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Topic: Incomes policy

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 [No title]
Income inequality, measured by the Gini Coefficient increased from 0.48 in 1992 to 0.60 in 1999.
In 1999, whereas the average annual per capita income of urban areas increased (in nominal terms) to ¢692 000 (an increase of 420 percent) the corresponding figure for the rural areas was ¢469 000 (an increase of 369 percent).
Although neoclassical economic theory sees income inequality as a normal feature of economic development, Fielding (2000) emphasized that “effective development policy in any country requires an understanding both of the impact of inequality on income and of income on inequality” and that “…these relationships are particularly relevant to the causes of low income in Africa”.
www.globalpolicynetwork.org /data/ghana/ghana-analysis.doc   (8230 words)

It was the concept of parity income defined as income necessary to maintain the ratio between the purchasing power of the net income per person on farms and that of the income of persons not on farms that prevailed during the five year period August 1909 to July 1914.
Between 1981 and 1984, relative incomes of farm population were near parity, that is, the relation between incomes of farmers and non-farmers was almost equal to one.
The relation of income for consumption in a farm household to that of a full-time employee in a non-farm household was 90 percent in 1981.
www.fao.org /DOCREP/W7440E/w7440e06.htm   (9221 words)

 Cliff/Barker: Incomes policy, legislation and shop stewards (Chap.9)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Incomes policy is a capitalist measure, directed against the working class under the conditions of modern capitalism.
We therefore turned to a consideration of the ways in which a fight against the incomes policy could be most successfully developed, while at the same time moves towards strengthening the labour movement could be made.
Their incomes policy and their legislation against unofficial strikes, their deflationary budgets and their cutting back of welfare services affect all workers, and not only as Midlands engineers or London railwaymen, but as members of the working class.
www.marxists.org /archive/cliff/works/1966/incomespol/9-ahead.htm   (5828 words)

 Macroeconomic Stabilization Policies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Incomes policy is microeconomic policy when the government rearranges income shares so that a particular segment of society benefits at the expense of another segment.
Fiscal policy is monetary policy and monetary policy is fiscal policy.
Policy is a system of rules and regulations decision makers establish for the administration of a government or institution to achieve some end.
www.drfurfero.com /books/p231book/ch02.html   (6386 words)

 Incomes Policy - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Incomes Policy, government policy to restrain increase in wages with the aim of controlling inflation.
Prices and Incomes Policy, government policy to restrain increases in prices and wages, usually with the aim of controlling inflation.
Incomes policy alone as a way to abate inflation caused by excessive money supply is like trying to stop water coming out of a leaky hose without...
uk.encarta.msn.com /Incomes_Policy.html   (132 words)

 Lone Parent Incomes & Social Policy
The objectives of Hunsley’s research were to compare the outcomes of policies to reduce child and family poverty in Canada with the policies in nine other OECD countries and evaluate the effectiveness of Canadian policies in helping low-income lone parent families.
Using a wide range of sources, including the Luxembourg Income Study database, European Union and Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development data, he demonstrates that lone parent income is less that half that of similar two parent families in Canada, compared to 70 to 85 per cent in Sweden, France and Germany.
Policy does not encourage lone parents to work part-time and the incentive for full-time work is weak unless they can earn income well above the average for women.
www.ualberta.ca /~cjscopy/reviews/loneparent.html   (866 words)

 Incomes policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Such policies were widely used in the 1960s and 1970s as a method of fighting stagflation.
Some economists argue that incomes policies are less expensive (more efficient) than recessions as a way of fighting inflation, at least for mild inflation.
The policy has the best chance of being credible and effective for those sectors of the economy dominated by monopolies or oligopolies, particularly nationalised industry, with a significant sector of workers organized in labor unions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Incomes_policies   (471 words)

An incomes policy is a strategy to contain pay increases in line with pre-determined criteria, usually related to the needs of macro-economic management.
The term is often used to describe government strategy, but it is also possible to have voluntary incomes policies agreed by the social partners.
Where incomes policies have been imposed by Government they have tended not to be very successful.
www.eurofound.eu.int /emire/IRELAND/INCOMESPOLICY-IR.html   (233 words)

 February 1996, pages 27-32
Some have contended that the incomes policy was necessary to break the cycle of increasing inflation resulting from the practice of indexing wages and prices to past inflation.
The incomes policy was the most hotly debated during the first few months of the Pacto, when prices and wages were adjusted on a monthly basis according to changes in expected inflation.
So far, the policies that have been adopted since the crisis began have favored greater economic liberalization and long-run macroeconomic stability, but their credibility over time will be determined by their consistency with other objectives and the strength of the constituency groups that favor such policies.
www.nacm.org /bcmag/bcarchives/1996/articles1996/feb/feb96art7.html   (3764 words)

 NAIRU - incomes policy and inflation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
This paper analyses this experience: it looks at the evidence of changes in the bargaining structure stemming from the incomes policies agreements, discusses their possible long run impact in terms of NAIRU and features of the inflationary process, presents a quantitative assessment of the specific contribution of those agreements to the inflation outcome.
The empirical results show that the incomes policy agreements were conducive to a period of wage moderation: the absence of the incomes policy would have pushed-up consumer price inflation by 2-3 percentage points in 1996.
Trying to obtain the same disinflation path without wage moderation would have asked for an even more restrictive monetary policy, whose adverse impact on nominal GDP growth and public debt interest payments would have jeopardised the consolidation of public finances, putting at risk the credibility of (and the actual chance to reach) those inflation targets.
www.oecd.org /LongAbstract/0,2546,en_2649_34569_1864286_1_1_1_37427,00.html   (301 words)

 Issue Brief No. 92   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The main question for federal policy makers is whether rural physician incomes are sufficiently high to attract and retain enough physicians to provide the population with adequate access to medical care—especially in the case of Medicare.
The average income of physicians in nonadjacent rural counties was highest—$242,000—while those in rural counties adjacent to metropolitan areas averaged $217,000, although the difference between adjacent/nonadjacent counties was not statistically significant.
For income comparisons, we excluded those who began practice in the previous year and a small number of physicians who reported no income or extremely high incomes from their medical practice (more than $1 million a year).
www.hschange.org /CONTENT/725   (2317 words)

 Economics 504   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Supply-side policies increase the growth rate of aggregate supply, thereby reducing the rate of inflation.
Incomes policy is a governmental action, other than fiscal and monetary policy, aimed at influencing or controlling the rate of increase in prices, wages, and other forms of income.
The use of incomes policy is based on the view that inflation is caused by the exercise of monopoly power by labor unions and firms.
www.nd.edu /~cwilber/econ504/504book/outln13f.html   (206 words)

 Cooperation on incomes policy agreed prior to 2003 settlement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
In January 2003, the government’s contact committee on incomes policy issued a statement concerning the forthcoming 2003 wage bargaining round.
Discussion over Norwegian incomes policy is also centred around which parts of the 'exposed' sector should be allowed to establish the 'trend-setting' framework for the rest of the economy.
Although the tensions between trade unions will most probably not lead to significant controversies during the 2003 wage negotiations, it remains to be seen whether or not the incomes policy compromise will stand the test of the 2004 wage settlement.
www.eiro.eurofound.ie /2003/02/Feature/NO0302105F.html   (1465 words)

 TIME.com: A High-Level Call for Guidelines -- Dec. 7, 1970 -- Page 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
INCOMES policy" has been the ghost haunting the Nixon Administration's economic debates.
Few of these advocates have specified what form an incomes policy should take or how tough it should be.
Last week this debate finally took a needed turn toward clarity with a detailed proposal for a relatively hardline incomes policy issued by the Research and Policy Committee of the Council for Economic Development, a group of corporate chieftains and economists.
www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,877165,00.html   (740 words)

 ABCD Policy Synthesis: Assisted Living in Subsidized Housing
Some policy makers and advocates are concerned that assisted living facilities are congregate living for the elderly and others with disabilities, similar to nursing homes.
Questions related to congregate living and the ability of lower income individuals to afford assisted living are pressing analysts to examine innovative models of service delivery to allow and individual to “age in place” in their own homes.
The State is also attempting to develop state funding for assisted living residents with low income who are not eligible for Medicaid.
www.shanj.org /Resources/abcdpolicy.htm   (868 words)

 Paperiliitto (via CobWeb/3.1 planetlab3.cs.columbia.edu)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
This kind of worsening is not included in the incomes policy settlement accepted almost by all the other branches and employers in Finland.
However, the sum of the wages of all 900 cleaning women in the Paper Industry is the same as the income sum of the 18 managers in the Forest Industry.
If this is their real purpose, the employer may continue the lockout yet several weeks saying no to incomes policy.
www.paperiliitto.fi.cob-web.org:8888 /paperiliitto/english/050605.php   (593 words)

 Unemployment: A Problem of Policy - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Innovation and structural changes have a powerful influence on the pattern and volume of employment, and particular attention is paid to the effects of information technology, to the persistence of regional disparities in unemployment, and to changing patterns in the provision of jobs.
Both theories are explored, and detailed attention is paid to policy prescriptions, including wage subsidies, profit sharing and incomes policy.
Taking a preliminary assumption of a close economy, the conclusion is reached that demand management remains effective, and that it was rather a change in the objectives of policy than any ineffectiveness of demand management which kept unemployment high in the 1980s.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?ISBN=0521400341   (382 words)

 ACTU: Superannuation: Policy & Resources: Future Of Work — Superannuation & Retirement Incomes Policy. ACTU Congress ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
(b) the development of superannuation to the point where, together with the age pension, it delivers workers a retirement income equating to at least two thirds of their gross pre-retirement income.
Congress is concerned at clear evidence that the 9% SG is insufficient to fund an adequate retirement income for average workers.
Congress also notes the particularly poor retirement income prospects of workers who have not had access to superannuation for the whole of their working lives, together with women, casuals and part-time workers.
www.actu.asn.au /super/policy/actu_congress.html   (697 words)

 Cliff/Barker: Incomes policy, legislation and shop stewards (Chap.8)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Clearly, to be operable, such a policy cannot have hanging over it the threat of a strike by a dissatisfied union.
However much the trade union “leaders” may support the idea of an incomes policy, they cannot entirely ignore the pressure for higher wages from their own members, and under a voluntary system the government can’t rely on the union leaders to toe the line all the time.
And it is equally clear that if it is to be effective it must lead inevitably to the further joining together of the forces of the trade union bureaucracies and the state on the side of the employers.
www.marxists.org /archive/cliff/works/1966/incomespol/8-legis.htm   (3927 words)

 WTO | 10 benefits - 6. Incomes
The WTO’s own estimates for the impact of the 1994 Uruguay Round trade deal were between $109 billion and $510 billion added to world income (depending on the assumptions of the calculations and allowing for margins of error).
In Europe, the EU Commission calculates that over 1989—93 EU incomes increased by 1.1—1.5% more than they would have done without the Single Market.
But the fact that there is additional income means that resources are available for governments to redistribute the benefits from those who gain the most — for example to help companies and workers adapt by becoming more productive and competitive in what they were already doing, or by switching to new activities.
www.wto.org /english/thewto_e/whatis_e/10ben_e/10b06_e.htm   (208 words)

 Talk:Incomes policy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
With the current raised interest in price controls in the US (Hawaii recently implemented them, as if Sept 6, 2005 there's a bill in the California legistlature to institute them) I'd be very interested to see more information on the history of price controls in the US, which were most recently popular in the 1970s.
I cannot possibly see incomes policy ever becoming a tool of government policy in the developed world any more.
Secondly, this article certainly needs more work and factual information about the history of incomes policies and the theories about their adverse effects is very welcome.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Incomes_policy   (199 words)

 CEPR Discussion Paper Abstracts
The paper presents a non-technical survey of some of the issues involved in the design of stabilization policy in developing countries with special emphasis on policy responses to external shocks.
The paper then reviews the macroeconomic policy arsenal and the demand and supply effects of the various policy instruments (monetary and credit policy, the entire array of fiscal instruments, exchange rate policy, the use of exchange and capital controls and incomes policy).
Finally, there is a discussion of stabilization responses to four external shocks: a deterioration in the terms of trade, a slowdown in the rate of growth of export demand, an increase in the interest rate at which developing countries borrow abroad and an increase in the external rate of inflation.
www.cepr.org /pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=93   (289 words)

 Probing salaries: Making policy, or absence of policy?
At one level, an incomes policy is part of economic policy in general, or as economists will say, how income is distributed is a result of how the means of income generation are distributed, in other words, how they are owned.
In that sense, improving incomes to such an extent that even the lowest paid are assured of an acceptable standard of living means that there is so much to spare, and distribution policy abandons necessary penury (monetary strictness) as an aspect of objectives.
A probe team needs some basic data to work upon, for instance ’projection of government income for the next five years,’and then determine the total wage bill, and how therefore it should be distributed.
www.ippmedia.com /ipp/financial/2006/05/31/67463.html   (1006 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Prior to 1970: primary use of fiscal policy.
Managing the level of aggregate demand with the intention of fine tuning the economy to keep the level of employment, the balance of payments and the rate of inflation on their appropriate paths.
Interest Income on floating rate loans will reduce and interest payment on floating rate deposits will reduce.
members.tripod.com /~nadia_ioannou/tmfschapter7.htm   (573 words)

 Indexation and Incomes Policy: A Study of Wage Adjustment in Unionized Manufacturing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Data from nearly 200 collective bargaining units are used to study the frequency of wage change from 1957 to 1978.
It is shown that incomes policies during the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations encouraged changes in the length of time between wage adjustments.
Inflation, often thought to be responsible for fluctuations in the coverage of indexing provisions, is found to play virtually no role.
people.brandeis.edu /~cecchett/jle87.htm   (133 words)

 ekathimerini.com | Incomes policy not the courts’ business
The latest example is the decision by the Court of First Instance to grant a 176-euro subsidy to local authority employees (OTA) who have appealed to the court.
Most absurdly, the 176-euro allowance was inaugurated by the Socialist government of Costas Simitis and was granted to public sector employees who were not entitled to any benefits in order to narrow the gap with their more privileged colleagues.
The correction of a specific injustice through a court of law is one thing, but a court’s decision to reverse the government’s incomes policy and to impose billions of euros on Greek taxpayers for the sake of specific groups is quite another.
www.ekathimerini.com /4dcgi/_w_articles_columns_100022_20/04/2006_68863   (349 words)

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