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Topic: Individual differences

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  Individual differences psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In this context, differences between individuals in their reaction to the experimental and control manipulations are actually treated as errors rather than as interesting phenomena to study.
Individual difference psychologists usually express their interest in individuals while studying groups by seeking dimensions shared by all individuals but upon which individuals differ.
Individual differences typically includes the study of intelligence (trait) and IQ and the study of personality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Individual_differences_psychology   (457 words)

 Individual Differences and Personality
In the study of individual differences, the aim is to identify dimensions that are applicable to everyone but that discriminate among people.
Individuals differ in terms of their personalities in addition to other psychological characteristics such as intelligence and cognitive styles.
The study of individual differences and personality is enjoying a renaissance today as a result of renewed interest in selection processes to match people to situations, but exploring the variety of human nature has always been of enduring fascination.
www.le.ac.uk /psychology/amc/lepsindi.html   (2074 words)

 Individual Differences
Although to study individual differences seems to be to study variance, how are people different, it is also to study central tendency, how well can a person be described in terms of an overall within-person average.
Indeed, perhaps the most important question of individual differences is whether people are more similar to themselves over time and across situations than they are to others, and whether the variation within a single person across time and situation is less than the variation between people.
One of the most replicable observations in the study of individual differences is that almost all tests thought to assess cognitive ability have a general factor (g) that is shared with other tests of ability.
personality-project.org /revelle/publications/ids.html   (2191 words)

 Individual Differences
According to a variety of "authorities," changes in blood lactate accumulation are termed and defined differently as well as being associated with different levels and characteristics of accumulated lactate.
Lactate values differ according to several variables: the activity being performed, the site from where the blood sample is taken, the environment itself (both physical and its effect on the athlete's psychology), and the state of glycogen stores prior to testing.
Differences in technique most probably would account for a significant portion of many inter-individual differences in lactate assessments than work levels or movement economy.
www.roble.net /marquis/coaching/billat.html   (2488 words)

 ID Introduction
The focus of investigation in individual differences research is on the variables that form the basis for manifest differences in behavior and performance among individuals and between groups.
Individual differences interact in almost every case with experimental and situational paradigms to produce results differing profoundly for individuals of different capacities, different personalities, different emotions, and different motivations.
The research program on Individual Differences at the University of Sydney is under the direction of Dr. Lazar Stankov, who for the past 25 years has been an eminent international contributor to the field of human individual differences.
www.psych.usyd.edu.au /difference5/secondlevel/idintroduction.htm   (2625 words)

 AH 2004 - Workshop on Individual Differences in AH
Clearly, there is a number of important human factors, such as gender differences, cognitive styles, personality factors, cultural backgrounds and so on that have not been fully explored, as well as techniques for adaptivity that can be potentially useful to accommodate individual differences.
Individuals differ in traits such as skills, aptitudes and preferences for processing information, constructing meaning from information, and applying it to real-world situations.
The Workshop will explore how individual differences theory can be integrated into the design, development and implementation of adaptive hypermedia applications, and investigate how individual differences considerations influence the use of adaptive hypermedia applications.
www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk /~gmagoulas/AH2004_Workshop/index.html   (407 words)

 Individual Differences and Debriefing Effectiveness
Acceptance of individual differences in reactions to traumatic stress may help us better manage emergency workers' training and in-service education, but there is the risk it may be misinterpreted as blaming an individual for reacting to events.
Studying individual differences is further complicated by two rather different stereotypes of the emergency worker, the macho stoic and the vulnerable tertiary victim.
The emphasis on critical incident stress probably has been accepted by the emergency worker because the term and procedures treat the individual as less culpable in the stress-reaction equation, and to return to the idea of individual differences may be seen as a step backward providing employers with an opportunity to blame the victim.
www.massey.ac.nz /~trauma/issues/1998-1/moran1.htm   (5308 words)

 Individual Differences in Adaptivity
To investigate individual differences in adaptivity, analyses were conducted on the subject d’ scores (as defined earlier)–d’ being a measure of how accurately the subjects chose to retrieve when they actually did know the answer and chose to compute when they did not actually know the answer.
In this case, individual B should not be rated as being less intrinsically adaptive because the particular intrinsic predictor is simply less predictive for that individual.
Third, the individual differences were shown to be strongly correlated to overall task performance, even in situations in which base-rates of success are not directly manipulated.
www.lrdc.pitt.edu /Schunn/research/papers/PLMchapter.html   (12119 words)

 Individual Differences in Reasoning:
In short, the argument is that the signs of the correlations with the individual difference variables point in the direction of the response that is produced by processes that are ordinarily useful.
The individual differences version of the understanding/acceptance principle puts positive manifold to use in areas of cognitive psychology where the nature of the appropriate normative model to apply is in dispute.
However, it is different in that in the wrong norm explanation it is assumed that the subject is interpreting the task as the experimenter intended--but the experimenter is not using the right criteria to evaluate performance.
falcon.jmu.edu /~westrf/papers/individ_diff_bbs.html   (14744 words)

 Inroduction to individual differences - An undergraduate psychology course in individual differences
Individual differences is a cornerstone subject area in modern psychology.
So, in the study of individual differences we strive to understand ways in which people are psychologically similar and particularly what psychological characteristics vary between people.
Individual differences psychology is still a young science and a relatively recent development in modern psychology.
www.wilderdom.com /personality/L1-1Introduction.html   (474 words)

 Educational Psychology Interactive: Considering Individual Differences
One strategy for dealing with individual differences is to develop or modify the events of instruction so that they specifically address individual differences.
While individualized instruction is logically the best way to deal with individual differences, in practice it is very difficult to accomplish.
A third strategy for dealing with individual differences among students is to change the system within which instruction is provided.
chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/edpsyc/indvdiff.html   (860 words)

 Individual Differences and Evolutionary Psychology
Individual Differences and Evolutionary Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin
Since the causes of differences are multifaceted, students are expected to have some exposure in formal courses to behavior genetics, evolution, environmental influences on behavior, and the techniques of psychological measurement, as well as to specialize in a major area of interest.
Individual differences uses behavioral genetic and psychological measurement methods in the assessment of traits in both the normal and abnormal range.
homepage.psy.utexas.edu /homepage/DeptArea/IDEP   (183 words)

 Individual Differences
We say, "I want my children to respect differences" and we make fun of the outfits of the teens at the mall or on Main Street or we make rude comments about the homeless woman in the city.
We say, "I want my children to celebrate individual differences" and we insist on orange construction paper jack-o-lanterns and straight lines and quiet children in our effort to make us all the same.
We say, "I want my children to 'love one another'" and we call the Hari Krishna's crazy, we call Muslims terrorists, and characterize some Christian groups as intolerant and hateful while we are intolerant of their point of view.
www.trainingwheels4ece.com /talk/ttdiff.htm   (1070 words)

 Personality & Individual Differences - A psychology course   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Individual difference psychology examines how people are similar and how they differ in their thinking, feeling and behaviour.
People are complex, however, and there are multiple theories and evidence as to what are the prevailing aspects of psychological differences.
The general structure for this course is to study intelligence for the first 5 weeks, then personality for 10 weeks.
www.wilderdom.com /personality/index.html   (79 words)

 Individual Differences in Reasoning:
A person who does not clearly see the difference between an expression of intention and a promise or between a mistake and an accident, or between a falsehood and a lie, should avoid a legal career or, for that matter, a theological one" (p.
In our research program, we have attempted to demonstrate that a consideration of individual differences in the heuristics and biases literature may have implications for debates about the cause of the gap between normative models and descriptive models of actual performance.
Individual differences are also directly relevant to theories that algorithmic-level limitations prevent the computation of the normative response in a system that would otherwise compute it.
www.bbsonline.org /Preprints/OldArchive/bbs.stanovich.html   (15909 words)

 Individual Differences
Because testing provides the foundation for research on individual differences, we will also review the theoretical, pragmatic, and ethical issues surrounding psychological assessment of human differences.
Each student is expected to read a considerable amount in preparation for each class, participate extensively in class presentations and discussions, write a substantial paper on an important aspect of individual differences and evaluate the assessment techniques, research, and theories in this field of psychology.
Two primary goals of this course are to (1) give you the necessary tools to evaluate information on human variation and its measurement and (2) provide you with a broad overview of current issues, theories, and empirical findings in the field of individual differences.
www.lclark.edu /~davidson/indivDiff.html   (1584 words)

 Individual differences in ability and behavior
In connection with individual differences, especially intelligence ("g") but also personality ("big five"), it is an attempt to reduce superficial differences to more fundamental psychological differences.
And we may observe a difference similar in kind but smaller in degree between the modes of thought of men and women; for the women are the more quick to draw conclusions, and retain more pertinaciously the beliefs once formed......
However predictive validity is rarely perfect and one consequence is that individuals who might be capable of such and such are not allowed the opportunity because a moderately valid test has been used for selection.
pubpages.unh.edu /~jel/intro/401-99intelligence.html   (2226 words)

 Psychology of individual differences
Depending upon your point of view this can be seen as a great strength of psychology or a weakness or probably both.
A further issue that is often included in the section of individual differences is what psychologists refer to as abnormality.
· consider the implications of research in the psychology of individual differences.
www.holah.karoo.net /individual.htm   (380 words)

 Core6   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
The broad range of individual differences among young children often makes it difficult to distinguish normal variations and maturational delays from transient disorders and persistent impairments.
Within this broad continuum, it often can be difficult to make clear distinctions among individual differences within a normative or typical range (e.g., variations in communication skills), transient delays related to maturational lags (e.g., speech articulation errors), and diagnosed developmental disabilities (e.g., true disorders of language or cognition), especially in the early childhood years.
The concept of alternative developmental pathways offers a framework for viewing individual differences, maturational delays, and actual disabilities as part of a unified continuum that applies to the development of all children.
www4.nas.edu /onpi/webextra.nsf/web/Core6?opendocument   (497 words)

 Journal of Individual Differences
Researchers, teachers, and students interested in all areas of individual differences (e.g., gender, temperament, personality, intelligence) and their assessment in human and animal research will find the Journal of Individual Differences useful.
The Journal of Individual Differences publishes manuscripts dealing with individual differences in behavior, emotion, cognition, and their developmental aspects.
The Journal of Individual Differences is conceptualized to bring together researchers working in different areas ranging from, for example, molecular genetics to theories of complex behavior.
www.hhpub.com /journals/jid/journals.html   (798 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Individual Differences: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Colin Cooper's 'Individual Differences' has been a favourite among lecturers and students of differential psychology since it was published in 1997.
Where other texts focus on either the theories of personality or the techniques of psychometric testing, Individual Differences remains unique in being the only textbook to cover both aspects of this intriguing subject.
Individual Differences was recommended to me by a friend so that I might better understand personality, intelligence and psychometrics.
www.amazon.co.uk /exec/obidos/ASIN/0340808160   (525 words)

 Ferret individual differences   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
But they are different from each other anyway.
This table shows in which ways they are different from each other.
It can be noted that both Alison and Natasja wants to be in the washbasin when I brush my teeth in the morning, but none of the others have shown any interest in it.
www.canit.se /~griffon/ferrets/text.e/olika.html   (105 words)

 Learning and Individual Differences.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Baenninger, N. Newcombe, Environmental input to the development of sex-related differences in spatial and mathematical ability, Learning and Individual Differences 7 (4) (1995) pp.
Santiago Pelegrina, M. Teresa Bajo, Fernando Justicia, Allocation of time in self-paced memory tasks: the role of practice, instructions, and individual differences in optimizing performance, Learning and Individual Differences 11 (4) (1999) pp.
Bartsch, D. Estes, Individual differences in children's developing theory of mind and implications for metacognition, Learning and Individual Differences 8 (4) (1996) pp.
elsevier.com /cdweb/journals/10416080/viewer.htt?viewtype=authors&...   (641 words)

 Individual Differences
However, it is in practices where the Principle of Individuality is violated.
A major portion of this issue considers common physiological tests that are used to determine changes within athletes and differences between athletes.
Unless the individual needs of athletes are accommodated in coaching programs and by coaching practices, the vast majority of athletes will have little chance of achieving their sporting potential.
www-rohan.sdsu.edu /dept/coachsci/csa/vol34/table.htm   (1345 words)

 ACJ Special: Individual Differences or Social Pragmatics
Specifically, we argue that constructivist researchers have tapped into qualitatively different social pragmatics.  Kenneth Gergen (1985) observed that, "Forms of discourse emerge, for one, as a response to certain practical problems encountered in human relationships" (p.
Gilotti, C. Individual differences in the delivery of bad news among third year medical students to patients.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 10A.
Kline, S. L.  (1984).  Individual differences in the accomplishment of face support in persuasive communication.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
acjournal.org /holdings/vol5/iss3/special/leichty.htm   (3921 words)

 NNCC Ages & Stages - Individual Differences
Developmental milestones give a general idea about what to expect from children of different ages.
Children are inherently different in their tolerance to noise, activity, visual stimulation, or changes in the environment.
An environment that is sensitive to this need in children will provide interesting activities as well as a quiet place to get away from the action.
www.nncc.org /Child.Dev/ages.stages.indiv.dif.html   (469 words)

 Elsevier.com - Personality and Individual Differences
Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature.
They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning.
International Society for the Study of Individual Differences
www.elsevier.com /locate/paid   (251 words)

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