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Topic: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

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 Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The "Official History of the 1965 War", drafted by the Ministry of Defence of India in 1992 was a long suppressed document that outlined intelligence and strategic blunders by India during the war.
The 1965 war between India and Pakistan, also known as the Second Kashmir War, was the culmination of a series of skirmishes that occurred between April 1965 and September 1965.
War of 1947 – War of 1965War of 1971 – Kargil War /wiki/War_of_1965   (2882 words)

 MSN Encarta - Printer-friendly - Indo-Pakistani Wars
Although the second war over the territory was shorter than the first, the increased firepower of the two nations resulted in a more deadly war, with a total of about 6,800 battle casualties.
In the wake of a border war between India and China in 1962, efforts by the United States and Britain to settle the territorial dispute had, like the UN mediation process, met with little success.
Pakistani army personnel disguised as local Kashmīris began to infiltrate into the Kashmīr Valley in early August 1965. /text_761588350___25/Indo-Pakistani_Wars.html   (615 words)

 Pakistan Army - Psychology Central
After the 71 war the democratic setup was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the end of another democratically elected Government and the Hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier.
Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions.
Pakistan Army is the largest branch of the Military of Pakistan, and is responsible for protection of the state borders, land based military operations, the security of occupied territories, and the crushing defeat of the enemy and his troops. /psypsych/Pakistan_Army   (2448 words)

 Royal Shakespeare Company: The Michigan Residency
1965 During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, bombs kill everyone in Saleem’s family except Saleem and his sister, Jumila.
Saleem survives the war and flees to Delhi, where he moves into a magicians’s ghetto and falls in love with Parvati the Witch, one of the Midnight’s Children; meanwhile Shiva, the infant switched with Saleem at birth, arrives at the ghetto and fathers Parvati’s child.
December: war breaks out between India and Pakistan on two fronts, East Pakistan and Kashmir; Indian forces advance into East Pakistan; war ends two weeks later with creation of independent Bangladesh to replace East Pakistan. /pres/rsc/plays/midnightschildren/chronology.html   (1614 words)

 Indo Pakistan Wars
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan.
However, war on Indias Western front during the period between 3 December 1971 and 16 December 1971 is called the Indo-Pakistani War by both Bangladeshi and Indian Army.
The war led to the immediate surrender of Pakistani forces to Mitro Bahini (the Allied Forces), composed of Mukti Bahini and Indian Army. /Indo-Pakistan-Wars   (1220 words)

 India - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia
In 1971, after Pakistan attacked Indian air bases, India went to war with Pakistan again, resulting in the creation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan.
However, due to World War II, it was agreed that a free India was to be created after the war.
In 1999, India mobilised its military in Kargil, Kashmir to repel Islamic militants, allegedly backed by the Pakistani government, who were encroaching on Indian territory there. /i/in/india.html   (2524 words)

 Tashkent Declaration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In September of 1965 before the two had engaged in the short run Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
In Pakistan many civilians felt that they had won the war - though Pakistan had suffered more casualties and territorial losses - and were disappointed at the return to the status quo ante bellum.
Peace had been achieved on September 23 by the intervention of the great powers who pushed the two nations to a cease fire for fears the conflict could escalate and draw in other powers. /wiki/Tashkent_Declaration   (301 words)

 Telegraph News
The war began with the invasion of Kashmir by Pakistani-controlled guerrillas and troops in August 1965.
In March 1999, Afghan mercenaries and heavily-armed Pakistani army troops occupied peaks in Kargil, Kashmir, at a height of 18,000 feet on a 80 km stretch of Indian territory.
The Pakistani president general Yahya Khan resigned and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the winner of the elections in west Pakistan, became the new President of Pakistan. /news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/campaigns/india/indwars.xml   (2065 words)

However, because of the threat of Pakistani nuclear retaliation, India could not consider an all-out conventional war in 1999 that would have compelled Pakistan to defend the entire country against India's superior conventional forces, as it did in 1965 and 1971 when Pakistan attempted to seize Kashmir by force.
Forebodings of an impending Indo-Pakistani nuclear war in the midst of the Afghanistan crisis appear overblown although precautionary measures to avoid such an eventuality are necessary.
The periodic warnings by the West that India and Pakistan are on the brink of nuclear war may compound the dangers of nuclear war and become a self-fulfilling prophecy. /News/Thomas/NewsRT060302.html   (1105 words)

The Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 was a watershed of American relationship with India and Pakistan.
Nevertheless, in contrast with Pakistanis’ eagerness of aligning itself with the West against the expansion of Communism, India’s leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, pursued the policy of nonalignment and neutrality, which disappointed the White House and led to the U.S. tilting toward Pakistan.
In The Cold War on the Periphery, McMahon presents the history of American relationship with India and Pakistan from 1947 to 1965. /pages/buzzmat/mcmahon2005.doc   (639 words)

 PakDef Forums - Pakistani Special Forces
It was not until the second Indo-Pakistani war in 1965 that India formed "an ad hoc commando (Cdo) detachment composed of volunteers from various infantry units." They performed their wartime duties so well that the government decided the following year to establish a permanent Cdo (Cdo) unit, the 9th Battalion (Bn) of the Parachute Regiment.
Pakistani SF performed their first combat missions during the 1965 Indo-Pakistani war.
If the Pakistani Marines are provided with this role and provided the necessary equipment they could form the main strike element in any rapid reaction force supplemented by a dedicated PA airborne division (with their own helos of course) to form some sort of joint rapid reaction force making better use of resources during wartime. /forum/showthread.php?s=&threadid=3212   (9377 words)

 Indo-Pakistan War of 1965
Now that Pakistani troops are indubitably fighting on the plains of East Punjab in Indian territory, the mood here is one of cautious jubilation, Optimistic communiques in the first week of the war, were accepted in an act of faith, which now appears justified.
India admitted today that her troops in Punjab sector of the war with Pakistan had been forced to withdraw under the weight of fierce tank attack.
It used to be said with pride that the British Empire was the greatest Muslim power in the world, largely from a feeling that this was a great source of military strength; and it must be recognized that this military temper is likely to be present in the Muslim states. /pakmilitary/airforce/war/quotes1.html   (698 words) Home of Pakistani Military - Pakistan Air Force Main
During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 the PAF recorded the first combat kill of the war with a Mach 2 Aircraft when a F-104 Starfighter shot down a Dassault Mystere of the Indian Air Force.
In between the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the PAF sent its pilots to many Arab nations during the Six-Day War.
As the Cold War heated up, the government of Pakistan allied itself with the United States against India and its communist ally Soviet Union. /pakistan_air_force_main.html   (803 words)

 India, Pakistan to Reopen Key Rail Link
The Khokrapar-Munabao rail crossing, closed since the 1965 Indo-Pakistani war, links Pakistan's largest city, Karachi, with India's largest, Bombay.
Pakistani press reports say the Indian side hopes to begin service by October, but that this time frame may not be feasible for Pakistan, given the amount of construction necessary.
Following two days of talks in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, negotiators from the two sides agreed in principle Friday to restore rail service along their southern border. /english/2004-12-03-voa15.cfm   (464 words)

 Pakistan's Nuclear Brinkmanship
Soon afterwards, numerous Pakistani leaders repeatedly reinforced the new tenet -- that nuclear weapons were the sole guarantor of Pakistan's security as threatened by the specter of Indian aggression and military attacks.
The Pakistani negotiations with India on mutual reduction of tension, held between January 1989 and January 1990, were conducted against a strongly held assessment of the Pakistani military and intelligence elite that a major clash with India was inevitable and imminent.
Pakistani officials point out that by and large, the tenets of Islamabad's national policy and strategy are inherently anti-American -- be it the strategic alliance with the PRC, or the close special relations with Iran, Iraq, Libya, and the Muslim World as a whole. /policy/Terrorism/think_tank/pakistan_nuclear_brinkmanship_1995.htm   (6632 words)

 1965 Indo-Pak War
The tank battles of 1965 took their place in annals of military history as the most intense ones ever, since World War II.
India had its largest haul of Pakistani tanks when the offensive of Pakistan's 1 Armoured Division was blunted at the Battle of Assal Uttar on September 10th.
The fierce battles of 1965 were not limited to the Battles for Khem Karan, Phillora and Chawinda. /LAND-FORCES/Army/Patton2.html   (1561 words)

 Indias Pathways to Pokharan 1999
Pakistani decisionmakers also allegedly considered resorting to the use of nuclear weapons in the event of a concerted Indian incursion into Pakistan's heartland.[79] As the crisis peaked in May 1990, on the basis of reports from U.S. intelligence agencies, President George Bush sent Robert Gates, the deputy national security adviser, to India and Pakistan.
Just before the war ended a hundred members of the Lok Sabha wrote to Prime Minister Shastri calling for India to exercise the nuclear weapons option.[35] Amid the growing public and political pressure, Shastri revealed a slight shift in the government's public pronouncements on nuclear weapons.
Worse still, the Chinese declared a unilateral cease-fire after achieving their territorial objectives, thereby humiliating Nehru and the Indian political leadership.[12] The significance of this war on India's foreign and security policymakers cannot be underestimated. /~sga/readings/pathways_to_pokharan.htm   (5723 words)

 Pakistan Politics
The 58-year-old Pakistani leader is from the southwestern province of Balochistan.
After the elections held in late 2002, the Pakistani political system remains highly fragmented, with no group winning a substantial majority of seats in the legislature, and religious groups banding together in the MMA to earn a very significant portion of seats for the first time.
International and indigenous terrorist groups continue to pose a high threat to senior Pakistani government officials, military officers and US interests. /military/world/pakistan/politics.htm   (2332 words) Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 Article
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949.
The cease-fire line created what were meant to temporary borders between Indian and Pakistani zones of control, and promised a plebiscite would be held to determine the future of the territory.
In response to what Mohammed Ali Jinnah saw as the invasion of Kashmir by the Indians he ordered Pakistani military forces into Azad Kashmir as "volunteers." They also supplied the anti-Indian forces with arms and vehicles. /indo_pakistani_war_of_1947.html   (466 words)

 Find Pakistani at
Bangladesh Liberation War) and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and ultimately the secession...
The Muslim League's leadership of Pakistani politics reduced significantly with the rise...
Pakistani Portal offering pakistan news, pakistani chat, pakistan update, free mail, greeting cards, forums, web directory, chat and much more... /web/index.php?qry_str=Pakistani   (193 words)

 Explaining the Kashmir insurgency: political mobilization and institutional decay.
Second, in the wake of the death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, Pakistani decision-makers inferred that India's unity was in peril without Nehru's towering influence.
In 1965, the Pakistani military dictator Ayub Khan carefully orchestrated a strategy for fomenting a rebellion in Kashmir.
A series of events in India reinforced Pakistani elite perceptions that the moment was propitious for attempting to wrest Kashmir away from India. /acad/intrel/sumit.htm   (11493 words)

In his book, The Cold War on the Periphery: The United States, India and Pakistan, Robert McMahon analyzes the major phases of United States policy toward India and Pakistan from independence and partition in 1947 through the 1965 Indo-Pakistani war.
Instead, foreign policy came full circle, and 1965 saw South Asia pushed back to the periphery of the Cold War, where it had originally been at the end of World War II.
In 1965, the United States opted to discontinue their interference in South Asia and let it revert back to the Cold War periphery. /pages/buzzmat/mcmahon.htm   (1215 words)

 G. W. Ghoudhury, 71, Teacher, Diplomat. Columbia University Record, January 30, 1998
Earlier, he had helped to work out the Tashkent Agreement that ended the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965.
Born in 1926 in Madharipur, which was then in India, later East Pakistan and now in Bangaladesh, Choudhury, who was known as G.W., was chairman of the political science department of the University of Dhaka when he joined Pakistan’s foreign ministry in 1967 as director-general of the Research Division.
He then served as Minister of Communications from 1969 to 1971, during which time he outlined plans for establishing a confederation between East and West Pakistan. /cu/record/archives/vol23/vol23_iss13/29.html   (235 words)

 SparkNotes: Midnight's Children: Book Two: Chapters 22–23; Book Three: Chapter 24
The Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 erupts and a bomb kills Amina and her unborn child as well as Ahmed and Alia.
In January of 1965, Amina becomes pregnant once again, seventeen years after Saleem's birth.
Saleem joins the Pakistani army, where he meets younger soldiers Ayooba, Farooq, and Shaheed. /lit/midnightschildren/section8.rhtml   (909 words)

 Gene Bartlow - Y2K, the Millennium Bug
During the Cold War and the Indo-Pakistani War in 1965-66 the US had a "USAF military listening post" monitoring the USSR and China based in Peshawar, northern Pakistan.
This is a war story, one that is indirectly relevant to the recent events of America's "911 Wakeup Call" and the terrorists who are harbored in Afghanistan.
During this relatively brief India-Pakistani War our courier route was disrupted because all airport facilities were closed during this war for security purposes. /bartlow/afghanstory.htm   (884 words)

 India Article, India Information
A ceasefire sponsored by the UnitedNations in 1948 freezes the positions of Indian and Pakistani held territory.
After independence, India fought four wars over Kashmir, three against archrivals Pakistan and one against China.
From 1975 to 1977, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a " State of Emergency in India," thereby freezing civilrights and detaining civilians without trial. /indian/national/india.html   (2392 words)

 Patton Nagar
Patton Nagar was the imaginary name given to a stretch of land at the Bhikiwind village in the Khem Karan area in 1965 where more than 60 tanks of the Pakistani Army were displayed after the September Indo-Pak War.
The Pakistan Army tanks were captured at the battle of Assal Uttar - Pakistan's Waterloo - by India's 4 Mountain Division and it became a memorial to the Indian Triumph of blunting the Pakistani War Machine in the 1965 War.
Over the years, the tanks from Bhikiwind were joined by more captured tanks from the 1971 Indo-Pak War. /LAND-FORCES/Army/Patton.html   (193 words)

 Indo-Pak War [September, 1965]
The main diplomatic effort to stop the fighting was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations and a ceasefire came into effect on September 23, 1965.
The Soviet Union, which had remained neutral while India and Pakistan were at war, played broker at Tashkent afterwards.
A Soviet Government communique formally announced on December 8 that the Indian Prime Minister Shastri and the Pakistani President Ayub would meet at Tashkent on January 4, 1966. /articletext.asp?artid=A068&Pg=6   (146 words)

 Jihad Unspun - The ISI
Because of its narrow scope, it was reportedly unable to locate an Indian armored division during the Indo-Pakistani War in 1965.
In 1990, under the ISI leadership of Hameed Gul, Pakistani polls were allegedly manipulated to prevent Benazir’s reelection.
Afghan intelligence agents conducted a campaign of bombings and sabotage in Pakistani cities, and Soviet and Afghan forces staged assaults against the Mujahideen camps in Pakistan. /thePlayers/isi.html   (858 words)

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