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Topic: Indium phosphide


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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  
  indium — FactMonster.com
Indium phosphide, arsenide, and antimonide are semiconductor materials used in photocells, thermistors, and rectifiers.
Indium is found in very low concentrations in many ores and minerals; it was first found in zinc blende and is produced commercially as a byproduct of the smelting of zinc.
Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and H. Richter, using spectroscopic analysis; it was named for a brilliant indigo line in its spectrum.
www.factmonster.com /encyclopedia/indium   (339 words)

  
  Indium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol In and atomic number 49.
Indium is produced mainly from residues generated during zinc ore processing but is also found in iron, lead, and copper ores.
Indium compounds damage the heart, kidney, and liver, and may be teratogenic." For example, indium trichloride anhydrous (InCl3) is quite toxic, while indium phosphide (InP) is both toxic and a suspected carcinogen.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indium   (724 words)

  
 Indium
Indium phosphide was nominated for study because of its widespread use in the microelectronics industry, the potential for worker exposure, and the absence of chronic toxicity data.
Exposure to indium phosphide also caused inflammation of the arteries of the heart, primarily the coronary arteries and the proximal aorta, and to a lesser extent the lung-associated lymph nodes in males and in females.
Exposure to indium phosphide by inhalation resulted in nonneoplastic lesions in the lung of male and female rats and mice, the adrenal medulla of female rats, and the liver and heart of male and female mice.
www.ithyroid.com /indium.htm   (10230 words)

  
 Mineral Information Institute - INDIUM
Indium has the unusual physical property that when it is bent (that is, when it is stressed) it creates a sound similar in pitch to a scream.
Indium is retrieved as a by-product of zinc ores, specifically from the mineral sphalerite, where its abundance can be as high as almost 900 parts per million (ppm) or as low as 1 ppm.
Indium, as indium phosphide, is used to make photovoltaic devices (devices that transform light energy into electricity), semi-conductors, high-speed transistors, specialized solders and metal alloys.
www.mii.org /Minerals/photoindium.html   (500 words)

  
 Tandem solar cell with indium phosphide tunnel junction - Patent 5800630
The tunnel junction may be prepared by doping indium phosphide with a variety of elements, such as n-type doping with sulfur, tellurium, selenium, germanium, tin or silicon and p-type doping with carbon, zinc, cadmium, beryllium or magnesium.
A window of indium phosphide was then grown to a thickness of 0.03 to 0.05 microns using the same range of concentrations of beryllium and of temperature.
An indium phosphide tunnel junction is then grown on the subcell, the tunnel junction having an effective beryllium dopant concentration of 5.times.10.sup.18 cm.sup.-3, in apparatus such as shown in FIG.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5800630.html   (4920 words)

  
 Tandem solar cell with indium phosphide tunnel junction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Tandem solar cell with indium phosphide tunnel junction
A monolithic, tandem photovoltaic device is provided having an indium phosphide tunnel junction lattice-matched to adjoining subcells and having high peak current densities and low electrical resistance.
A method is provided for relatively low-temperature epitaxial growth of a tunnel junction and a subcell over the tunnel junction at temperatures which leave intact the desirable characteristics of the tunnel junction.
www.svec.uh.edu /pat-5800630-abs.html   (75 words)

  
 AXT Announces Six-Inch Diameter Indium Phosphide Substrates
For example, indium phosphide-based devices are expected to play a role in the 3G cellular phones and communications systems with bit rates of 40 Gbps and higher, such as the OC768 communications protocol.
Indium phosphide devices are already widely used for fiber optic communications components, such as lasers and detectors with wavelengths of 1,000 nm and longer.
One superior characteristic of indium phosphide relative to other semiconductor materials that is yet to be fully exploited is its capacity for large-scale integration of electronic and opto-electronic functions.
www.prnewswire.com /cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/04-24-2002/0001713098&EDATE=   (562 words)

  
 Laser Focus World - Indium phosphide addresses 10-Gbit/s metro demand
Indium phosphide (InP) modulators have been commercially available for more than five years in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and single-channel transmission, in the form of electroabsorption modulated lasers (EMLs) that incorporate the laser and modulator in one package.
Indium phosphide (InP) is a member of the III-V family of semiconductors.
Indium phosphide has been the focus of development since the early 1980s, and today the material is being used as a platform for a wide variety of fiber communications components, including lasers, LEDs, semiconductor optical amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors.
www.laserfocusworld.com /articles/article_display.html?id=140234   (1457 words)

  
 Indium phosphide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indium phosphide (InP) is a semiconductor composed of indium and phosphorus.
Indium phosphide also has one of the longest-lived optical phonons of any compound with the zincblende crystal structure.
The Sellmeier equation that describes how the optical refractive index for indium phosphide depends on wavelength is given by:
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indium_phosphide   (123 words)

  
 American Elements: Indium Supplier & Technical Information
Indium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.
Indium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates.
Organo-Metallic Indium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents.
www.americanelements.com /in.html   (505 words)

  
 Indium phosphide nanowires grow on silicon (November 2004) - News - nanotechweb.org
For example, the crystal lattice mismatch between indium phosphide and germanium is 3.7%.
These acted as catalysts for the growth of indium phosphide nanowires by a vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process.
Since publishing their work in Nature Materials, the scientists say they have also grown indium phosphide nanowires on silicon substrates, overcoming a lattice parameter mismatch of 8.7%.
nanotechweb.org /articles/news/3/11/2/1   (328 words)

  
 The indium market and compound semiconductors (September 2003) - Compound Semiconductor magazine - Compound ...
The purity of the indium used for crystal growth is typically 6N or six-nines (99.9999%), which means that the total amount of impurities is less than 1000 ppb.
The higher-purity 6N5 or 99.99995% indium, and even higher purities, 6N8 and 7N, are used in smaller quantities, most often in epitaxial growth or for R&D. At these low levels of impurities, maximum concentration limits are often imposed on critical elements.
The purity of the indium used in alloys and in thin-film coatings such as indium tin oxide (ITO), which is primarily used in flat-panel display manufacturing, is typically limited to 2N and 4N8, respectively.
www.compoundsemiconductor.net /magazine/article/9/9/4/1   (1029 words)

  
 Growing Indium Phosphide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
An indium phosphide (InP) crystal is grown by synthesizing molten InP, then carefully freezing the "melt" so it forms a nearly perfect single- crystal ingot.
Instead, in the AFRL/SNH process, indium is melted in the crucible, and phosphorus vapor is injected into the molten indium through a tube from a quartz ampoule.
Once the indium and phosphorus have reacted to form InP and the melt has stabilized, the injection tube is removed; a seed crystal is lowered into contact with the melt to initiate growth of the ingot.
www.afosr.af.mil /pages/afrtgip.htm   (836 words)

  
 Laser Focus World - Indium phosphide addresses 10-Gbit/s metro demand   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Indium phosphide (InP) modulators have been commercially available for more than five years in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and single-channel transmission, in the form of electroabsorption modulated lasers (EMLs) that incorporate the laser and modulator in one package.
The III-V materials are binary crystals with one element from the metallic group "III" on the periodic table (in this case indium), and one from the nonmetallic group "V" (in this case phosphide).
Indium phosphide has been the focus of development since the early 1980s, and today the material is being used as a platform for a wide variety of fiber communications components, including lasers, LEDs, semiconductor optical amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors.
lfw.pennnet.com /Articles/Article_Display.cfm?Article_ID=140234   (1439 words)

  
 ElectronicsWeekly.com - Indium phosphide tunnels into low power memory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Indium phosphide tunnels into low power memoryFaster than GaAs, speedy in linear circuits, indium phosphide is a pretty useful material.
Steve Bush Indium phosphide is showing a lot of promise in a novel form of high speed low power...
"Indium phosphide HEMTs [high electron mobility transistors] are useful in the 20 to 100GHz range, maximum ft is around 340GHz," said Seabaugh.
www.electronicsweekly.com /Article11730.htm   (511 words)

  
 Indium
Indium phosphide (InP) materials are expected to be at the heart of many of the new product ideas, providing the means to create monolithic devices operating...
Indium, which was so rare in 1924 that the world's supply of the isolated element was about a gram, is being incorporated more into chips as well.
Energy generated from the copper indium gallium diselenide technology in the panels is used to feed a hidden battery pack, which is wired to the jacket's many...
carcinogens.cancer-help.org /Indium.html   (5071 words)

  
 ThreeFive Photonics - Indium Phosphide, material of choice   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Among the wide variety of semiconductor materials indium phosphide is the most promising candidate for monolithic integration of both active and passive optical functions as well as electronic functions.
Indium phosphide (InP) is the only material that fulfills all those requirements.
And indium phosphide is also suited for manufacturing electrical circuitry, so that electrical and optical functions can be combined on a single chip.
www.35ph.com /integration3.html   (137 words)

  
 Wireless Net DesignLine | InP laser bonded to CMOS chip
Paniccia estimated that five to 10 years of development remained before wafer-scale indium phosphide lasers could provide optical interconnection signals for hybrid chips using indium phosphide lasers bonded atop silicon chips.
Indium phosphide is an even better light emitter than gallium arsenide, but its crystalline lattice is grossly mismatched to that of silicon.
Failure of the usual epitaxial methods to grow indium compounds on top of a silicon wafer has foiled previous attempts to marry the two technologies.
www.wirelessnetdesignline.com /193006235?cid=RSSfeed_wirelessnetdesignline_wndlRSS   (637 words)

  
 EETimes.com - Nascent indium phosphide industry faces rough road
The technologists who have been working on indium phosphide during the past 25 years are about to see some satisfaction: InP-based components are coming to the market this year for fiber communications, test and measurement, and wireless equipment.
Though analysts predict that indium phosphide-based products will become a billion-dollar business over the next decade, indium phosphide's transition from the research labs to the market place comes during a telecom business environment that would try the patience of Job.
The true advantage of indium phosphide is in the front end, so we'd like to integrate the parts that handle the input from the optical signal and then connect to CMOS parts" that handle the demultiplexed 2.5 -Gbit/s electronic signals.
www.eetimes.com /reshaping/indium/OEG20020911S0048   (4220 words)

  
 CyOptics - Indium Phosphide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Indium Phosphide (InP) is a member of the III-V family of semiconductors.
III-V materials are binary crystals with one element from the metallic group 3 of the periodic table, and one from the non-metallic group 5.
Being a semiconductor, InP has an energy bandgap, which makes it opaque for light energy that is higher than the bandgap, and transparent for light energy levels that are below.
www.cyoptics.com /OldSite/technology/ip.shtml   (596 words)

  
 Business Wire: RF Micro Devices Announces Plans to Manufacture... @ HighBeam Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-02)
Indium Phosphide is widely viewed by industry experts as having performance characteristics that are superior to those of existing process technologies.
We believe GaAs HBT and Indium Phosphide are very complementary process technologies, and the combination of both technologies enables the Company to offer our customers a broader range of solutions than was previously possible," said Jerry Neal, executive vice president of strategic development of RF Micro Devices.
At the same time, these handset manufacturers are reducing their vendor lists and seeking strategic partners who not only have adequate capacity to support their requirements, but also the ability to integrate additional components of the phone.
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:65772300&refid=holomed_1   (1248 words)

  
 Indium phosphide: lining up for optical integration (May 2003) - News & Analysis - fibers.org
As innovative optical component makers wise up to the benefits of indium phosphide as a platform for optoelectronic integration, Tami Freeman finds that there's still plenty of work to be done if they are to win over sceptical network systems vendors.
Indium phosphide (InP), a member of the III-V semiconductor family, is an established technology platform for making active optical components such as lasers and photodetectors.
The material has an energy bandgap that can be tuned between 920 and 1650 nm, making it ideal for optical comms applications, while its high refractive index (3.17 at 1550 nm) facilitates the fabrication of compact devices - laser chips smaller than a square millimetre, for example.
fibers.org /articles/news/5/5/2/1   (821 words)

  
 NTP: Indium Phosphide 22398-80-7
B. Animal Data: There was information on only one study regarding the toxicity of indium phosphide in animals.
(1977) found a 12% increase in the collagen content of lungs after mice were exposed by inhalation to indium phosphide.
Stokinger (1981) reported that "depending on the route of administration and compound type, indium is one of the more toxic of metals." Administration of In dust by inhalation to rats for 3 months produced pulmonary inflammation.
ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov /index.cfm?objectid=03DF20C6-AA41-DDE8-88D1D4CD7EAE3E4E   (296 words)

  
 indium phosphide definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta
indium phosphide definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta
Search for "indium phosphide" in all of MSN Encarta
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encarta.msn.com /dictionary_701706758/indium_phosphide.html   (74 words)

  
 NCSR - Indium Phosphide
Indium Phosphide is well known as a substrate for heterojunction devices, specifically the HBT and HEMT.
InP is available in wafer sizes varying from 2 to 4 inches as both conducting and semi-insulating substrates.
Additional points of interest are the percentages of Indium for which the alloys transition to a direct bandgap.
www.onr.navy.mil /sci_tech/31/312/ncsr/materials/inp.asp   (142 words)

  
 Xindium: Technology
Xindium has pioneered a new indium phosphide (InP)-based RF power amplifier that fundamentally redefines the next generation of mobile phones, enabling them to transmit voice, data, graphics, and video at broadband speeds—for the first time.
Indium phosphide is uniquely suited to meet the challenges of converging voice and high-speed data over mobile communications networks.
increase breakdown voltage by 30% over gallium arsenide and by 100% over other indium phosphide chips.
www.xindium.com /technology/technology.html   (413 words)

  
 OhioLINK ETD: Hakimzadeh, Roshanak
It was found that accounting for a finite V s leads to a significant correction to the accepted value of the hole diffusion length (L p) for GaAs.
Next the technique was applied to indium phosphide (InP), using gold/p-type InP Schottky barriers, and the electron dif fusion length (In) was measured for the first time taking into account the finite value of V s.
In the course of this study, the diffusion length damage coefficient (K L) for 0.5 MeV proton-irradiated InP was measured for the first time.
rave.ohiolink.edu /etdc/view?acc_num=case1056641481   (346 words)

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