
 [No title] 
  In effect is the effect of Z on Y excluding the direct effect. 
  Ultimately, all the rect effect as the change in the measured response of Y to a above variables, except headache, are assumed to have a di change in Z, while all other variables in the model, hence rect effect on the survival chances of the patient. 
  To do so, we must for malize such effects as counterfactual formulas, and translate is the set of parents of V i in Mg, and pai (g) and v i are suit the identifiability conditions on the formula to conditions on ably chosen constants. 
 www.ijcai.org /papers/0886.txt (4865 words) 
