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 Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949.
The AZK were also aided by regular Pakistani soldiers who manned some of their units, with the proportion increasing throughout the war.
War of 1947War of 1965 – War of 1971 – Kargil War
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1947   (2084 words)

  
 MSN Encarta - Printer-friendly - Indo-Pakistani Wars
Although the second war over the territory was shorter than the first, the increased firepower of the two nations resulted in a more deadly war, with a total of about 6,800 battle casualties.
In the wake of a border war between India and China in 1962, efforts by the United States and Britain to settle the territorial dispute had, like the UN mediation process, met with little success.
Pakistani army personnel disguised as local Kashmīris began to infiltrate into the Kashmīr Valley in early August 1965.
encarta.msn.com /text_761588350___25/Indo-Pakistani_Wars.html   (615 words)

  
 MSN Encarta - Indo-Pakistani Wars
Unlike the first and second Indo-Pakistani wars, the third war, fought in 1971, did not involve the status of Kashmīr.
In 1972 Pakistani president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (formerly the foreign minister) met with Indian prime minister Gandhi at the hill resort town of Simla in northern India to discuss a postwar settlement.
Instead, it began as a Pakistani civil war in which East Pakistan, the eastern province of Pakistan, sought to secede from the country.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761588350_3/Indo-Pakistani_Wars.html   (1051 words)

  
 I Indo-Pakistani War, 1947-1949
During the second phase of this war the Indians were foremost busy resupplying and reinforcing several of garrisons put under a siege by Muslim irregulars and also some Pakistani troops, as well as recovering as much of terrain captured by their enemy.
The third phase of the Kashmir War came in the spring of 1948, and was again initiated by strikes of Indian fighter-bombers.
The Pakistani Army was not able to respond in force to Indian intervention, especially after in December 1947 a large uprising broke out in the area called “North-West Frontier” (NWF), along the Pakistani border to Afghanistan.
www.acig.org /artman/publish/printer_321.shtml   (3368 words)

  
 Threats - Pakistan - India Intelligence Agencies
Most Pakistanis, schooled in the belief of their own martial prowess, refused to accept the possibility of their country's military defeat by "Hindu India" and were, instead, quick to blame their failure to attain their military aims on what they considered to be the ineptitude of Ayub Khan and his government.
The 1965 war began as a series of border flare-ups along undemarcated territory at the Rann of Kutch in the southeast in April and soon after along the cease-fire line in Kashmir.
Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the Indian army on December 16, and India offered a cease-fire.
www.fas.org /irp/world/india/threat/pakistan.htm   (963 words)

  
 Ongoing World Conflicts
Since the end of World War II, the United States has assisted in over 20 different coups (or regime changes) throughout the world, and is believed or suspected to be responsible or involved in about 12 assassinations of political heads of state (Blum 1995).
Pakistan tends to follow a military, expansionist line (with constant hate toward India) based, in part, on a belief that it is the true heir to Muslim tradition-guarding in the region (the two-state theory of the partition).
Some estimates put at 137 the number of civil wars during the period from 1820 to 1990 and at 16.2 million the death toll from civil wars fought after World War ii.
faculty.ncwc.edu /toconnor/areas/worldconflicts.htm   (3554 words)

  
 Telegraph News
The war began with the invasion of Kashmir by Pakistani-controlled guerrillas and troops in August 1965.
In March 1999, Afghan mercenaries and heavily-armed Pakistani army troops occupied peaks in Kargil, Kashmir, at a height of 18,000 feet on a 80 km stretch of Indian territory.
The Pakistani president general Yahya Khan resigned and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the winner of the elections in west Pakistan, became the new President of Pakistan.
www.telegraph.co.uk /news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/campaigns/india/indwars.xml   (2065 words)

  
 Indo Pakistan Wars
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan.
However, war on Indias Western front during the period between 3 December 1971 and 16 December 1971 is called the Indo-Pakistani War by both Bangladeshi and Indian Army.
The war led to the immediate surrender of Pakistani forces to Mitro Bahini (the Allied Forces), composed of Mukti Bahini and Indian Army.
read-and-go.hopto.org /Indo-Pakistan-Wars   (1220 words)

  
 Desi Forum
October 20 - The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 begins
Prussia is legally abolished by the Allied Control Council following World War II and the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line as Germany's eastern border.
May 22 - Cold War: In an effort to fight the spread of Communism, President Harry S. Truman signs an act implementing the Truman Doctrine.
www.desiforum.com /encyclopedia/index.php?title=1947   (1825 words)

  
 Pakistan -
Even though the War of Independence was a joint Muslim-Hindu struggle to oust the British, the brunt of British retaliation was directed at the Muslim population of the empire, employing the infamous "Divide and rule" policy.
Whereas Pakistanis in the United States, Canada and Australia tend to be professionals, the majority of them in the United Kingdom, Germany and the Scandinavian nations comes from a rural background and belongs to the working class.
However, this changed after the war with India, when, during the height of the Cold War, the US placed heavy military sanctions on Pakistan, forcing Pakistan to agree to a cease-fire, ending a war that was heading for a stalemate.
www.pakistangrid.com   (5700 words)

  
 Pakistan - The Formation of Pakistan
The Pakistani army, however, performed credibly in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48 and won immense admiration and support among Pakistanis, on which it drew heavily as Pakistan began to pay the price of developing a military capability to offset that of India.
Bands of Muslim tribesmen from Pakistan--together with "volunteers" from the Pakistani army--entered the state in early October 1947 to force the issue and, after joining up with insurgents within Kashmir, were soon threatening to overwhelm the Kashmiri forces.
In the small Pakistani navy and air force, the situation was even worse: there were only nine regular officers in the navy and sixty-five pilots in the air force.
www.country-data.com /cgi-bin/query/r-9893.html   (833 words)

  
 Pakistan Politics
The 58-year-old Pakistani leader is from the southwestern province of Balochistan.
After the elections held in late 2002, the Pakistani political system remains highly fragmented, with no group winning a substantial majority of seats in the legislature, and religious groups banding together in the MMA to earn a very significant portion of seats for the first time.
International and indigenous terrorist groups continue to pose a high threat to senior Pakistani government officials, military officers and US interests.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/world/pakistan/politics.htm   (2332 words)

  
 Pakistan - India
The subsequent Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48 over control of Kashmir concluded with a cease-fire brokered by the United Nations (UN), which took effect on January 1, 1949.
Although the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was fought over East Pakistan, heavy fighting also occurred along the Kashmir cease-fire line.
Consequently, under the Simla Agreement of 1972 following the end of that war, the cease-fire line in Kashmir was redefined (it is now usually referred to as the Line of Control), and India and Pakistan agreed not to use force in Kashmir.
countrystudies.us /pakistan/83.htm   (909 words)

  
 Chester The 1947 Partition: Drawing the Indo-Pakistani Boundary
The 1947 partition was shaped not only by decades of Indian nationalist pressure on the British Government and by the rise of civil unrest in the subcontinent after World War Two, but also by Britain’s precarious economic position in the aftermath of the war.
Many other Indians and Pakistanis long for peace, feeling that the people across the border are their kinfolk, but government propaganda and certain streams of public discourse, including those generated by media and educational institutions, reinforce cross-border resentments.
Pakistani bitterness against India and Indians and Indian bitterness against Pakistan and Pakistani are facts of life in South Asia.
www.unc.edu /depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2002_01-03/chester_partition/chester_partition.html   (6548 words)

  
 Pakistan Army - Psychology Central
After the 71 war the democratic setup was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the end of another democratically elected Government and the Hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier.
Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions.
Pakistan Army is the largest branch of the Military of Pakistan, and is responsible for protection of the state borders, land based military operations, the security of occupied territories, and the crushing defeat of the enemy and his troops.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Pakistan_Army   (2448 words)

  
 The Henry L. Stimson Center - The Kashmir Dispute
The resulting Indo-Pakistani war of 1947-48 divided the state, reflecting the status of forces on the ground.
The Kashmir dispute began with the creation in 1947 of the newly independent states of India and Pakistan, when the Hindu leader of the Muslim-majority princely state of Kashmir opted to accede to India as armed invaders from Pakistan were advancing on his capital, Srinagar.
Pakistani assertions of the size of Indian forces in Jammu and Kashmir have been substantially inflated, and India does not provide details of its military and paramilitary deployments.
www.stimson.org /southasia?SN=SA2001112045   (1524 words)

  
 Indian Army - Psychology Central
Pakistani dictator General Ayub Khan launched Operation Gibraltar in August 1965, believing an Indian leadership still recovering from the 1962 war with China to be unable to effectively deal with such a military thrust.
The 1998 tests of Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons are seen by many commentators as acting as a restraining influence on both sides.
Strategically, the war proved to be a stalemate and the ceasefire on September 23 was followed by talks in Tashkent (brokered by the Soviet Union), where Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan agreed to withdraw to virtually all pre-war positions.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Indian_army   (3470 words)

  
 The First Kashmir War
He ultimately rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in his Army career and was the GOC of Western Army Command during the 1965 Indo-Pak War.
Rai was among the first Indian Army officers to reach Srinagar early morning on 27 October 1947, when the Pakistani-backed raiders almost captured the capital city of Kashmir.
Pakistani soldiers killed in their trenches after an assault by Indian troops.
www.bharat-rakshak.com /LAND-FORCES/Army/Images-1947.html   (425 words)

  
 Pakistan - Introduction
The country subsequently survived civil war and the resultant loss of its East Wing, or East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh in December 1971, and has accommodated an influx of refugees resulting from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (December 1979-February 1989), which over the course of the conflict exceeded 3.2 million people.
This dispute triggered wars between the two countries in 1947 and 1965.
Joining the community of nations as a bifurcated state, with its two wings separated by 1,600 kilometers of foreign soil, Pakistan was faced with the immediate task of absorbing large numbers of refugees from India in the months immediately following partition.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/world/pakistan/intro.htm   (1446 words)

  
 India - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia
In 1971, after Pakistan attacked Indian air bases, India went to war with Pakistan again, resulting in the creation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan.
However, due to World War II, it was agreed that a free India was to be created after the war.
In 1999, India mobilised its military in Kargil, Kashmir to repel Islamic militants, allegedly backed by the Pakistani government, who were encroaching on Indian territory there.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /i/in/india.html   (2524 words)

  
 Greenleft_on_Conflict_over_Kashmir
The two countries' immediate excuse for threatening to go to war is Kashmir, control of which has been under dispute since the 1947 partition of British colonial India into what the independent, secular state of India and the Muslim state of Pakistan.
Ever since 1947, the Indian and Pakistani rulers have used Kashmir as an excuse to maintain high military tension to bolster public support for their respective regimes.
http://www.greenleft.org.au India-Pakistan: Nuclear war threat grows by Eva Cheng The rulers of India and Pakistan - both nuclear-armed allies of Washington in the US-led "war on terrorism" - are terrorising each other with the threat of nuclear war.
www.blythe.org /nytransfer-subs/Asia/Greenleft_on_Conflict_over_Kashmir   (1002 words)

  
 MyMotherIndia.info - India Encyclopedia
During the final stages of that war, India became directly involved in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which ultimately resulted in Pakistan's defeat and the independence of Bangladesh.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was also fought over Kashmir.
The History of India for times preceding 1947 is inseparable from that of the history of the Indian subcontinent as a whole.
www.mymotherindia.info /main/history.html   (2970 words)

  
 India-Pakistan Wars
India-Pakistan Wars: The 1971 War - The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the...
India-Pakistan Wars: The 1965 War - The 1965 War The second war began in Apr., 1965, when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kachchh, a...
India-Pakistan Wars: The 1947–48 War - The 1947–48 War The first war arose over Kashmir, in NW India, in 1947 when Muslim subjects...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0825128.html   (204 words)

  
 BBC NEWS India Pakistan Timeline
The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became Indian prisoners of war.
Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and later independence.
The fighting forced an estimated 10 million East Pakistani civilians to flee to India.
news.bbc.co.uk /hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timeline/1971.stm   (234 words)

  
 PARAMETERS, US Army War College Quarterly - Spring 2003
Another dreadful scenario is one in which Chinese-made Pakistani nuclear weapons fall into the hands of the United States, Israel, or even India in the event of a civil war should al Qaeda or the Taliban declare jihad against Pakistan—the weakest ally in the US-led anti-terrorism coalition.
They point to the Pakistani military’s strong aversion to fighting a 1965- or 1971-type conventional war with India and offer this as the rationale behind Islamabad’s decision to pull back from the brink on several occasions in recent history (in 1987, 1990, 1999, and 2002).
Apparently, the growing threat of nuclear war and the prospect of Pakistani nuclear weapons falling into the hands of Islamic terrorists have made Washington lean heavily on Islamabad.
carlisle-www.army.mil /usawc/Parameters/03spring/malik.htm   (6708 words)

  
 Meteoroloo.com :: India - map of india
India has unresolved border disputes with China, which escalated into a brief war in 1962, and Pakistan which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, and 1971, and a border altercation in the northern state of Kashmir in 1999.
A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 freezes the positions of Indian and Pakistani chief election commissionner of india held territory.
Formerly a major part of the British Empire as British India before gaining independence in 1947, during the past twenty years the country has grown significantly, especially in its economic and military spheres, regionally as well as globally.
www.meteoroloo.com /Met-countries-e-l/India.html   (3939 words)

  
 Interstate Conflict
Poverty – poorer but not poorest countries are more inclined towards war (relative deprivation – they must have the expectation that things will improve in order to see war  a viable way of seeking improvement.
2) By August 1947, the date of partition, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir had not decided which dominion to join.
War weariness hypothesis: " Peace brings riches; riches bring pride; pride brings anger; anger brings war; war brings poverty; poverty brings humanity; humanity brings peace; peace, as I have said brings riches, and so world affairs go around?" Luigi da Porto
www.redwoods.cc.ca.us /instruct/klee/interstate-war.htm   (756 words)

  
 IslamOnline - Views Section
The 1947 Indo-Pakistani war alone left one million people dead and created ten million refugees.
And general improvement in political awareness among the masses as levels of education and media exposure witnessed a dramatic increase.
Moreover, this paradigmatic shift has been coupled with the post-Cold War change in focus from global balance of power to local conflict.
www.islamonline.net /english/Views/2002/06/article04.shtml   (1796 words)

  
 India - Gurupedia
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War, Foreign relations, Military,
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and opposition voiced by other well-known leaders, among whom were such stalwarts like Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Maulana Azad, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Subhas Chandra Bose, led to the granting of independence in 1947.
Eastern Ghats, Indo Gangetic Plain, Deccan Plateau, Thar Desert, Ganges River, Rann of Kutch, Brahmaputra River,
www.gurupedia.com /i/in/india.htm   (2611 words)

  
 Pakistan - Geography
Pakistan annexed Azad (Free) Kashmir after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48.
They were less dangerous and less widespread, however, than the conflict that erupted in Kashmir in the Indo-Pakistani War of August 1965.
This boundary, called the Durand Line, was not in doubt when Pakistan became independent in 1947, although its legitimacy was in later years disputed periodically by the Afghan government as well as by Pakhtun tribes straddling the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
countrystudies.us /pakistan/23.htm   (882 words)

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