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Topic: Independence of Poland Regained


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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  
  Poland
The Republic of Poland (alternative Commonwealth of Poland) is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast Exclave) to the north.
Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century.
The principal ports and harbours are: Port of Gdańsk, Port of Gdynia, Port of Szczecin, Port of Swinoujscie, Port of Ustka, Port of Kolobrzeg, Gliwice, Warsaw, Wroclaw.
www.ufaqs.com /wiki/en/po/Poland.htm   (2958 words)

  
  Poland - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
The Republic of Poland, a country in Central Europe, lies between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland used to be a single-party state and a satellite state of the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1989.
Poland's principal ports and harbours are Gdańsk, Gdynia, Kołobrzeg, Szczecin, Świnoujście, Ustka, Warsaw, and Wrocław.
open-encyclopedia.com /Poland   (2352 words)

  
 Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Republic of Poland is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century.
The principal ports and harbours are: Port of Gdańsk, Port of Gdynia, Port of Szczecin, Port of Swinoujscie, Port of Ustka, Port of Kolobrzeg, Gliwice, Warsaw, Wroclaw.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Poland   (2968 words)

  
 History of Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Poland's location in the very center of Europe became especially significant in a period when both Prussia/Germany and Russia were intensely involved in European rivalries and alliances and modern nation states took form over the entire continent.
Poland regained its independence in 1918, but the Second Polish Republic was destroyed by in the Polish September Campaign, marking the begining of the Second World War.
The Polish state was born in 966 with the baptism of Mieszko I, duke of the Slavic tribe of Polans and founder of the Piast dynasty.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Poland   (2639 words)

  
 History of Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland regained its independence in 1918, after more than a century of rule by its neighbours.
During this period Poland became the home to Europe's largest Jewish population, as royal edicts guaranteeing Jewish safety and religious freedom from the 13th century contrasted with bouts of persecution in western Europe, especially following the Black Death of 1348-1349, blamed by some in the West on Jews themselves.
The last heroic attempt to save Poland's independence was a national uprising (1794) led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko, however it was eventually quenched.
www.secaucus.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/History_of_Poland   (2224 words)

  
 Past and Present Regions of Poland
Although Małopolska is one of Poland's 16 administrative provinces, historically the area associated with this name is significantly larger stretching from Czestochwa in the west to Lublin in the east and encompassing the land between this line and the mountain ranges forming Poland's southern border.
Opole province is the smallest province in Poland.
Poland's northeasternmost province, it divides Poland from Lithuania and Belarus.
info-poland.buffalo.edu /classroom/regions.html   (4149 words)

  
 Ask4Geo - Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland regained independence in 1918 as a sovereign state offer World War I. It was partitioned a forth time in 1939 by Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Poland had more than 100 higher education institutions in 2000s, among them 8 were schools of agriculture, 17 were universities, 10 were medical schools, 18 were technical universities, 17 were schools of art and music and most of the remainder were specialized vocational colleges.
Poland's highest population densities are in the southern areas, while the lowest densities are in the northwest and northeast.
www.ask4geo.com /poland.php   (1710 words)

  
 History of Poland
The people of Poland took pride in their long history, filled with the struggle to get, keep, and regain freedom—the main value for Poles.
Generations later, his country would become Poland, but there was no unified Polish nation at that time, only an assortment of Slavic tribes speaking different dialects such as the (Pomeranian) of the North.
After the war independent Poland was established that boosted development of the culture and economy.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/h/hi/history_of_poland.html   (2140 words)

  
 Lexicon: Poland
Poland began to expand in the east mainly when it established links with Lithuania at the end of the fourteenth century; the two countries united in 1569.
However, beginning in the seventeenth century, Poland was without a strong central regime of its own and prey to its neighbours, who were gaining in strength and who, in the eighteenth century, intervened in Poland's internal affairs.
Poland's policy, designed to protect its independent status, did not take into account the fact that Hitler was ready, at best, to accept the existence of Poland as a satellite state, and that the revision of Poland's border was only a question of time.
www.history-of-the-holocaust.org /LIBARC/LEXICON/LexEntry/Poland.html   (1075 words)

  
 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland used to be a communist state and a satellite state of the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1989.
Poland's golden age occurred in the 16th century during its union with Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation and mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers.
www.yotor.com /wiki/en/po/Poland.htm   (1881 words)

  
 Poland - Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived around the middle of the 10th century.
Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II.
Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.
www.classbrain.com /art_cr/publish/printer_poland_introduction.shtml   (210 words)

  
 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
A Polish state existed 1,000 years ago, and in the 16th century under the Jagiellonian dynasty Poland was one of the richest and most powerful countries in Europe.
In 1989 the first free elections in Poland's post World War II history concluded the Solidarity movement's struggle for freedom and resulted in the defeat of Poland's communist rulers.
Poland enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent slopdropping and mild summers with frequent showers and thunder showers.
www.worldhistory.com /wiki/P/Poland.htm   (2377 words)

  
 Country Fast Facts: Eastern Europe   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland is an ancient nation that was conceived near the middle of the 10th century.
Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II.
Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.
www.cbsnews.com /htdocs/world_country_facts/eastern_europe/cr_poland_intro.html   (210 words)

  
 Poland
Poland is a key ally and partner in U.S. efforts to enhance security and promote economic prosperity in Europe.
Poland is a net contributor to the NATO collective defense effort and serves as a model and mentor for prospective NATO members.
Poland coordinates its military modernization and restructuring closely with NATO to ensure that its efforts mesh with Alliance goals.
www.state.gov /t/pm/64823.htm   (831 words)

  
 Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland was completely unprepared for the swiftness and ferocity of the attacks because of a failure to modernize her military.
Poland's principal ports and harbours are GdanskGdańsk, Gdynia, KolobrzegKołobrzeg, Szczecin, SwinoujscieŚwinoujście, Ustka, Warsaw, and WroclawWrocław/.
Poland's Roman Catholic church plans to build a center devoted to interfaith dialogue in honor of late Pope John Paul II at the site in southern Poland where he toiled during the Nazi occupation of his country, a church official said Friday.
www.infothis.com /find/Poland   (2894 words)

  
 History of Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Polish independence ended in a series of partitions (1772, 1793 and 1795) undertaken by Russia, Prussia and Austria, with Russia gaining most of the Commonwealth's territory including nearly all of the former Lithuania.
The Soviet government insisted on retaining the territories conquered by Poland in 1920 (now western Ukraine and western Belarus), compensating Poland with the return of Regained Territories, from which remaining Germans were to be removed to Germany.-->
Hopes for early admission to the EU were realized on April 16, 2003, when Poland and nine other countries signed a Treaty for EU membership from May 1, 2004.
www.knowallabout.com /h/hi/history_of_poland.html   (1964 words)

  
 Advena Poland - Holidays in Poland! (Guide)
Krakow (Cracow) was the capital of Poland from the 11th to the beginning of the 17th century when Warszawa (Warsaw) rose to that status; however, coronation ceremonies and royal burials were still held in Krakow (Cracow).
After the World War I Poland regained independence, but for merely 21 years, as it was the first country to be invaded by Hitler's army in 1939.
The Nazi occupation of Poland resulted not only in ruthless destruction and plundering of the whole country, but also in unprecedented atrocities of concentration camps of which Auschwitz is the best known example.
www.advena-poland.com /Poland/Guide/12.html   (810 words)

  
 Poland | English | Dictionary & Translation by Babylon
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe.
It is bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
The total land area of Poland is about 312,685 sq km (120,728 sq mi) making it the 69th largest country in the world with population over 38.5 million people concentrated mainly in large cities, including the first capital of Poland, Cracow, and present capital, Warsaw.
info.babylon.com /onlinebox.cgi?rt=ol&cid=CD776&term=Poland&tl=English&uil=English&tid=AffToolbar   (354 words)

  
 Poland Visa Application - Tourist Visas, Business Visas, Expedited Visas - Poland Page
Poland today is ethnically almost homogeneous (98% Polish), in contrast with the World War II period, when there were significant ethnic minorities 4.5 million Ukrainians, 3 million Jews, 1 million Belorussians, and 800,000 Germans.
Most Germans left Poland at the end of the war, while many Ukrainians and Belorussians lived in territories incorporated into the then-U.S.S.R. Small Ukrainian, Belorussian, Slovakian, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the borders, and a German minority is concentrated near the southwest city of Opole.
Independence for Poland was one of the 14 points enunciated by President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Many Polish; Americans enlisted in the military services to further this aim, and the United States worked at the postwar conference to ensure its implementation.
www.travisa.com /poland   (694 words)

  
 Poland as an independent state, has been anchored on Europe map for more than 1000 years   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Poland as an independent state has had a place on the European map for more than 1000 years.
Poland's geographic location has resulted in wars, fights and conflicts that have significantly marked Poland’s history.
On the 11th of November 1918, Marshall Józef Pi?sudski was recognized as the head of state of the newly restored Polish government.
www.nato.int /structur/airnorth/gazette/polish_independance_day.htm   (187 words)

  
 Polish History - Part 10
The restoration of Poland to her pre-partition borders was impossible in view of the formation of a national consciousness on the part of Ukrainians in the 19th century, as well as by the Lithuanians and to some extent also the Belarusians [then known as Byelorussians].
Poland was too weak, however, to guarantee the existence of the federation.
The Peace of Riga concluded on March 18, 1921, establishing Poland's eastern border on the Zbrucz River, providing for payment of reparations to Poland and stipulating the return of the cultural treasures looted by Russia during the time of the partitions.
www.poloniatoday.com /history10.htm   (1167 words)

  
 History of Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Restoration of an independent Poland was relatively low on the Allies' agenda and surfaced only after the United States of America entered the war and Russia collapsed into chaos.
The large Jewish population were forced to live in squalid ghettos and deported to forced labor and concentration camps, later to be annihilated in infamous death camps.
The result was a major upheaval; the frontiers were shifted 120 miles westward, giving Poland land it had lost 600 years before and forcing the Poles to expel the Germans living in those regions.
www.poland-embassy.si /eng/poland/history5.htm   (2304 words)

  
 The Polish National Anthem
The "Mazurek Dabrowskiego", Poland's national anthem since 1927, was written in 1797 by Jozef Wybicki when the Polish Legions commanded by General Henryk Dabrowski were deployed in Italy to fight under Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Legions were created in Italy to fight under Napoleon against Austria for the liberation of Poland from the reign of its three invaders Russia, Austria and Prussia, which divided Poland's territory between them.
Poland finally regained its independence in 1918 and nine years later adopted the song as its official anthem with the name "Mazurek Dabrowskiego".
home.att.net /~blackadder3/page2.html   (150 words)

  
 About NE Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Northeast Poland is one of the most beautiful areas in all of Poland.
It is known as the land of a thousand lakes and the green heaven of Poland.
She is considered to be the Queen of Heaven and the Queen of Poland as well as the co-redeemer and co-mediator with Christ.
www.northeastpoland.org /mragowo/aboutnep/aboutnep.htm   (746 words)

  
 Poland travel guide - Wikitravel
Poland regained its independence on November 11th, 1918 with the end of the World War I. Soon, in 1920-21, the newly-reborn country was urged to fight for its borders again, this time defending itself from a Soviet invasion.
Nowadays, Poland is a democratic country with a stable economy and a not-so-stable political scene Poland has been a member of NATO since 1999 and European Union since May 2004, when it joined with 9 other countries.
As Poland is a member of the European Union, citizens of the EU and of the countries belonging to the European Economic Area (Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein), as well as Swiss nationals, can enter Poland with a valid passport or identity card.
wikitravel.org /en/Poland   (7116 words)

  
 Introduction To Poland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
If you would like to use this flag of Poland or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
If you would like to use this map of Poland or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
If you would like to use this information for Poland or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
www.appliedlanguage.com /country_guides/poland_country_introduction.shtml   (389 words)

  
 SPK Post No. 33 - Polish Armed Forces WWII
Poland, a nation imprisoned in the heart of Europe, with its indefensible borders, surrounded by hostile and aggressive neighbors, was forced to fight in many historic conflicts.
While western Poland was terrorized by German oppression and Nazi concentration camps, eastern Poland was brutalized by the Soviets systematic destruction which included massive deportations of Poles to Siberia and the most ghastly massacre of 15,000 Polish prisoners of war.
Poland's leading mathematicians with an expertise in cryptanalysis, M. Rojeski and H. Zygalski, penetrated Enigma and managed to resolve some of the mathematical problems involved in deciphering its transmissions, thus supplying the Allies with the basis for its further development.
www.classicbuffalo.com /spk.htm   (1610 words)

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