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Topic: Indoeuropean languages

  INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES - LoveToKnow Article on INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Till the latter part of the 18th century it was the universal practice to refer all languages ultimately to a Hebrew origin, because Hebrew, being the language of the Bible, was assumed, with reference to the early chapters of Genesis, to be the original language.
The imperative, which was originally an exclamatory form to the verb, of the same kind as the vocative was to the noun, and which consisted simply o~ the verb stem without further suffixes, developed, partly on the analogy of the present and partly with the help of adverbs, a complete paradigm.
The infinitives of all the languages are noun cases, generally stereotyped in form and no longer in touch with a noun system, though this, e.g.
32.1911encyclopedia.org /I/IN/INDO_EUROPEAN_LANGUAGES.htm   (7637 words)

 IndoEuropean Languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
English, like most of the languages of Europe, is a member of a large family of languages, the Indo-European language family, probably the most widely studied of all language families.
Their language, traced back over many, many years, by comparing the earliest known versions of the descendants of this language, is sometimes said to resemble modern Lithuanian more than any of the other Indo-European languages.
The Indo-European languages are usually divided among eastern (“satem”) and western (“centum” or “kentum”) languages, depending on how the first consonant of the word for “hundred” was apparently pronounced in the earliest version of the language.
www.geocities.com /Athens/8466/LANG01.html   (515 words)

 Hmong-Mien languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Hmong-Mien or Miao-Yao languages are a small language family of southern China and Southeast Asia.
Earlier linguistic classifications placed the Hmong-Mien languages into the Sino-Tibetan language family, where they remain in many Chinese classifications, but the current consensus among Western linguists is that they constitute a family of their own.
The current languages would be the only branch of that family to have survived, as if the Indoeuropean languages were represented today only by Celtic.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hmong-Mien_languages   (648 words)

 Vocative case - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Examples are Modern Greek and Slavic languages such as Polish, Czech, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and the modern Celtic languages such as Scottish Gaelic and Irish.
Among the Romance languages the vocative was preserved in Romanian.
In Polish, unlike in Latin, the vocative (wołacz) is almost always different from the nominative case and is formed according to a complex grammatical pattern.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vocative   (1311 words)

 1310   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
A language is usually matched by a written system which enables a culture to diffuse, and language is a critical component of any cultural identity.
Europe alone has more than 100 languages and dialects, and language differences were partial reasons for drawing the political boundaries when the victorious allies redrew the boundaries of Europe after WW I. So language is a hallmark of cultural diversity.
The languages are classified in terms of large language families that have no shared history such as the Indo-European Family and the Sino-Tibetan Family, or languages that do share a history, such as French and Italian.
www.geo.utep.edu /pub/nick_miller/1310/LECTURE_9.html   (2075 words)

 Steve's place - Languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Indoeuropean (Romance, Indoaryan, Germanic, Celtic, Greek, Slavic): tend to be highly postfix inflected, use -a as a marker on feminine nouns, have 'm' in the first person singular pronoun (me), subject prominent.
Languages can be grouped into families: it is clear from even a cursory look at the words for father in Latin and Greek (pater), German (Vater), French (père), English (father) and Sanskrit (pitar) that there is a relationship of some sort.
Those languages that consider adjectives to be a sort of noun may well ask you ton decline them, those that consider them to be verb-like may ask you to conjugate them.
www.steve.gb.com /science/languages.html   (5642 words)

 Linguistic Aspects of the Indo-European Urheimat Question An indological article by the Belgian indologist Koenraad ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Sanskrit terms in the Mitannic language attested in Kurdistan in the 15th century BC seem to be a left­over of an Indo­Aryan presence in West Asia, which presupposes an earlier Indo­Aryan migration through (an already predominantly Iranian­­speaking) Central Asia.
It is suspected that the centre of dispersion of the Sinitic languages was near the Koko­nor lake, at the borders of China proper, Tibet and Mongolia.
This family of languages is the one with the second greatest geographical spread after IE: from Madagascar through Malaysia and Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines, to Melanesia and Polynesia, as far south as New Zealand.
www.hindunet.org /saraswati/aryan/koenraad2.html   (8727 words)

 Web resources for new languages in Africa
However, there is also a sizable number of non-europhone "new" languages that are getting an increasing amount of attention in the literature.
Standard and non-standard African language varieties in the urban areas of South Africa (PDF).
Language and societal attitudes: a study of Malawi's 'New language' (PDF).
goto.glocalnet.net /maho/webresources/new.html   (405 words)

 Ukraine and Ukrainian Education & Research at BRAMA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The table-dictionaries follow this structure: words of the same language are placed in vertical columns; the words which relate to the same isogloss are found in horizontal lines.
If all the languages have the appropriate words for the same isogloss (all square are full), then this isogloss belongs to a common lexical stock of the language family.
Their late languages as a part of the three previos great language families have been researched on the level two.
www.brama.com /education/stetsiukethnoabs.html   (1224 words)

 Vocative case - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although it has been lost by many modern Indoeuropean languages, some languages have retained the vocative case to this day.
The asterisk in front of the Indoeuropean words means that they are merely hypothetical reconstructions, not based on any written sources.
Nevertheless, Russian has vocative-like expressions, the syntax and usage being basically the same as described in the English language section.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Vocative_case   (1311 words)

It will bear on the "typology" of spoken languages and it will hardly take graphonomics into account but you know that, depending on their functional manners, writing systems can be far more favourable to certain spoken languages and far less to others.
Ancient Indoeuropean languages are considered models of inflectional languages and several of their offsprings, Polish for instance, and also Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, have retained a lot of this tradition.
In "polysynthetic" languages, a single root can be preceded by an impressive number of prefixes and followed by a large number of suffixes, in a manner such that what would be perceived as a sentence in other languages becomes a single word.
www.cedar.buffalo.edu /igs/igs97-lecours-part6.html   (1342 words)

 The Original Nominal System of Proto-Indoeuropean - Case and Gender
This hypothesis is not new and is based on the fact that Hittite (and its relatives) which is documented by written sources as early as the first half of the second millennium BC does not distinguish between male and female but only between animate and inanimate gender, i.e.
Regarding personal pronouns which do not distinguish gender in Indoeuropean languages one must be interested in their accusative (absolute case) ending.
This was the begin of the Indoeuropean nominative era leading to the commonly reconstructed Proto-Indoeuropean stage.
members.pgv.at /homer/INDOEURO/gender.htm   (766 words)

 yourDictionary.com • Calvert Watkins Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans
The Roots of the Proto-Indo-European Language that accompanies this essay is designed to allow the reader to trace English words derived from Indo-European languages back to their fundamental components in Proto-Indo-European, the parent language of all ancient and modern Indo-European languages.
Language is a social fact; languages are not spoken in a vacuum but by human beings living in a society.
Language is intimately linked to culture in a complex fashion; it is at once the expression of culture and a part of it.
www.yourdictionary.com /library/watkins.html   (9383 words)

 [No title]
The non-configurational nature of Quechua syntax and the importance of person agreement in the language are topics that are of great importance within the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1998) as they support the view that human languages may resource to the use of long distance agreement mechanisms to avoid costly syntactic operations such as movement.
Chapter 7 provides and overview of phenomena that have been observed by researchers in the areas of Quechua first language and bilingual acquisition that are related to the acquisition of person agreement, word order and negative concord and to interference in Quechua-Spanish bilinguals in phenomena that involve some form of agreement morphology.
Scholars with a strong interest in morphologically rich non-configurational languages and the syntactic processes involved in such languages as well as scholars with a particular interest in the study of Amerindian languages.
www.rci.rutgers.edu /~lsanchez/researchprojects/Quechuabook.doc   (886 words)

The reconstruction of ancient languages may be likened to the method used by molecular biologists in their quest to understand the evolution of life.
Dead languages that have never been written, however, can be reconstructed only by comparing their descendants and by working backward according to the laws that govern phonological change.
The rooting of the IndoEuropean languages in eastern Anatolia is also suggested by the frequency of words borrowed from a number of languages that flourished there: Semitic, Kartvelian, Sumerian and even Egyptian.
www.biblemysteries.com /library/indoeuropean.htm   (2777 words)

 Fitaly is optimized for Indoeuropean languages
Fitaly was initially optimized for the Brown corpus for the English language.
This must be a reflection of the common Indoeuropean origin of these languages.
We then ran the tests on 300 KB of legal letters and the results are within 1-2% when you remove numbers, within 5% with numbers kept.
www.fitaly.com /board/winceforum/posts/85.html   (312 words)

 Finnish Mythology
Germanic languages as a result of an admixture of proto-Indo-European dialects and a "proto-European" Finno-Ugrian language changes the picture: as the Indo-European group was diffused, it cannot have produced "finalized" daughter languages which was the former simplistic view.
Here was developed a practical new "world language," a _lingua franca._ The core of the common language came to be the Indo-European language of the more mobile nomad population, but the majority of its speakers had a Finno-Ugrian language as their mother tongue.
Wiik believes the main reason for the language shift was the "higher authority" of the new Indo-European language of the population which already had adopted agriculture.
victorian.fortunecity.com /christy/32/ak2e.html   (2490 words)

 Aboriginal languages of Spain 1:1i
Among them, the Indoeuropean ones were obviously brought into the Peninsula some time before their first attestation; as for the origin of the non-Indoeuropean ones, at present it can but be guessed.
Their language is generally thought to be Iberian, or a variety of Iberian.
Celtiberian: There are some texts in a Celtic (Indoeuropean) language, written between II b.C. and II a.D., using mostly the Iberian writing system, some of them in Latin abecedarium.
www.geocities.com /msanzledesma/ind_i1.htm   (623 words)

 Grimm's Law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
All of them are derived from an unrecorded language thought to have been spoken about 6000 years ago somewhere near the Black Sea.
During the First World War the ancient language of the Hittites was decipered, and the larnygals were found just where they had been predicted to be.
The only modern languages I know of other than Indian languages that have the are the Khoisan (Bushman) languages of Southern Africa, which are notoriously hard to speak.
www.finucane.de /grimm.htm   (1254 words)

 Indoeuropean linguistics? (Ancient languages)
As you know, of course, the language was sort of "reconstructed" in the form or word roots ("radicales") but there is no written document in Indoeuropean.
One thing however - a characteristic of Indo-european languages is the use of indefinite/definite articles (Basque and Finnish being the two European languages excluded from the family as they don't have them) but these examples of Indoeuropean don't seem to have them.
As far as I can remember from my University courses, Indoeuropean had (or is supposed to have had) a demonstrative which developped into an article in some languages (for example Ancient Greek).
www.proz.com /topic/28279   (980 words)

 InfoHub - Which language is the closest to Latin?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Ok, Denis...the languages I have seen mentioned as closest to Latin were Sardu Logudorescu (spoken in Sardinia, Italy) and Romansch (one of the four official languages in Szitzerland).
Sardinian is language of Roman colonists who came to Sardinia early in the Roman epoch and met pre Indo-European people which spoke a language of unknown origin.
Nevertheless, it is a neolatin language spoken in Switzerland.
www.infohub.com /forums/printthread.php?t=5242&pp=40   (4943 words)

I suspect that the progression was to ph, th, kh, then to phi, theta, chi, and finally to f, f, and h.
The Indo-European languages of the Tarim Basin in far western China known as Tokharian have some Celtic sound qualities -- leading some to suggest that a branch of early proto-Celts wandered all the way to China.
Albanian may be the sole survivor of the Illyrian languages, its many variant features due to long contact with a variety of neighbors.
www.ship.edu /~cgboeree/indoeuropean.html   (2134 words)

 The common Indoeuropean heritage of Welsh and Hindi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The Proto-Indoeuropean is a hypothetical language spoken by the common ancestors of most Europeans [12], Iranians [13] and Indians [14]: the Indoeuropeans [15].
As the Indoeuropeans migrated in Europe, Iran and India, their language [20] quickly changed and divided in what are now the members of the Indoeuropean language group [21].
It is not a dialect of English but a distinct language, although both of them are members of the Indoeuropean group (with English being in the Germanic subgroup and Welsh in the Celtic).
portal.wikinerds.org /node/233/print   (983 words)

 Indoeuropean - JnanaBase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
The term Indoeuropean usually refers to the Indoeuropean family of languages.
Most languages spoken in Europe, North America, South America, and Australia/New Zealand are Indoeuropean.
Not all European languages are Indoeuropean: For example, Hungarian are not.
jnana.wikinerds.org /index.php/Indoeuropean   (127 words)

 Basic Language Structures
Isolating languages are easy for adults to learn, but not as easy for children.
Included are the Indoeuropean languages of India, such as Hindi and Bengali, the Dravidian languages of southern India, Armenian, Hungarian, Turkish and its relatives, Korean, Japanese, Burmese, Basque, and most Australian aboriginal languages.
Among the prepositional languages are the Romance languages, Albanian, Greek, the Bantu languages, languages of southeast Asia, including Khmer, Vietnamese, Thai, and Malay, and the Germanic languages.
www.ship.edu /~cgboeree/basiclangstruct.html   (572 words)

 Family Tree DNA Forum - R1a wanted
This seems to be a contradiction to me, since the first indo-european language speakers are identified as R1a peoples.
IMO, the only people to be in that region in the ice age were the Basques whose language was and is a isolate.
It only says that R1a is responsible for the origin of the current set of Indoeuropean languages.
www.familytreedna.com /forum/printthread.php?t=1189   (913 words)

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