod_m.html   (1236 words)

 Session 7 Import Substitution-Industrialization (ISI)
There are two different nominal tariff rates, one for the pair of shoes itself (t,) say taxed at 50% and another for the shoe laces, one of the shoes component parts (t1), say taxed at 10%.
So, while the structure of imports shifted, from consumer goods to intermediate and capital goods, the total import bill often stayed about the same or even worsened.
Indeed, oil as a percent of total imports increased from 8.7% in 1960 to 27.4% in 1983 in Latin America.
www.uap.vt.edu /classes/uap4764/session7.htm   (2231 words)

 SSRN-Import Substitution and Growth in Brazil, 1890s-1970s by Marcelo de Paiva Abreu, Afonso Bevilaqua, Demosthenes ...
The paper analyses the origins of import substitution from the early days of the Republic in the 1890s to 1930 and proposes an original explanation to conciliate high protection and a high growth path.
The golden age period of import substitution in Brazil from the 1930s until the early 1960s is then considered.
There is some discussion of the links between foreign exchange regimes and sectoral import substitution as well as the possibility of adoption of alternative policies, given the international context of the late 1940s and 1950s.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=45564   (314 words)

 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Ecuador / Glossary
An economic development strategy that emphasizes the growth of domestic industries, often by import protection using tariff and nontariff measures.
In response, Febres Cordero established a controlled rate for imports and exports and limited movement to within 10 percent of the prevailing official rate of S/250=US$1.
As was the case in the early 1980s, the severely overvalued official currency (the free market rate climbed to S/550=US41 by July 1988) hindered export activity.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/ecuador/ec_glos.html   (694 words)

 SCM: Import substitution subsidies
The second prohibited category comprises subsidies contingent, whether solely or as one of several other conditions, upon the use of domestic over imported goods ("import substitution subsidies").
The prohibition on import substitution does not apply to developing country Members for a period of five years (Article 27.3).
The prohibition on import substitution subsidies does not apply to least-developed country Members for a period of eight years (Article 27.3).
www.wto.org /english/thewto_e/whatis_e/eol/e/wto04/wto4_30.htm   (206 words)

 Upgrading Industrial Competitiveness Crucial to Increase Import-Export Substitution
Hence a successful internal and external trade amount that can be characterized by a significant import-export substitution.
Presenting his paper titled 'The Challenges and Prospects of Export Development in Ethiopia,' Solomon Kebede, Trade Point Director, Ethiopian Export Promotion Agency, said as a result of the heavy reliance of the sector on a few primary commodities, Ethiopia’s export base continues to be narrow and fragile.
Therefore, according to him, Ethiopia currently needs to significantly develop in export sector, which means diversification of products offered for export, improving their quality, ensuring regularity of their supply, and staying competitive in the international market.
www.addistribune.com /Archives/2002/04/26-04-02/Upgrading.htm   (243 words)

 International Trade Reporter Top Story Archive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Washington questioned Beijing on when these new import licensing procedures will be notified to the WTO committee; why qualifying criteria are imposed on enterprises seeking licences and what exactly these qualifications are; whether such qualifications are imposed for imports other than iron ore; and the duration for which new procedures will be maintained.
Washington said this import inspection permit is in addition to other import licences already in place, including a Tariff-Rate Quota import certificate (in the case of TRQ commodities like wheat) and a safety certificate (in the case of certain commodities), and it does not replace inspection at the port.
Washington challenged Beijing's position that AQSIQ's import permits are not import licences, but instead fall under the umbrella of sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
www.bna.com /itr/arch311.htm   (644 words)

 Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Haiti (Dominican Republic and ...
Also known as import-substitution industrialization, an economic development strategy that emphasizes the growth of domestic industries, often by import protection using tariff and nontariff measures.
Also known as free trade zones, or free zones, these industrial parks played host to manufacturing firms that benefited from favorable business conditions extended by a given government in an effort to attract foreign investment and to create jobs.
These enterprises also enjoyed exemptions from Dominican taxes for up to twenty years, and they were allowed to pay workers less than the established minimum wage.
lcweb2.loc.gov /frd/cs/haiti/ht_glos.html   (1296 words)

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