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Topic: Indian Removal


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In the News (Sun 19 Nov 17)

  
  Indian removal
Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal.
Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west.
The removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditions.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html   (1627 words)

  
 New Georgia Encyclopedia: Cherokee Removal
The removal of the Cherokees was a product of the demand for arable land during the rampant growth of cotton agriculture in the Southeast, the discovery of gold on Cherokee land, and the racial prejudice that many white southerners harbored toward American Indians.
In 1835 the latter group, led by Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot, signed a removal treaty at the Cherokee capital of New Echota without the authority of Principal Chief Ross or the Cherokee government.
Once in the Indian Territory, a group of men who had opposed removal attacked and killed the two Ridges and Boudinot for violating the law that prohibited the sale of Cherokee lands.
www.georgiaencyclopedia.org /nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2722   (1342 words)

  
 Historical Documents - The Indian Removal Act of 1830
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma.
On May 26, 1830, the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was passed by the Twenty-First Congress of the United states of America.
All of the treaties signed by the Indians as the agreed to the terms of the removal contained guarantees that the Indians, territory should be perpetual and that no government other than their own should be erected over them without their consent.
www.historicaldocuments.com /IndianRemovalAct.htm   (4819 words)

  
 Andrew Jackson and Indian Removal
Aiding the Indians in their quest was the new group of social reformers who emerged in the wake of the War of 1812.
The fact that most of the reformers were from the Northeast, where Indians were no longer posed a threat to white ambitions for expansion, illustrates the fact that those most committed to Indian reform would be those who were already secure in their own land and thus could afford to be benevolent.
In Morse's opinion, removal and colonization of the these four tribes beyond the Mississippi would not be needed because, unlike the fragmentary "reduced" northern tribes, these Indians could be educated where they were and raised to the rank and privileges of citizens, and merged in the mass of the nation.
home.earthlink.net /~kahnep63/Andrew_Jackson_and_Indian_Removal.html   (5473 words)

  
 Permanent Indian Frontier
Many white settlers tried to make peace and coexist with the Indians, but in the end the quest for land, power, and wealth was too great and the Indians were forced to leave their homes.
As the removed Indians began to arrive, the white settlers in Missouri and Arkansas in turn demanded protection from the relocated tribes.
One was to maintain peace between the Indian tribes and the white settlers by providing a military presence along the military road between Osage land and the state of Missouri.
www.nps.gov /fosc/pif.htm   (812 words)

  
 Indian Removal Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was a law passed by the Twenty-first United States Congress in order to facilitate the relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River in the United States to lands further west.
The Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
The first removal treaty signed after the Removal Act was the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on September 27, 1830, in which Choctaws in Mississippi ceded land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indian_Removal_Act   (578 words)

  
 Indian Removal Act: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)
The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant unsettled lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders.
Jackson's comments on Indian removal begin with the words, "It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued for nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the Indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consummation.
Search in the 21st Congress using the phrase "removal of the Indians" to locate Congressional debate on the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
www.loc.gov /rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Indian.html   (509 words)

  
 Eagle Rock Trading Post :: Indian Jewelry-Native American Jewelry-Southwest Decor
In compensation for the Removals, the official language stipulated, 'claims for improvements is deducted from the money paid to the Cherokee'.
And covetousness on the part of the white race was the cause of all that the Cherokees had to suffer.
Washington, D.C., had decreed that they must be driven West and their lands given to the white man, and in May 1838, an army of 4000 regulars, and 3000 volunteer soldiers under command of General Winfield Scott, marched into the Indian country and wrote the flest chapter on the pages of American history.
www.eaglerocktradingpost.com /indianremoval.htm   (5171 words)

  
 SparkNotes: Westward Expansion (1807-1912): Indian Removal
The burst in enthusiasm for Indian removal under Jackson was just another step in the ongoing oppression to which American Indians were subject from the beginning of white occupation of North America.
The Indians experienced fairly constant antagonism at the hands of white settlers, but it was not until after the War of 1812 that the federal government took a fierce stance on removal.
His policies reflected both his disdain and racism toward the Indians and his somewhat less vicious conviction that in the East the full- blooded Indians would be exploited by devious whites and self-serving mixed- bloods.
www.sparknotes.com /history/american/westwardexpansion/section4.rhtml   (1217 words)

  
 Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830
Indians lost their lands through by purchase, war, disease and even extermination, but many transfers of Indian land were formalized by treaty.
The Indians destination was to be an "Indian Territory" set aside west of Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas.
Indian society was loose, decentralized, democratic, and non-authoritarian where "chiefs" were often men of respect and informal authority, but not designated by the tribe to make decisions.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ho/time/dwe/16338.htm   (635 words)

  
 Indian Removal Act — Infoplease.com
Indian Removal Act, in U.S. history, law signed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830 providing for the general resettlement of Native Americans to lands W of the Mississippi River.
The challenges of dam removal: the history and lessons of the Condit Dam and potential threats from the 2005 Federal Power Act amendments....
Domesticity and dispossession: removal as a family act in Cooper's: The Wept of Wish-Ton-Wish and The Pathfinder.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0825117.html   (237 words)

  
 PBS - THE WEST - Indian Removal
It was adopted on the most mature consideration of the condition of this race, and ought to be persisted in till the object is accomplished, and prosecuted with as much vigor as a just regard to their circumstances will permit, and as fast as their consent can be obtained.
The plan for their removal and reestablishment is founded upon the knowledge we have gained of their character and habits, and has been dictated by a spirit of enlarged liberality.
To these districts the Indians are removed at the expense of the United States, and with certain supplies of clothing, arms, ammunition, and other indispensable articles; they are also furnished gratuitously with provisions for the period of a year after their arrival at their new homes.
www.pbs.org /weta/thewest/resources/archives/two/removal.htm   (666 words)

  
 American Indian Nations
He believes that Indian nations are not sovereign and are therefore subject to the governance of the United States Congress and (more especially) to the laws of the states in which they reside.
Chickasaw agree to removal, August 27th, after Andrew Jackson threatens that they will be destroyed if they resist; that their land “will be taken possession of by your white brethren” and they “will look on your conduct as acts of ill will and ingratitude…” (Remini, Indian Wars, 175).
He states that the “plan for their removal and reestablishment is founded upon the knowledge we have gained of their character and habits, and has been dictated by a spirit of enlarged liberality.
americanindian.ucr.edu /discussions/jackson/deeds.html   (1170 words)

  
 Indian Removal Act
The desire for Indian lands was also strengthened by the Indian hating mentality that was strange to some American frotiersman.
In 1802, a compact giving the federal government all of her claims to western lands in exchange for government’s pledge to cancel all Indian rights to land within the state was signed by the Georgia legislature.
But later Indian removal became entwined with the state of Georgia's rights and the Cherokee tribes had to make their claims in court.
www.angelfire.com /fl5/siflinger/IRA.html   (476 words)

  
 Digital History
The Indians claimed that when they had signed the treaty transferring title to their land, they had not understood the implications of the action.
Removal failed in large part because of the nation’s commitment to limited government and its lack of experience with social welfare programs.
Jackson’s removal policy can only be properly understood when seen as part of a broader process: the political and economic conquest of frontier regions by expanding nation states.
www.digitalhistory.uh.edu /database/article_display.cfm?HHID=638   (1193 words)

  
 President Andrew Jackson's Messsage to Congress on Indian Removal, 1830
Two important tribes have accepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious advantages.
The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual States, and to the Indians themselves.
These remove hundreds and almost thousands of miles at their own expense, purchase the lands they occupy, and support themselves at their new homes from the moment of their arrival.
www.classbrain.com /artteenst/publish/article_52.shtml   (1148 words)

  
 Historical Background   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The American Indians were forced to farm barren land on the reservations, but this type of farming was new to most American Indians.
However, the federal government still controlled the land until the American Indian proved that he or she was capable of farming the land.
The American Indians were able to let the United States know that they were able to live like their ancestors which consisted of being free from control by another ethnicity.
www.mcps.k12.md.us /schools/springbrookhs/rights/AI/historical_background.html   (992 words)

  
 TheHistoryNet | American History | Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act
His new weapon was the Indian Removal Act, which would force Eastern tribes to relocate west of the Mississippi.
The Indians were "domestic dependent nations," he ruled, subject to the United States as a ward to a guardian.
Indian territory was part of the United States but not subject to action by individual states.
www.historynet.com /magazines/american_history/3026206.html   (1293 words)

  
 What is the Indian Removal Act of 1830?
In 1830 the Indian Removal Act was passed by the administration of President Andrew Jackson.
President Andrew Jackson was convinced that the only solution to the Indian ‘problem’ was the complete removal of all natives beyond the Mississippi and now he had the law with which to accomplish it.
General John Wool stated that the only good involved in the removal of the Cherokees would be that it would get the Indians ‘ beyond the reaches of the white men who, like vultures, are watching, ready to pounce on their prey and strip them of everything they have.’
la.essortment.com /whatisindianr_rhin.htm   (671 words)

  
 Mushulatubbee and Choctow Removal Choctaw Removal:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Demands for Indian land resulted from Anglo-American population growth in the South, the expansion of the short-staple cotton industry after Eli Whitney's cotton gin became widely available in the 1790s, the discovery of gold and other minerals on some Indian land, and simple racism.
It did not help Indians that the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 provided lands to the west to which the United States could banish them, or that by 1815 there was no longer a viable European ally in the area who could counteract American demands.
With the passage by the U.S. Congress of the Indian Removal Act that same year, the legal mechanisms were put in place for President Andrew Jackson to negotiate with Indian groups for their deportation.
mshistory.k12.ms.us /features/feature14/choctaw_removal.html   (1747 words)

  
 Indian Removal
Accompanying Arkansas' march to statehood was the federal government's solution to the problem of the southeastern Indian tribes and the local Quapaw.
At the outbreak of the War of 1812(War of 1812), Federal troops stationed at Fort Madison were withdrawn, but some white settlers fleeing possible danger elsewhere took refuge at the Fort.
In order to obtain more lands to offer the eastern Indians, the government forced the Quapaw to give up all their claims to lands east of the Mississippi and north of the Arkansas River and their hunting grounds to the West.
www.pccua.edu /keough/indian_removal.htm   (873 words)

  
 The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes, Native Americans and the Land, Nature Transformed, TeacherServe, ...
The removal of American Indian tribes from lands east of the Mississippi River to what is now the state of Oklahoma is one of the tragic episodes in American history.
Early treaties signed by American agents and representatives of Indian tribes guaranteed peace and the integrity of Indian territories, primarily to assure that the lucrative fur trade would continue without interruption.
American settlers' hunger for Indian land, however, led to violent conflict in many cases, and succeeding treaties generally compelled tribes to cede large areas to the United States government.
www.nhc.rtp.nc.us /tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indianremoval.htm   (400 words)

  
 Critical Thinkers :: Andrew Jackson Speaks: Indian Removal Policy :: Tracking Westward Expansion & the Trail of ...
In fact, Removal outlasted his tenure: the last of the Cherokee were infamously forced on the Trail of Tears death march in 1838, two years after Jackson's second--and final--term ended.
Survivors of Sac and Fox War of 1832 removed west of Mississippi; 'inferior' Georgian Cherokee continue to resist 'force of circumstances' and refuse removal; Jackson reiterates removal and 'political reorganisation' form the best and only option for continued existence of eastern Indians.
The Indian woman Sacajawea had been the expedition's guide; by the beginning of the nineteenth century, red men were courteously arranging their own doom." Chapter 1.
www.synaptic.bc.ca /ejournal/jackson.htm   (1674 words)

  
 Column of the Americas: Census pushes for Indian removal : ICT [2005/01/20]
The bureau's effort runs contrary to thousands of years of history and is but another form of Indian removal.
This should be a clarion call for every artist, writer, scholar, elder, journalist, historian, demographer, professor, student, librarian, filmmaker and storyteller (people and organizations charged with keeping the memory) to inform their community and oppose any governmental effort to wipe brown people off the map.
Indian Country Today strives to provide many media options that will serve the different needs of different users.
www.indiancountry.com /content.cfm?id=1096410208   (969 words)

  
 Our Documents - Transcript of President Andrew Jackson's Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830)
It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued for nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the Indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consummation.
Two important tribes have accepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious advantages.
These remove hundreds and almost thousands of miles at their own expense, purchase the lands they occupy, and support themselves at their new homes from the moment of their arrival.
www.ourdocuments.gov /doc.php?flash=true&doc=25&page=transcript   (679 words)

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