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Topic: Independent Subway

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  The Independent Subway
The Independent, or IND, was the last of the three former competing subway systems.
Built by the city to be "independent" of the interests of the IRT and BMT, it contributed six major lines to what is now the unified New York Subway.
It covers the development of the Independent system from early planning and construction, its ambitious expansion plans, its role in the unification of the three competing systems, and recent developments in planning future subway lines.
www.nycsubway.org /indsubway.html   (264 words)

 NEW YORK CITY SUBWAY : Encyclopedia Entry
Subway cars (R44s) currently operate on the Staten Island Railway, opened in 1860, but that is not usually considered part of the subway system.
Subway car models begin with the letter "R" and are followed by the last 2 or 3 digits of the contract number under which they were purchased.
The subway and car chase on and underneath the elevated BMT West End Line is often considered the greatest chase scene in film history.
bibleocean.com /OmniDefinition/New_York_City_Subway   (5496 words)

 Subway - NYWiki
The subway is operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a state agency that manages mass transit all over the state of New York.
The city's first official subway system was the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) which opened on October 27, 1904, and consisted of 48 stations along a 9-mile-route which ran from City Hall to 148th Street and Broadway.
Subway fares were once paid with iconic subway tokens, but now only magnetic strip cards known as MetroCards may be used.
www.nywiki.com /new-york-city/index.php/New_York_City_Subway   (588 words)

 New York Subway
In this era, the original subway was built from City Hall to the Bronx, opening in October 1904, (subway contract 1) and to Atlantic Avenue LIRR terminal in Brooklyn (contract 2).
The Independent Subway System or IND first opened on September 10, 1932, as a municipally-owned alternate to the two earlier private systems.
First of all, the subway system began at a time when Thomas Edison and his opponents in the electricity industry were trying to decide whether or to accept alternating current or, as Edison wanted, direct current as the standard way to deliver electricity.
en.mcfly.org /New_York_Subway   (3960 words)

 Fairfield County Weekly: Sub Mission   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Then it's off for a two-week get-to-know-the-business session at Subway's Milford training center, a week or so with an in-store adviser, maybe a visit from the Subman--and the Subway franchisee is on his or her own.
Subway repaid him the stolen money, says Johnson, but refused to help with the credit problems and personal debt he had run up as a result of the embezzlement.
His dealings with Subway have led him to some rather un-generous conclusions: "Subway operates through a system of fear and intimidation, both with their franchisees and with anyone who dares to oppose them," says Duree.
old.fairfieldweekly.com /articles/subway2.html   (2519 words)

 Round online
Millions of people use this everyday to work their way through the city and several different independent subway companies (there's a key at the bottom to help you figure out which lines are run by which companies and thus which transfers require a new fare).
Subway systems of major international cities reach a level of complexity that goes beyond casual knowledge, and their maps reach similar levels with respect to casual reference.
The London Tube map is the grandaddy of the current subway map aesthetic - all train lines running at 45 and 90 degree angles, eschewing geographical accuracy in favor of an approach closer to that of a schematic diagram.
roundonline.com /art909.shtml   (738 words)

 Gotham Gazette: A Brief History of New York Transportation
The subway fare rises to 10 cents, the first fare hike since the system began operation 44 years earlier.
Subway tokens debut on July 25 as the subway fare rises from 10 to 15 cents.
New York City subways and buses stop accepting tokens, as MTA New York City Transit hikes fares on its buses and subways by 33 percent from a $1.50 to $2.00.
www.gothamgazette.com /print/419   (1319 words)

 Brief History of NYC Subway
Looking at the development of the NYC subway, private corporations got the permission from the New York City government to construct and then run the subway lines at the beginning; however, because of public demand to take back these private subway lines, the subway system was unified in 1940.
The biggest feature of this subway line is that there are four tracks, two for local trains, and two for express.
For example, the line was crowded during rush hours, and the subway cars were dirty, etc. At that time they had a consensus that the public transportation could not be monopolized by a single private enterprise.
www.geocities.com /subchen/writings/ehistory.html   (1087 words)

 History of the IRT, BMT, and IND Subway Lines
The BMT lines were the Broadway Subway and Nassau Street Subway in Manhattan, the 14th Street-Eastern District line from Manhattan to Brooklyn, and Fourth Avenue, West End, and Culver lines in Brooklyn.
The Independent Subway (IND) was formed by the City in the 1920s as an "independent" system that was not connected to the IRT or BMT lines.
The IND lines were the 8th Avenue and 6th Avenue trunk lines in Manhattan, the Queens Boulevard subway in Queens, the Concourse subway in the Bronx, the Fulton Street subway in Brooklyn, the Brooklyn/Queens Crosstown, and the line in Brooklyn via Smith/9th Streets to Church Avenue.
www.nycvisit.com /content/index.cfm?pagePkey=354   (562 words)

 New York City Transit Bibliography
One section is entitled "Subway Superstars," in which he chronicles the lives of several people whose lives have been affected by the subway.
It presents many of the legal and technical details that led to the building of the first subway, and hence is not as easy to read as some of the other popular accounts of the subway's history.
From the beavers at Astor Place and the eagles at 33rd Street to the Wilson Avenue station on the L, Stookey describes the evolution of the subway station from 1904 Heins and Lafarge to Squire Vickers and the BMT.
wt.mit.edu /Subway/bibliography.html   (808 words)

 MiamiHerald.com | 07/10/2006 | Subway's scout finds the right ingredients   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
As president and chief executive of Subway's Independent Purchasing Cooperative, Risi is equally comfortable negotiating with executives in a boardroom and farmers in the field.
Subway franchisees, who actually own IPC, have been so thrilled with the results that over the years they have increased the company's workload.
When she got Gallimore's call, Risi had never even eaten in a Subway and her entire fast-food career was in the burger industry.
www.miami.com /mld/miamiherald/business/14991931.htm   (1566 words)

 History of the New York City Subway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The City decided to issue rapid transit bonds outside of its regular bonded debt limit and build the subways itself, and contracted with the IRT (which by that time ran the elevated lines in Manhattan) to equip and operate the subways, sharing the profits with the City and guaranteeing a fixed five-cent fare.
At this time, the original subway (Contract 1) was built from City Hall to the Bronx, with the first part opening in October 1904; an extension to Atlantic Avenue at the LIRR Flatbush Avenue terminal in Brooklyn was built soon after as Contract 2.
The subway system began at a time when Thomas Edison and his opponent, Nikola Tesla, in the electricity industry were trying to decide whether to accept alternating current or, as Edison wanted, direct current as the standard way to deliver electricity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_the_New_York_City_Subway   (2057 words)

 new york subway tours
The lamps for lighting the interior are carefully located, with a view to securing uniform and effective illumination.
For this purpose three 1,250-kilowatt alternators direct-driven by steam turbines are installed in the power house, from which point a system of primary cables, transformers and secondary conductors convey current to the incandescent lamps used solely to light the subway.
The alternators are of the three-phase type, making 1,200 revolutions per minute and delivering current at a frequency of 60 cycles per second at a potential of 11,000 volts.
www.newyorkpartyshuttle.com /new-york-city-subway-11.htm   (242 words)

 2Bangkok.com - The Bangkok Subway
The handstraps on the subway have been extended the length of the trains--instead of stopping in front of the subway doors.
The Bangkok subway is similar to the one in Singapore with doors along the platform to save on air-conditioning, prevent accidents and suicides, and stop hazardous chemicals from easily circulating through the system in the event of a terrorist attack.
The reason for the subway being out of order on Sunday, February 19: the debris from a leftover pen crushed by the subway wheels jamming the signal box and causing MRTA to temporarily stop the service at Chatuchak Station.
www.angkor.com /2bangkok/2bangkok/Subway/index.shtml   (3457 words)

 The New York City Subway
The subway is a conglomeration of tunnels, elevated structures, embankments, trestles, bridges and open-cut trenches that were built and maintained by three different subway companies.
And finally, the city's municipally-owned subway, the Independent subway(IND), which ran the 8th and 6th Avenue lines, the Queens Blvd and Grand Concourse subways and the Fulton Street line in Brooklyn.
After the railroad went defunct, the city assumed control for subway operations(Though at the time, this IRT route was operated by the IND!).
sibernaut.8k.com /nycsubway.html   (1516 words)

 Amazon.com: 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York: Books: Clifton Hood   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hood convincingly argues that the takeover of the subways by the Transit Authority in 1953 resulted in a progressive deterioration that can only be remedied by government subsidies.
The New York subway was the vision of a few enlightened politicians working with a tight-knit mercantile elite who saw the potential that a high-speed underground rail system would have as a vehicle for urban development.
the jackson heights subway line info is interesting as it is not common to focus on an area outsideof manhattan as much.
www.amazon.com /722-Miles-Building-Subways-Transformed/dp/0801852447   (1933 words)

 weird   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
NYC subway stations are els, at grade, on embankments and underground near the surface and hundreds of feet below.
Yet it was an exciting time for subway riders as dozens of new stations opened as the new Independent Subway, the first run by the City itself, rolled out new subway cars and brand new stations filled with brightly colored tile and streamlined Machine Age graphics.
Here the subway is about level, while the terrain isn't: after bridging Manhattan Valley at 125th Street, the subway tunnel about 8 to 10 stories beneath Broadway at 168th, 181st and 191st Streets before emerging again on an el at Dyckman Street.
www.forgotten-ny.com /SUBWAYS/weirdstations/crazytrain.html   (2274 words)

 The American Experience/Technology/New York Underground/Beyond the IRT
In addition, the subway operators sought and received a guaranteed five cent fare for the length of their forty-nine-year lease on the system.
The nickel fare, which seemed like a sure bet to the subway magnates in 1911, lost its luster in the inflation-ridden days of World War I. By the time they claimed their guaranteed profits, the companies had little money left for maintenance and equipment upgrades.
On March 14, 1925, after years of public bellicosity and private maneuver, John Hylan broke ground for the Independent Subway System, or IND. Built to the track and car specifications of the BMT so the two systems could be linked, the IND was wholly financed, owned, and operated by the city.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/technology/nyunderground/beyondirt.html   (1427 words)

IND Subway Services from 1932 to the present as they changed with expantion and merger with the BMT.
While the loss of life far overshadowed the subway service disruptions, here are the services the TA was able to operate during the disaster.
In 1954, the IND line that terminated at Church Ave was connected to the Culver line and the F trains that terminated there were swapped with the D trains from the Bronx and through-routed to Stillwell.
thejoekorner.quuxuum.org /suball.htm   (3577 words)

 New York Transit Museum - Centennial Subway Student Activity Depot
Although the subways were essential to New York, bailing out a private company with public funds was controversial.
With a newfound freedom to travel and escape the surly bounds of lower Manhattan, this ‘commuter class’ of city residents established new communities outside Manhattan throughout the spacious outer boroughs.
The faces of the workers and images of the birth of the subway evoke a sense of awe and appreciation for the dedication, tenacity and sacrifice of the men who built the subway.
www.transitmuseumeducation.org /100/activity007_print.html   (1574 words)

 NYART - Technology in the City Web Exhibit - Transportation Timeline
Alfred Ely Beach demonstrates the first "subway" in New York City: a pneumatic subway on 312 feet of track built illegally under Broadway near City Hall in Manhattan.
The tunnels for the first subway line in the City, the Broadway Line of private Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) are constructed through the rocky center of Manhattan from City Hall to the northern tip of Manhattan, beginning in 1900.
The unification of the subway system occurs when New York City, which already operated the Independent Subway System (IND), purchases the financially troubled BMT and IRT rapid transit lines.
www.nycarchivists.org /exhibit/trtime.html   (1029 words)

 New York Transit Museum - Centennial Subway Student Activity Depot
Subway buffs, railfans, students of New York City history, and specialists in the history of technology will appreciate this authoritative account.
With no outlet for its exploding population, and the burgeoning social problems created by the overwhelming congestion, New York faced a serious crisis which city and state leaders addressed with dramatic measures.
In March 1913, public officials and officers of the two existing rapid transit networks shook hands to seal a deal for a greatly expanded subway system which would more than double the size of the two existing transit networks.
www.transitmuseumeducation.org /100/activity007related.html   (415 words)

 What I learnt when I got lost in New York's subway Independent, The (London) - Find Articles
Independent, The (London), Jan 17, 2001 by Ken Livingstone
Being unfamiliar with the subway, New York's Underground system, I took a wrong spur and ended up on a one-and-a-half-hour unguided tour of what was previously a district notorious for street crime.
The fact that I felt safe then and throughout my visit is a testimony to both the economic prosperity New York has enjoyed over the last decade, and also Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's decision to raise police numbers from 28,000 to 41,000 officers.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20010117/ai_n9666756   (921 words)

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