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Topic: Indirect effect


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  NOAA ETL Aerosols, Clouds and Air Quality
This so-called "first indirect effect" which addresses the effect of aerosols on cloud drop size and cloud albedo, is perhaps the single largest unknown in climate forcing.
The ground-based approach uses remote sensors (lidar, radar and microwave radiometer) to quantify the effect of sub-cloud aerosol extinction on the cloud droplet size in a single column of air and at a temporal resolution of ~20 s.
Satellite measurements of the indirect effect are based on MODIS measurements on the Terra satellite.
www.etl.noaa.gov /et2/aca/aie/aie.html   (434 words)

  
 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
The physics and chemistry of the indirect effect of aerosols is discussed in detail in Chapter 5.
The forcing estimates for the first indirect effect from sulphate aerosols range from -0.3 to -1.8 Wm, which is close to the range of 0 to -1.5 Wm given in the SAR when only a few estimates were available.
In studies indicated by an asterisk, the estimate in flux change due to the indirect effect of aerosols was computed as the difference in top of atmosphere fluxes between two distinct simulations and therefore does not represent a forcing in the strict sense (see text).
www.grida.no /climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/238.htm   (867 words)

  
 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
Aerosol radiative effects occur in two distinct ways: (i) the direct effect, whereby aerosols themselves scatter and absorb solar and thermal infrared radiation, and (ii) the indirect effect, whereby aerosols modify the microphysical and hence the radiative properties and amount of clouds.
In addition, models for the indirect effect have been used to estimate the effects of the initial change in droplet size and concentrations (a first indirect effect), as well as the effects of the subsequent change in precipitation efficiency (a second indirect effect).
The indirect radiative effect of aerosols is now understood to also encompass effects on ice and mixed-phase clouds, but the magnitude of any such indirect effect is not known, although it is likely to be positive.
www.pnl.gov /aisu/pubs/eemw/papers/ipccreports/workinggroup1/019.htm   (866 words)

  
 5.4 Changes in the response to test lines
For the peak of the direct effect, the perceived orientation of a 10° test line shifted away from 0° by several degrees (figure 5.3).
The magnitude of the indirect effect is smaller than the direct effect because fewer adapted neurons are involved.
This explanation for the indirect effect was not discovered until the TAE was modeled here, thus underscoring the importance of building computational models.
www.cs.utexas.edu /~nn/web-pubs/bednar.thesis/node31.html   (1527 words)

  
 Effects Classification
In one sense, collateral effects may be the incidental direct or indirect effects (usually unintentional) that cause injury or damage to persons, objects, or systems.
Typically, a cumulative effect flows from lower-to-higher levels of employment and occurs at the higher levels; however, it may occur at the same level as a contributing lower-order effect.
The effect on the German economy of bombing the rail marshalling yards in WW II is an example.
www.iwar.org.uk /military/resources/aspc/text/ebo/class.htm   (853 words)

  
 [No title]
In effect is the effect of Z on Y excluding the direct effect.
Ultimately, all the rect effect as the change in the measured response of Y to a above variables, except headache, are assumed to have a di- change in Z, while all other variables in the model, hence- rect effect on the survival chances of the patient.
To do so, we must for- malize such effects as counterfactual formulas, and translate is the set of parents of V i in Mg, and pai (g) and v i are suit- the identifiability conditions on the formula to conditions on ably chosen constants.
www.ijcai.org /papers/0886.txt   (4865 words)

  
 [No title]
The indirect effect is the total causal effect minus the direct effect, and measures the effect of the intervening variables.
Where effects analysis in regression may use a variety of coefficients (partial correlation or regression, for instance), effect decomposition in path analysis is restricted to use of regression.
Indirect effect due to Education's correlation with Skill Level, and Skill Level's direct effect on Income, indicated by multiplying the correlation of Education and Skill Level by the path coefficient from Skill Level to Income.
www2.chass.ncsu.edu /garson/pa765/path.htm   (3969 words)

  
 NERSC Annual Report 2002: BER: Cloud Sensitivity to Black Carbon and Aerosol Concentrations
The first indirect effect is generally thought to contribute to cooling by increasing cloud albedo (reflectivity).
The first indirect forcing is also highly sensitive to the abundance of natural aerosols; without accounting for natural dust and sea salt particles, it could be overestimated by at least a factor of 2.
The researchers concluded that to quantify the first indirect effect on the radiation budget with a higher level of certainty, we need further understanding of the interactions between anthropogenic components and natural particles, together with a more thorough investigation of aerosol-cloud interactions.
www.nersc.gov /news/annual_reports/annrep02/35-cloud-sens.html   (518 words)

  
 Indirect effect of the atmosphere through the oceans on the Earth nutation using the torque approach
Indirect effect of the atmosphere through the oceans on the Earth nutation using the torque approach
In particular, we show that a dynamic ocean model is essential to compute the indirect effect of the atmosphere on nutation, as the oceanic response is far from that predicted by a static model.
The effect of this indirect torque on the Earth nutation is computed and found to be much larger than the precision of current nutation observations, but results are uncertain in light of discrepancies in the angular momentum and torque balance.
www.agu.org /pubs/crossref/2001/2000JB900387.shtml   (306 words)

  
 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
Whereas the first indirect effect can be computed diagnostically, assessment of the second indirect effect implies that two independent (i.e., with the same fixed sea surface temperatures, but with different meteorologies) GCM simulations be made, a first one with pre-industrial and a second one with present day aerosols.
However, as a consequence, the estimates of the aerosol indirect effect may include some undesirable feedbacks involving climate parameters which would violate the definition adopted for radiative forcing of climate change by IPCC (see also Section 6.1.1).
The partitioning of the total indirect radiative impact between the first and second effect is uncertain.
www.pnl.gov /aisu/pubs/eemw/papers/ipccreports/workinggroup1/239.htm   (733 words)

  
 RedOrbit - Science - Large-Eddy Simulations of Trade Wind Cumuli: Investigation of Aerosol Indirect Effects   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Thus, mechanisms pertaining to the aerosol indirect effects for stratocumulus clouds are not necessarily applicable to cumulus clouds.
The effects of aerosols on \cloud properties such as cloud liquid water and precipitation need to be addressed for better representation of the aerosol indirect effects in climate models (e.g., Lohmann and Feichter 2004).
The effect of drizzle on the stability of the boundary layer through redistribution of heat and moisture is found to be small because of the relatively small precipitation rates and the fact that the precipitating clouds cover only a small fraction of the domain.
www.redorbit.com /news/science/541212/largeeddy_simulations_of_trade_wind_cumuli_investigation_of_aerosol_indirect/index.html?source=r_science   (7833 words)

  
 The evolutionary role of indirect effects in communities Ecology - Find Articles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
We broadly define an indirect effect as the effect of one species on another that occurs through mutual interactions with a third species: an "associate" species has an indirect effect on a "focal" species when that associate modifies the direct effect of a second associate species on the focal species (Miller and Kerfoot 1987).
Although indirect effects have proven difficult to quantify, both theory and the available empirical evidence suggest that the magnitudes of indirect effects between pairs of species can be similar to those of direct effects.
The important, and perhaps underappreciated, conclusions of these theoretical studies are that (1) indirect effects can be of the same order of magnitude, although not necessarily direction, as direct effects and (2) indirect effects may act to increase or minimize direct effects.
findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2120/is_n5_v77/ai_18601041?...   (808 words)

  
 Nautilus Bulletin 1 Chapter 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Until quite recently, this effect was most pronounced as a result of the practice of full squats.
While such an individual might have 13 inch upper arms at the start of such a training program, it is almost impossible for his arms to stay that small; by the end of the program, his arms would probably be at least 15 inches.
It is not necessary to understand the effect to be aware of its results.
www.timinvermont.com /fitness/b1c4.htm   (538 words)

  
 IGAC | The indirect radiative effect of aerosols
The indirect effect is considered to be one of the largest uncertainties in current global climate models (GCMs).
Correctly predicting the indirect radiative effect of aerosols requires that we understand the interactions between aerosols and clouds that determine cloud properties.
As with the case for precipitation effects, a great deal of work remains to be done to determine the indirect radiative effects of aerosols on cirrus clouds.
www.igac.noaa.gov /newsletter/23/noone.php   (1747 words)

  
 Mediation (David A. Kenny)
The test of the indirect effect is given by dividing ab by the square root of the above variance and treating the ratio as a Z test (i.e., larger than 1.96 in absolute value is significant at the.05 level).
The effect of the mediator on the outcome (path b) is likely underestimated and the effect of the initial variable on the outcome (path c') is likely over-estimated if ab is positive (which is typical).
The effect of the initial variable on the mediator may differ as a function of the moderator (i.e., path a varies) or the mediator may interact with the moderator to cause the outcome (i.e., path b varies).
davidakenny.net /cm/mediate.htm   (3519 words)

  
 How A San Francisco Minimum Wage Would Affect Workers and Businesses
To estimate the effects of a minimum wage on private sector workers, we divide the total effect into a direct effect and an indirect effect.
The magnitude of the indirect effect, or ripple, falls in a smooth and gradual manner, starting at 100 percent of the mandated wage increase, and falling down to zero.
The indirect wage effects for each of our wage intervals are then easily simulated: we add half of the difference between the previous average wage and the wage level that would amount to another 100 percent increase over the minimum wage.
www.acorn.org /index.php?id=209   (1258 words)

  
 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis
Several observational studies (see Chapter 5) support the existence of the first aerosol indirect effect on low-level clouds and a negative sign for the associated radiative forcing, but these studies do not give indications on what a (negative) upper bound of the forcing would be.
Available GCM studies suggest that the radiative flux perturbations associated with the second effect could be of similar magnitude to that of the first effect.
There are no studies yet to confirm unambiguously that the GCM estimates of the radiative impact associated with the second indirect effect can be interpreted in the strict sense of a radiative forcing (see Sections 6.1 and 6.8.2.2), and very few observations exist as yet to support the existence of a significant effect.
www.pnl.gov /aisu/pubs/eemw/papers/ipccreports/workinggroup1/242.htm   (744 words)

  
 2.3 Proposed theories
Indirect effects would be due to a constraint that the horizontal and vertical axes remain perpendicular, so that lines close to the horizontal axis would appear shifted relative to that axis.
The smaller magnitude of indirect effects was attributed to some degree of ``play'' between the axes, i.e.
This effect is known as disinhibition, and is also discussed in section 2.3.4.
www.cs.utexas.edu /~nn/web-pubs/bednar.thesis/node8.html   (1907 words)

  
 [No title]
It is important to note that alcoholics may select into such jobs because of choice (the direct effect) or because of a lack of education (the indirect effect).
Alcoholism?s effect on earnings has been the subject of a number of recent scholarly articles, which attempt to estimate this impact empirically.
That is, almost one half of the effect of alcoholism on earnings is due to lower human capital characteristics, namely education and work experience.
members.cavtel.net /daclmi/a_effect.html   (957 words)

  
 PEOPLE
Separate estimates were obtained for the direct aerosol effect, the semi-direct aerosol effect, cloud brightness (first aerosol indirect effect), and cloud lifetime/distribution (second aerosol indirect effect).
Consensus was strongest among the experts in their assessments of the direct aerosol effect and the cloud brightness indirect effect.
There was not agreement about the sign of the best estimate of the semi-direct effect, and the uncertainty ranges some experts gave for this effect did not overlap those given by others.
cdmc.epp.cmu.edu /survey.htm   (1650 words)

  
 aerosol effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The so-called "direct effect" of radiative forcing on climate relates to the changes in net radiative fluxes in the atmosphere caused by the modulation of atmospheric scattering and absorption properties due to changes in the concentration and optical properties of the aerosol.
In order to measure and account for this effect we propose to fly two nephelometers with one at low (dry) and one at high (wet) conditions so that the direct effect of water uptake on the scattering coefficient will be measured.
The so-called "indirect effect" of radiative forcing on climate relates to the changes in net radiative transfer in the atmosphere caused by the modulation of cloud properties due to changes in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, CCN.
www-indoex.ucsd.edu /publications/implementation/aerosol_effect.html   (2223 words)

  
 [Effect of indirect endolymphatic antibiotic therapy on clinical and immunological indicators in patients with ...
[Effect of indirect endolymphatic antibiotic therapy on clinical and immunological indicators in patients with erysipelas of the lower extremities]
Comparative clinicoimmunological examinations in the two groups revealed that lymphotropic administration of the antibiotic had a more favourable effect on the disease process, as evidenced by more rapid reverse time courses of erysipelas clinical signs, less frequent incidence of early relapses and normalization of the majority of immunological parameters by the end of the treatment.
For estimation of the anti-recurrence efficacy of the antibiotic therapy in the patients with erysipelas, it was recommended to use a specific scale based on the principles of the Wald successive alternative analysis.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1993/jan/M9310283.html   (402 words)

  
 Indirect Effect of Insulin to Suppress Endogenous Glucose Production Is Dominant, Even with Hyperglucagonemia -- ...
The direct and indirect effects of insulin to suppress EGP, shown as a percentage of total EGP suppression.
EGP is primarily mediated by an indirect mechanism (4, 5).
Pacini (1984) Extrapancreatic effect of somatostatin infusion to increase glucose clearance.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/100/12/3121   (6646 words)

  
 [No title]
The mediational effect in which X leads to Y through Z is called the indirect effect.
The indirect effect represents the portion of the relationship between X and Y that is mediated by Z. Testing for mediation Baron and Kenny (1986) proposed a four step approach in which several regression analyses are conducted and significance of the coefficients is examined at each step.
Calculating the indirect effect The above four step approach is the general approach most researchers use, but, instead, one should calculate the indirect effect and test it for significance.
www.upa.pdx.edu /IOA/newsom/usp534/ho_mediation.doc   (964 words)

  
 Direct effect   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The concept of Direct Effect follows from the principle of Supremacy of European law devised by the ECJ.
It means that if an EC law has Direct Effect then such law in effect grants rights to individuals and those rights must be upheld by the National Courts.
The particular result (ie how Direct Effect will work in each particular type of EC law) depends on the type of EC law you are discussing - you need to get the distinctions quite clear in your mind now.
www.learnedcounsel.com /de.htm   (905 words)

  
 The indirect effect - Basskiller's World Class Bodybuilding   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The larger the muscle that’s growing or the greater the degree of growth the greater the indirect effect will be.
Now the indirect effect produced by the arms is not as great as the one produced by the legs but IM sure your starting to see the point.
The indirect effect is also related to chemical reactions in the body.
www.worldclassbodybuilding.com /forums/showthread.php?t=9961   (789 words)

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