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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  
  Ray (optics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The angle between this ray and the perpendicular or normal to the surface is the angle of incidence.
The reflected ray corresponding to a given incident ray, is the ray that represents the light reflected by the surface.
A sagittal ray or transverse ray is a skew ray that intersects the pupil at y
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ray_(optics)   (662 words)

  
 Optics - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
If a ray is incident obliquely, then a ray entering a medium with a higher refractive index is bent toward the normal, and a ray entering a medium of lower refractive index is deviated away from the normal.
5, the angle CBD between the path of the incident ray and the path of the emergent ray is the angle of deviation.
A concave lens surface will deviate incident rays parallel to the axis away from the axis, so that even if the second surface of the lens is convex, the rays diverge and only appear to come to a focus on the same side of the lens as the object.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761576625_2/Optics.html   (1570 words)

  
 Lab 5.1.1
Incident Angle or Angle of Incidence - the angle between the incident ray and a normal.
A ray that passes through a surface to a less dense medium, (such as from glass to air), is refracted away from the normal line.
Is the emergent ray parallel to the incident ray and its extension?
www.usd.edu /phys/labs/Optics/5_1_1/5_1_1c.html   (883 words)

  
 X-ray Lab Template
The length of the area on the sample that is irradiated by the incident beam is dependent on the divergence of the x-ray beam and the position of the sample with respect to the beam.
Beam masks are fitted in the incident beam path to control the axial width of the incident beam, defining the amount (width) of the sample that is irradiated by the incident x-ray beam.
The total width of the area on the sample irradiated by the incident beam is dependent on the size of the x-ray beam and the position of the sample with respect to the beam.
www.stanford.edu /group/glam/xlab/XPert1/IncBeam.htm   (706 words)

  
 Problem Set - Geometric Optics - Physics 108
A ray of light is incident normally on one face of a triangular prism of glass as shown in Fig.
Rays parallel to the principal axis of a converging lens and concave mirror pass through the lens and are reflected by the mirror, which is to the right of the lens.
The incident light is incident from the left of the lens.
www.wellesley.edu /Physics/phyllisflemingphysics/108_p_geooptics.html   (1351 words)

  
 X Ray - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
In the interaction between matter and X rays, three mechanisms exist by which X rays are absorbed; all three mechanisms demonstrate the quantum nature of X radiation.
When a high-energy photon collides with a stationary electron, both particles may be deflected at an angle to the direction of the path of the incident X ray.
The incident photon, having delivered some of its energy to the electron, emerges from the impact with a lower frequency and a correspondingly longer wavelength.
encarta.msn.com /text_761579196___8/X_Ray.html   (355 words)

  
 The Physics Classroom
Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis on the way to the mirror will pass through the focal point upon reflection.
In this diagram five incident rays are drawn along with their corresponding reflected rays.
A ray diagram for the case in which the object is located in front of the focal point is shown in the diagram at the right.
www.physicsclassroom.com /Class/refln/U13L3d.html   (1908 words)

  
 Thick Lens Ray Tracing
One plane is constructed with the light rays incident on the convex surface of the lens first; the second plane is constructed with the light rays incident on the concave surface first.
The incident ray that is parallel to the axis is drawn to the primary principal plane, is dotted parallel to the axis to the second principal plane, and then is refracted through the second focal point.
The incident ray that goes through the primary focal point is drawn to the primary principal plane, is dotted parallel to the axis to the second principal plane, and then emerges parallel to the axis.
www.nfos.org /degree/opt12/Geometric_Optics_files/thick_lens_ray_tracing.html   (777 words)

  
 Real Image Formation with a Concave Spherical Mirror
We are going to have an incident ray that has a y-coordinate of 5 and passing through a succession of x-coordinates, and we will have a normal (radial) line that passes through the set of x and y coordinates designated as xN and yN.
Thus, the angle between the incident and reflected rays is twice the angle between the normal and the incident ray.
Since the incident rays are originating from a point along the line x = 0, and since the center of curvature is located at x = 0, we know that the reflected rays forming the image should "ideally" converge at x = 0, to form an "upside down" image directly beneath the object.
www.mathcad.com /Library/LibraryContent/MathML/spherical_mirror.htm   (1511 words)

  
 cpphysicsnotes.htm
Law of Reflection: When a light ray is incident upon a reflecting surface, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.
where n1 is the index of refraction of the incident medium, n2 is the index of refraction of the refractive medium, q1 is the angle of incidence, and q2 is the angle of refraction.
A ray incident upon the lens parallel to the principal axis passes through the focus; convex lenses use the focus on the opposite side of the lens and concave lenses use the focus on the same side of the lens.
www.msu.edu /~glasova2/cpphysicsnotes.htm.htm   (1467 words)

  
 Converging Lenses - Ray Diagrams
Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis of a converging lens will refract through the lens and travel through the focal point on the opposite side of the lens.
An incident ray which passes through the center of the lens will in effect continue in the same direction that it had when it entered the lens.
Thus far we have seen via ray diagrams that a real image is produced when an object is located more than one focal length from a converging lens; and a virtual image is formed when an object is located less than one focal length from a converging lens (i.e., in front of F).
www.glenbrook.k12.il.us /gbssci/phys/Class/refrn/u14l5da.html   (1879 words)

  
 The Physics Classroom
Any incident ray traveling parallel to the principal axis of a diverging lens will refract through the lens and travel in line with the focal point (i.e., in a direction such that its extension will pass through the focal point).
Ray diagrams for double convex lenses were drawn in a previous part of Lesson 5.
Once these incident rays strike the lens, refract them according to the three rules of refraction for double concave lenses.
www.physicsclassroom.com /Class/refrn/U14L5ea.html   (1026 words)

  
 Refractive index
The incident ray is the ray approaching the boundary.
The incident and refracted rays are on opposite sides of the normal at the point of incidence.
The incident ray, the normal, and the refracted ray are coplanar.
www.fisk.edu /~aburger/Published03_06/Introduction/Optical/Refractive_index/refractive_index.html   (276 words)

  
 SparkNotes: Geometric Optics: Glossary for Geometric Optics
Moreover, the incident and reflected rays, as well as the normal to the surface, all lie in the same plane.
The amount of refraction is determined by the ratio is the speed of lights in the two media, and the angle of the incident ray as given by Snell's Law.
Rays do not correspond to anything physical, but are mathematical constructs useful for visualizing the progress of waves.
www.sparknotes.com /physics/optics/geom/terms.html   (1265 words)

  
 Reflection and Mirrors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
When a light ray is incident upon a reflecting surface, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.
A ray incident on the mirror that is parallel to the principal axis is reflected in a line even with the focus (extend the reflected ray behind the mirror so that it passes through the focus).
A ray incident on the mirror that passes through the focus is reflected parallel to the principal axis (extend the reflected ray behind the mirror parallel to the principal axis).
www.ship.edu /~sagoul/reflection_and_mirrors.htm   (1410 words)

  
 Simple model of pileup for a quasi-monochromatic incident spectrum
This model of a quasi-monochromatic beam is a good representation of the x-ray sources used in the ACIS quantum efficiency calibration.
Although for any CCD exposure the time history of event interactions is unknown, for the purposes of analysis we can picture the x-rays incident in one exposure as striking the CCD serially.
The probability for an incident x-ray to land on a previous good x-ray event is A
www.astro.psu.edu /xray/docs/cal_report/node62.html   (763 words)

  
 Monitoring the Solidification of Single-Crystal Castings Using High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction
The liquid portion of the specimen was assumed to attenuate the incident and diffracted x-ray beams.
An x-ray imager detects the x-ray pattern incident on its two-dimensionally sensitive area; an energy-sensitive detector may be used in place of the imager to measure the spectra of the primary and diffracted x-rays.
Less of the incident and diffracted x-ray beams are attenuated in the ports, yielding a higher diffraction spot brightness.
www.tms.org /pubs/journals/JOM/9907/Fitting/Fitting-9907.html   (6736 words)

  
 Light Refraction
The ray of light which travels through the incident, or first, medium and strikes the boundary, or interface, is called the incident ray.
The angle between the incident ray and the normal is called the angle of incidence, or the incident angle.
The angle between the refracted ray and the normal is called the angle of refraction, or the refracted angle.
id.mind.net /~zona/mstm/physics/light/rayOptics/refraction/refraction1.html   (603 words)

  
 Laws of Reflection
(Rays are theoretical constructs.) The incident ray is defined as a ray approaching a surface.
The reflected ray is the portion of the incident ray that leaves the surface at the point of incidence.
The angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the normal.
library.thinkquest.org /27948/reflect.html   (224 words)

  
 Terrestrial cosmic ray intensities
Particle detectors in satellites have determined that the primary low-energy cosmic ray particles consist of 92% protons and 6% alpha particles, with the remainder being heavy nuclei (Figure 2).
The proton + pion relative portion of the cosmic ray nucleon flux increases with altitude, and the muon-capture portion decreases.
Cosmic rays are charged particles which interact with the geomagnetic field so that their trajectory is constantly curving; see Figure 9.
www.research.ibm.com /journal/rd/421/ziegler.html   (7636 words)

  
 Untitled Document
Thus, the total number of incident rays is given by R=W*X*Y*A*D, where W is the number of wavelength steps, X is the number of steps in the x direction and so forth.
If the incident ray has a wavelength that is less than the smallest entry, the intensity of the smallest wavelength value will be used.
Note that once a ray has been divided by this process, it is not subdivided further by this process, but instead is propagated for a random distance, determined using a stochastic equivalent of a turbid medium.
www.pv.unsw.edu.au /links/RaySim6/BuildBatch.htm   (1340 words)

  
 Light Reflection
The ray of light which strikes the surface is called the incident ray.
The angle between the reflected ray and the normal is called the angle of reflection, or the reflected angle.
The reflection of light is often discussed using phrases such as "a ray of light bounces off of a mirror." This is because when a light ray reflects at the surface of a mirror it follows a path similar in behavior to a pool ball bouncing off of a cushion on a pool table.
id.mind.net /~zona/mstm/physics/light/rayOptics/reflection/reflection1.html   (354 words)

  
 Classical X-ray scattering.
If the incident X-ray energy is much greater than the binding energies of electronic states within the atom then the electrons may be considered to be free and Thompson scattering holds.
For the majority of cases the two assumptions that the electrons are free and that their charge distributions are spherical have been found to be adequate for the purposes of crystallographic investigation on structures containing atoms of low atomic number.
The largest deviations from the Thompson scattering approximation occur when the incident X-ray energy is close to the binding energies of electrons within the atoms of the structure, i.e at energies around the X-ray absorption edges of the atom.
www.gwyndafevans.co.uk /thesis-html/node11.html   (533 words)

  
 2 High Energy X-ray Source - HEXS
Using the approach by Pella, et al,[9] a theoretical to experimental comparison of the x-ray spectra emerging from the molybdenum x-ray tube and incident on a target material is shown in Fig.
Once the incident spectrum on a target material is known, it is possible to calculate the outgoing flux of fluorescent K
are the respective incident and takeoff angles for the photons with respect to the surface,
acis.mit.edu /acis/spie96/sej_calpaper/node2.html   (1701 words)

  
 X ray diffraction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
It is simple to show that the intensity the electromagnetic waves diffracted from a crystal depends on the wavelength, on the relative direction of the incident and scattered beam, and on the orientation of the crystal.
rays to determine the spacing of the diffraction planes.
is the angle between the incident beam and the lattice planes.
solidstate.physics.sunysb.edu /teach/phy515/xray   (4065 words)

  
 [No title]
The incident ray is represented by an arrow that forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs are a portion of the photovoltaic cell and a line segment perpendicular to the photovoltaic cell.
Answer: The incident ray multiplied by the sine of the angle between the incident ray and the photovoltaic cell is the horizontal line perpendicular to the photovoltaic cell.
It represents the vector component of the incident ray that is perpendicular to, or directly incident upon, the photovoltaic cell.
www.powernaturally.org /Programs/pdfs_docs/26_PVangleOrienting.doc   (2151 words)

  
 CHP - X-ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Detection of gamma rays is necessary for characterization of radioactive samples and in elemental analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA).
The output of the detector can therefore be analyzed based on pulse height to obtain a spectrum of the incident radiation.
When high-energy rays or particles that pass into the detector collide with a gas atom, they ionize the atom to create a photoelectron.
www.chem.vt.edu /chem-ed/optics/detector/xray.html   (470 words)

  
 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Roentgen concluded that a form of penetrating radiation was being emitted by the cathode ray tube and called the unknown rays, x-rays.
The energy of the x-ray photon is dependent on the angle of deflection of the incident electron and the amount of kinetic energy converted to x-rays.
The amount of energy lost to the electron is dependent on the energy of the incident photon and the type of material through which it travels.
www.runet.edu /~fac-man/Safety/Xray/chp2.htm   (1268 words)

  
 Omni - Matrix Effects
Incident and takeoff angles of x-rays penetrating and fluoresced from a sample.
Io(E) Intensity of incident radiation at energy E. ti(E) Mass photoabsorption coefficient of element i at incident energy E. ti(Ei) Mass photoabsorption coefficient of element i at energy Ei of characteristic line energy of element i.
Equation 5.4 requires a knowledge of all elements contained in the specimen, the values of the total mass absorption and mass photoabsorption coefficients of each of these elements, and the step ratios of the mass photoabsorption coefficients at the absorption edges of the measured characteristic lines.
www.omniinstruments.com /matrix.html   (2270 words)

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