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Topic: Incidence epidemiology

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In the News (Sat 17 Aug 19)

Epidemiology is a powerful means by which science answers important questions, concerning causes of disease, from population information (such as location and rate of increase in disease incidence).
The incidence of a disease is a number equal to the fraction of the population that contracts a given disease during a given period of time.
Incidence is the rate of acquisition of a disease within in a population where prevalence is the fraction of the population which are afflicted.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol2045.htm   (1069 words)

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations (Rothman and Greenland), and the application of this study to control of health problems (Last 2001).
Epidemiology is considered the cornerstone methodology in all of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based clinical medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice.
Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of individuals and populations, and, in this capacity, it serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of the public’s health and preventive medicine.
www.mrsci.com /Epidemiology/Epidemiology.php   (1487 words)

 Book Excerpt - Practical Handbook for Healthcare Epidemiologists, Second Edition
Epidemiology is commonly defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations.
Cumulative incidence is Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE defined as the number of new cases of disease in a particular time period divided by the total number of diseasefree individuals at risk of the disease at the beginning of the time period (eg, the proportion of patients who develop a nosocomial infection during hospitalization).
Because the incidence rate counts time at risk in the denominator, the implicit assumption is that all time at risk is equal (eg, the likelihood developing a nosocomial infection in the first 5 days after hospital admission is the same as the likelihood of developing an infection during days 6 through 10 of hospitalization).
www.slackbooks.com /excerpts/16771/16771.asp   (4883 words)

 Bestselling author Michael Fumento reports: "How to Understand Scientific Studies and Epidemiology."
Epidemiology is a science of association, relying on statistics plus knowledge of how illnesses or accidents come about (which is known as etiology).
Epidemiology is based on observation, and is thus in contrast with laboratory studies, which develop hard cause-and-effect relationships from experimental evidence.
Thus, epidemiology can be a crude tool, although when it does work its results are far more reliable than those of studies in test tubes and on lab animals, because those factors that cause certain effects in the laboratory or in a rodent or dog will not necessarily produce the same effects in a human.
www.fumento.com /tenet.html   (4097 words)

 Themes : Epidemiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why.
Scientific Epidemiology was born when John Snow through systematic documentation of data, identified drinking polluted water from one water pump as the cause of a cholera outbreak in London and terminated the epidemic by blocking water use from that particular water pump (1854).
Incidence studies in HIV are complex to conduct.
www.youandaids.org /Themes/Epidemiology.asp   (2512 words)

 RedOrbit - Health - Epidemiology of Tuberculosis : Current Status in India   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
In fact incidence of infection as studied in younger age groups is the appropriate index to measure the tuberculosis situation in a community.
Distribution of prevalence and incidence by gender: The prevalence of disease by sex and age in the BCG trial area in Chingleput- is depicted in Fig.1.
Incidence of cases: (i) There was a steady decline in the incidence of C+ cases (at 4.3% per annum) from 352/100,000 between the first two surveys (1968, 1971) to 189 between the last two (1981, 1984).
www.redorbit.com /news/display?id=105723   (9542 words)

 Incidence (epidemiology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The incidence of disease is defined as the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population during a defined time interval.
The incidence rate is defined as the incidence divided by the sum of the different times each individual was at risk of the disease.
To illustrate, a disease with a long duration that was spread widely in a community in 2002 will have a high prevalence in 2003 (remembering that it has a long duration) but it might have a low incidence rate in 2003.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Incidence_(epidemiology)   (296 words)

 Department of Epidemiology - courses
Topics include relating prevalence and incidence, analysis of clustering and seasonality; measures of effect, sources of bias, regression to the mean, estimation and hypothesis testing in epidemiology; models for risk and rates; cohort analysis.
Basic concepts in emerging field of genetic epidemiology, with principal focus on genetic study of complex diseases, determining genetic contributions to disease, identifying genes, and characterizing their main effects and interactions with environmental factors.
Introduction to epidemiology methods applied to evaluation of human health consequences of occupational and environmental hazards, including study design, exposure assessment, and statistical techniques commonly encountered in research focused on assessing adverse health effects resulting from occupational and environmental exposures.
www.ph.ucla.edu /epi/courses.html   (2689 words)

Epidemiology is the study of diseases in populations of humans or other animals, specifically how, when and where they occur.
The science of epidemiology was first developed to discover and understand possible causes of contagious diseases like smallpox, typhoid and polio among humans.
Epidemiology relies heavily on statistics for establishing and quantifying the relationships between risk factors and disease, and for establishing whether or not there is an excessive amount of a particular disease occurring in a specific geographic area.
pmep.cce.cornell.edu /profiles/extoxnet/TIB/epidemiology.html   (1635 words)

 eMedicine - Childhood Cancer, Epidemiology : Article by Gary M Kupfer, MD
As a result of this diversity and the low incidence of childhood cancers, the ability of epidemiologists to ascribe causes to specific childhood cancers is extremely limited.
Epidemiology has enabled researchers to evaluate sparse data to demonstrate the effects of cancer genetics, define family pedigrees and penetrance, and identify subsets of certain cancers and their implications for treatment and prognosis.
Ataxia telangiectasia is a radiation hypersensitivity syndrome that comprises a constellation of ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, and increased incidence of lymphoid malignancies.
www.emedicine.com /ped/topic2585.htm   (5270 words)

 Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1985-1989.
The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures was therefore directly assessed in the predominantly white (European descent) population of Rochester, Minnesota.
Incidence rates for fractures following moderate trauma were higher in women than in men and rose steeply with age in both genders.
www.kyphon.com /professionals/abstract2.cfm   (249 words)

 Breast cancer epidemiology - Incidence & mortality
The incidence increased rapidly in the 1980s, associated with increased use of mammography, and the incidence increased more gradually in the 1990s (ACS, 2004f; ACS, 2005).
The increase since 1990 is mainly in women 50 and older, consistent with the two primary risk factors for breast cancer: increasing age and female gender.
The increased incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, a non-invasive lesion in the duct system considered by some to be a pre-cancer) is directly associated with the increased use of mammography and the detection of lesions before they can be felt (Jemal et al., 2005).
www.son.wisc.edu /ce/programs/asynch/bccd/BrCa1/1-1-incidence.htm   (612 words)

 Annual incidence of inflammatory joint diseases in a population based study in southern Sweden -- Söderlin et al. ...
000 for postvenereal ReA and an incidence of 5–14/100
The incidence of undifferentiated arthritis was 41/100 000 in
Incidence and prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the county of Troms, northern Norway.
ard.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/full/61/10/911   (4114 words)

 Bias in retrospective studies of trends in asthma incidence -- Brogger et al. 23 (2): 281 -- European Respiratory ...
Declining incidence of episodes of asthma: a study of trends in new episodes presenting to general practitioners in the period 1989–98.
Incidence rate of adult-onset asthma in relation to age, sex, atopy and smoking: a Swedish population-based study of 15813 adults.
Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort.
erj.ersjournals.com /cgi/content/full/23/2/281   (3199 words)

 Epidemiology of TBI
The average TBI incidence rate (combined hospitalization and mortality rate) is 95 per 100,000 population.
The incidence, cause and secular trends in head injury in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1935-1974.
The incidence of acute brain injury and serious impairment in a defined population.
www.neuroskills.com /tbi/epidemiology.shtml   (1440 words)

 Incidence and Epidemiology
The age-adjusted incidence in the USA is 69 per 100,000.
The incidence of latent cancer is even higher, increasing from 20% in men in their 50’s to 70% by the time they reach there 70’s.
The increased incidence may be artifactual, due to more aggressive diagnosis and screening procedures in an ageing population.
www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk /studentwebs/session1/group41b/incidenc.htm   (412 words)

 Farley R. Cleghorn Research Interests - IHV   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
HIV-1 incidence measures the instantaneous risk of infection for an individual in a given population and is the best measure of current force in the epidemic, ultimately determining HIV-1 prevalence and AIDS incidence.
We have shown that incidence rates calculated using the original S/LS assay approach are over-estimated by 10-20%, based largely on the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the assay, reflecting the smoothing methods employed in the modeling approach used to fit the distributions of standardized optical density (SOD) values since time of seroconversion.
These can be mathematically taken into account through confidence interval estimation when deriving population estimates of HIV incidence, or engineered out by modifying the performance parameters of the assay if individual cases of HIV infection are to be accurately designated as recent infection for the purposes of therapeutic, pathogenesis or virologic studies.
www.ihv.org /bios/cleghorn_research.html   (1383 words)

 Autism Incidence Statistics & Epidemiology
The cruel reality is that the last published incidence of autism in the UK of 1 in 324 (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 39, p 694), was just amended this week to 1 in 166, according to a Medical Research Council (MRC) report commissioned by the Department of Health.
A Finnish study looking at the incidence of autism in the northern provinces, revealed a fourfold increase between 1979 and 1994 with a present incidence rate of 1 in 483 among 5 to 7-year-olds (European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, volume 9, p 162).
If the average incidence of new cases of autism in the remaining 49 states averages only 1/8th of the California rate-- a very conservative estimate, indeed-- we should expect that approximately 4000 new cases of autism have been diagnosed nationwide in the last 3 months.
www.vaccinationnews.com /dailynews/november2002/autismincidence6.htm   (7869 words)

 Combination antiretroviral therapy and incidence of AIDS-related malignancies.
We evaluated recent trends in the incidence of AIDS-related malignancies using Cox proportional hazards analysis in 622 men with well-characterized dates of HIV seroconversion in the San Francisco City Clinic cohort.
The incidence of KS dropped from 3.5 to 0 per 100 person-years between 1993 through 1995 and 1996 (p =.07), whereas lymphoma incidence remained stable between these periods (1.4-1.8, p =.2).
The decline in KS cannot be explained by earlier declines in HIV incidence, and concurrent increases in antiretroviral therapy suggests that control of viral replication may lead to a direct or indirect effect on KS pathogenesis.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1999/oct/A99A0171.html   (437 words)

 UpToDate Epidemiology and clinical features of basal cell carcinoma
The incidence of BCC increases with age; persons aged 55 to 75 have about a 100-fold higher incidence of BCC than those younger than 20 [7].
As an example, an 80 percent rise in the incidence of BCC was noted in New Hampshire from 1979 to 1994 [8].
However, athough increasing logevity may underlie some of the increasing incidence of BCC, the incidence of BCC among Americans younger than 40 may be increasing, particularly among women [9].
patients.uptodate.com /topic.asp?file=skin_can/6318   (529 words)

 UpToDate Epidemiology and etiologic associations of primary hepatocellular carcinoma
However, the incidence in the United States has increased during the past two decades, possibly due to a large pool of people with longstanding chronic hepatitis C [6,7].
This was illustrated in a population based study, in which the incidence of histologically proven HCC between 1996 to 1998 was compared to the incidence between 1975 to 1977 [6].
Although not fully understood, these differences in sex distribution are thought to be due to variations in hepatitis carrier states, exposure to environmental toxins, and the trophic effect of androgens [4].
patients.uptodate.com /topic.asp?file=hep_dis/21569   (628 words)

 Brain Cancer Incidence in Children: Time to Look Beyond the Trends Medical and Pediatric Oncology 33:110-112 1999 James ...
Their results showed that incidence rates of childhood brain cancer varied little from 1973-1984, a jump in rates occurred in 1984-1985, and a new baseline rate was established after 1985 that remained essentially stable through 1994.
[15] lends strong support to the contention that recent increases of childhood brain cancer incidence rates in the U.S. are due, at least to a large extent, to improved detection and reporting coincident with the advent of MRI in the mid-1980s.
Cushman J. reshaping cancer strategy as incidence in children rises: increase may be tied to new chemicals in the environment.
www.mindfully.org /Health/Brain-Cancer-Incidence-Children.htm   (1544 words)

 How to Understand Scientific Studies and Epidemiology [Free Republic]
I can't vouch for whether there was underlying fault on the companies part or not, but it looked like a situation where emotion had as much to do with the outcome as cause-and-effect.
Some artist (self-styled activist) took the five years with the highest incidence of brain cancer than asked why the number of cancers was larger than the national average.
Really, if an epidemiology study is tilting to such a degree that it's visible to a journalist, I would wonder how it could be funded or published at all.
www.freerepublic.com /forum/a3a6619401b95.htm   (7065 words)

 The incidence of herpes zoster.
Although a relatively common cause of morbidity, especially among the elderly, contemporary estimates of herpes zoster incidence are lacking.
RESULTS: The overall incidence, based on 1075 cases in 500,408 person-years, was 215 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 192 to 240 per 100,000) and did not vary by gender.
Immunosuppressive conditions had little impact on overall incidence, although they were strongly associated with early recurrences.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1995/oct/m95a0125.html   (503 words)

 WHO | Epilepsy: aetiogy, epidemiology and prognosis
The incidence of a disorder is the number of new cases at a given time.
One of the main reasons for the higher incidence of epilepsy in developing countries is the higher risk of experiencing a condition which can lead to permanent brain damage.
For example, a common cause in Latin America is neurocysticercosis cysts on the brain caused by tapeworm infection, while in Africa, malaria and meningitis are common causes, and in India neurocysticercosis and tuberculosis often lead to epilepsy.
www.who.int /mediacentre/factsheets/fs165/en   (1361 words)

 Epidemiology | CDC Rabies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and causes of disease in populations.
Epidemiologists study how many people or animals have a disease, the outcome of the disease (recovery, death, disability, etc.), and the factors that influence the distribution and outcome of the disease.
The epidemiology of rabies addresses several questions: what animals have rabies and in what regions of the country, how many people get rabies and from what animals, and what are the best strategies for preventing rabies in people and animals.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dvrd/rabies/Epidemiology/Epidemiology.htm   (659 words)

 Incidence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Incidence algebras are associative algebras used in combinatorics, a branch of mathematics.
Some axioms of synthetic geometry deal with a relation called incidence; see incidence (geometry).
In epidemiology, there is another concept called incidence; see incidence (epidemiology).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Incidence   (100 words)

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