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Topic: Individualism


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In the News (Sat 16 Dec 17)

  
  Individualism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Individualism is a moral, political, and social philosophy, which emphasizes individual liberty, the primary importance of the individual, and the "virtues of self-reliance" and "personal independence".
Individualism is often contrasted with either totalitarianism or collectivism, but in fact there is a spectrum of behaviours ranging at the societal level from highly individualistic societies (e.g.
Proponents of such public initiatives and social responsibility argue that their policies are beneficial for the individual, and that excessive individualism may actually hurt the individuals themselves.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Individualism   (1299 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Individualism is generally understood to be a social context or environment in which individuals are the focal operating units as opposed to states or social groups; the social context has to be sustained by the beliefs of the people within it.
Individualism is often contrasted with totalitarianism and collectivism, but in fact there is a spectrum of behaviours ranging at the societal level from highly individualistic societies (e.g.
In capitalism, individuals have choices with regard to institutional affiliation (for which institution s/he works), whereas in many socialist economies workplaces, as well as place of residence, spending, and artistic and political expression, are heavily regulated or determined by the state.
www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/i/in/individualism.html   (688 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Individualism
Individualism is not the opposite of socialism, except in a very general and incomplete way.
Individualism is scarcely a principle, for it exhibits too many degrees, and it is too general to be called a theory or a doctrine.
It means that the individual conscience, or the individual reason, is not merely the decisive subjective rule, but that it is the only rule; that there is no objective authority or standard which it is bound to take into account.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/07761a.htm   (1445 words)

  
 Methodological individualism and cognitivism
Methodological individualism is standardly contrasted with holism, according to which social phenomena can be explained only by invoking the behavior or the properties of entities which are irreducibly supra-individual, such as culture or institutions.
Individuals (whose behavior is also, of course, relevant to explanation) are the locus at which many of these infra-individual processes take place, but they are not the agents of these processes.
The behavior of an individual, for instance walking or speaking, may be perceptible to other individuals, or it may leave perceptible traces, for instance footsteps or writing.
www.dan.sperber.com /individ.htm   (3890 words)

  
 www.BlackCrayon.com: Essays: Individualism
Strictly speaking, then, individualism is a philosophical position, whose opposite is collectivism, while socialism is an economic position, whose opposite is propertarianism, or the advocacy of private property.
Individualism denies that there are any collective moral agents, and therefore denies rights or responsibilities to groups (but not to the individuals within those groups).
Individualism is, as I have said, the basis for voluntary community, not its antithesis.
blackcrayon.com /essays/individualism   (1942 words)

  
 Individualism and Conflict   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The relationship of this latter type of individualism to social interactions is explored in the context of interpersonal conflict.
The former pair are viewed as antithetical to one another while in the case of the latter pair, conflict is a logically inevitable consequence of individualists (vainly) seeking to coexist peacefully in a social environment.
It is difficult to reconcile individualism with the ideals regarding romantic love, i.e., "losing" oneself in the relationship versus maintaining autonomy; balancing the needs for autonomy of two people in a relationship; justifying sacrifice or inequity in a relationship; and dealing with individuality and freedom as well as role requirements and obligations.
home.earthlink.net /~rdmadden/webdocs/Individualism_and_Conflict.html   (4586 words)

  
 20th WCP: John Dewey's Critique of Socioeconomic Individualism
Indeed, modern individuality, character, subjectivity, consciousness, identity, whatever name you wish to call it, is according to Dewey something already and necessarily conditioned by social ensembles, social networks in turn necessarily and already conditioned by the individuals who have come to comprise them.
Deeply influenced by Locke's earlier individualism, Smith also held that selfhood is not constituted and cultivated in the political arena via processes of socialization but is rather something inborn, static, and natural, something the essence of which the structure of human being prepolitically determines.
As I briefly indicated earlier on: individualism is more thoroughly ideological and insidious precisely to the extent that its disavowals can and do historically drift and reify beyond their era-specific usage, to the extent, say, that our contemporary social institutions have uncritically inherited the atomizing, universalizing, and ahistoricizing views of a Locke and Smith.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Poli/PoliZema.htm   (2278 words)

  
 Women's Subversive Individualism in Barcelona During the 1930s - Michael Seidman
Female individualism should not be identified exclusively with conservatism and reaction, Women's failure to sacrifice for the Revolution did not mean that they were pro-Franco or a feminine Fifth Column.
Subversive individualism, on the other hand, arises from the contradiction between the individual and society and thus recalls the neglected tradition of Stirnerian anarchism in which personal needs and desires took precedence over both capitalist and socialist wage labor.
The persistence of individualism during the late 1930s in Barcelona demonstrates the inability of socialist society to overcome the split between the individual and the collectivity.
www.geocities.com /CapitolHill/Lobby/2379/subindiv.htm   (5334 words)

  
 Objectivism and Individualism
"Individualism" is a term for classifying theories, such as ethical or social theories.
Any theory that places the individual foremost or in a fundamental position is a kind of individualism.
In ethics, it holds that each individual's life and happiness is the proper purpose of morality.
www.objectivistcenter.org /cth--1202-Objectivism_and_Individualism.aspx   (201 words)

  
 Methodological Individualism
The reason for privileging individual action in sociological explanation is that only action is “subjectively understandable.” Weber reserves the term “action” to refer to the subset of human behavior that is motivated by linguistically formulated or “meaningful” mental states.
Thus methodological individualism is a slightly misleading term, since the goal is not to privilege the individual over the collective in social-scientific explanation, but rather to privilege the action-theoretic level of explanation.
The key characteristic of methodological individualism is that it “systematically starts from the concepts which guide individuals in their actions and not from the results of their theorizing about their actions”(1942, 286).
plato.stanford.edu /entries/methodological-individualism   (6597 words)

  
 20th WCP: The Not-so-trivial Truth of Methodological Individualism
The principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences has its origin in the Austrian school of economics and was introduced into the philosophy of social science in general by Friedrich Hayek and Karl Popper.
The relation between a social entity and the individuals 'involved' in it is not a part-whole relation as is the relation between a cell and its composing molecules.
Social scientists have often fought methodological individualism because it implied, in their eyes, an unacceptable reduction of social science to psychology, or the subsumption of social phenomena under psychological theories.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Scie/ScieFran.htm   (3098 words)

  
 Individualism and Commitment in American Life
That Bellah would be agitating for individualism if he were in a Japan, a society he has studied a great deal, is an illuminating qualification to his and his co-authors’ critique of American individualism.
That is surprising to us because we imagine individualism so endemically American that probably John Winthrop and the Pilgrims were talking about it as they got off the boat and certainly the drafters of the Constitution were talking individualism, individualism, individualism.
Radical American individualism seems to contain two conceptions of human relatedness that, again, look perhaps at first incompatible but seem to be held simultaneously by many of the people to whom we talked.
www.robertbellah.com /lectures_4.htm   (5600 words)

  
 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Individualism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
PiGuy, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis of the individual, as opposed to, and possibly at the expense of, the group.
From a social standpoint, individualism is generally understood to be a context or environment in which individuals are the focal operating units as opposed to states or social groups; the social context has to be sustained by the beliefs of the people within it.
However, compared to various forms of political collectivism, capitalism is usually still considered individualistic since participation in these institutions is volutary and an individual choice.
www.fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Individualism   (703 words)

  
 Not PC: Cue Card Libertarianism -- Individualism
Individualism is the doctrine that that each human being is sovereign over his own life – that each individual is autonomous in themselves – and as such, no person can become a means to the ends of others.
Since individual autonomy is an extension of each person’s ability to think and to choose – that is, of an individual's rational faculty – the upholding of autonomy entails the upholding of reason, and its application in reality.
Individuals acting together voluntarily in their own self-interest are in fact the only way to deliver "the best results for society" -- but this is a consequence, not a primary justification.
pc.blogspot.com /2005/11/cue-card-libertarianism-individualism.html   (1043 words)

  
 American Passages - Unit 4. Spirit of Nationalism: Context Activities
Although the term "individualism" was not in general use until the 1820s, the foundational principles behind the concept were established by the mid-eighteenth century.
Individuals thus have a responsibility to throw off the shackles of traditions and inherited conventions in order to live creatively according to their unique perception of truth.
Emerson's intoxicating ideas about the power of the individual captivated many of his contemporaries, giving rise to the Transcendentalist movement (the group believed that only by transcending the limits of rationalism and received tradition could the individual fully realize his or her potential).
www.learner.org /amerpass/unit04/context_activ-1.html   (1609 words)

  
 The Library at nothingness.org/The Politics of Individualism
Existential individualism is based on the concepts of free will and the ability to make judgments (28), the idea of freedom as a end in itself (32), and a free community comprised of individuals who recognize the freedom of others.
There is nothing in her theory of individualism that one could identify as categorically linked to gender to biological determinism, or to an analysis of a patriarchy.
In defense of the existential individual, however, Brown goes to extremes to isolate the individual from context, which further weakens her later argument for a "community" of existential individuals.
library.nothingness.org /articles/SA/en/display/292   (2382 words)

  
 Individualism by Roberto Diego
The idea that individualism is a viable alternative to collectivism has seldom been discussed though it is crucial for the survival of our way of life.
The battle against the individual by the collective was thereby begun and thereafter man became the neglected pawn whose role was to do as told.
We are taught that the individual is inherently evil, of this earth, born with Original Sin.
www.insmkt.com /indiv.htm   (4232 words)

  
 Neeraj Arora's Blog : Individualism, Neeraj Arora blogs on sulekha, Indology blogs, Neeraj Arora blog from india
By this method a chain of individuals from one generation to another and another is getting born and dying and this cycle is continuing.
These individuals with his each skill set and clear goal objective which is only possible where at the risk of repetition I stress again the boundary of thinking has not been too narrow.
This post only attempts to lets say throw some light on the hidden potential of an individual and has been written driven by the anguish which one feels when one sees where we stand and where we could be.
www.sulekha.com /blogs/blogdisplay.aspx?cid=36579   (682 words)

  
 Individualism and Evolutionary Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Psychological individualism is the principle that an individual's psychological states supervene on that individual's (current) internal physical states.
Although individualism can appear to be an ontological thesis, it is actually a methodological constraint on psychological explanation deriving from a commitment to causal explanations of behavior.
For individualism is a methodological constraint on causal explanations of why particular individuals behave in particular ways at particular points in time.
cogprints.org /328/00/indy&ep.htm   (8216 words)

  
 INDIVIDUALISM VS. INDIVIDUALISM by Laure Akai
This philosophy, although a reality, should not be confused with anarchistic individualism; any understanding as such is really a perversion of its philosophy which holds as sacrisanct the fundamental notion of the worth of each individual.
The ethical considerations of the individual are inconsequential.
Individualist philosophy, therefore, is one of the highest respect for the individual, not an infantile disorder of the ego, not a lofty rationalization for carrying out actions which, more likely than not, are not product of true desires but of forces outside the individual.
www.spunk.org /texts/theory/ind/sp001866.html   (1123 words)

  
 collectivism vs. individualism
As an ethical-psychological concept, individualism holds that a human being should think and judge independently, respecting nothing more than the sovereignty of his or her mind; thus, it is intimately connected with the concept of autonomy.
Political or moral individualism is the theory that individuals should be left, as far as possible, to determine their own futures in economic and moral matters.
Individualism holds that a civilized society, or any form of association, cooperation or peaceful co-existence among men, can be achieved only on the basis of the recognition of individual rights -- and that a group, as such, has no rights other than the individual rights of its members." -- Ayn Rand HERE
freedomkeys.com /collectivism.htm   (5804 words)

  
 Science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For example, Newton's theories of physics allow us to predict various physical interactions, from the collision of one moving billiard ball with another, to trajectories of space shuttles and satellites.
Individualism is a tacit assumption underlying most empiricist accounts of science which treat science as if it were purely a matter of a single individual confronting nature, testing and predicting hypotheses.
Individuals involved in the field of science education argue that the process of science is performed by all individuals as they learn about their world.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Science   (3353 words)

  
 Individualism and the Crisis of Civic Membership
We believe that the culture and language of individualism influence these trends but that there are also structural reasons for them, many of which stem from changes in the global economy that have increased the disparity between the rich and poor and threatened the survival of the middle class.
When individuals make the assessment that their future possibilities for participating in validating activities are low and particularly when that estimate is constantly confirmed by others in their world (teachers, police, parents), then the process of searching for alternative validating potentials that result, in deviant behavior is set in motion.
After all, says Gans, the residents of the lower-middle- and working-class suburbs who are more devoted to their family and friends than to civic life are only a generation or two away from the grinding poverty of manual labor among their immigrant ancestors or the backbreaking labor of peasant agriculture in the old country.
www.religion-online.org /showarticle.asp?title=224   (3965 words)

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