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Topic: Inequality


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  Inequality « Consider the Evidence
But with single-point-in-time inequality having risen in the fourth scenario between time 1 and time 2, the same degree of relative mobility does not produce the same amount of “true” inequality (inequality of average income).
While there is less inequality of consumption than of income, the flip side — because those with high incomes are able to save and invest much more — is that inequality of wealth is much greater than inequality of income.
I calculate inequality in each country using household incomes before and after taxes are subtracted; the difference between the two is the amount of inequality reduction achieved by taxes.
lanekenworthy.net /category/inequality   (6533 words)

  
  Sovereignty and Inequality
Inequality is one of the major subjects of modern social and political inquiry, but it has received minimal consideration as a theoretical topic in the recent literature of international law.
Intra-societal inequality in some countries, and unevenness in the global distribution of human flourishing whether defined in terms of well-being, capabilities, wealth, or a human development index, appears to have been intensifying rather than diminishing.
Conversely, inequality limits sovereignty - for example, where hierarchies are established among different political and legal units that in the traditional conception of sovereignty (now increasingly problematic) mean the subordinate units lack sovereignty.
www.ejil.org /journal/Vol9/No4/art1.html   (2071 words)

  
 Income Inequality (1947-1998)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Measures of income inequality traditionally used to study the income distribution of the United States suggest that the 1967-1980 period was one of relatively stable inequality.
The Atkinson measure of income inequality is another summary measure that researchers sometimes use in income inequality research./11/ The Atkinson index is unique relative to other measures of income inequality in that it allows the researcher to specify the social welfare function underlying the research.
Whereas the data on household in-come inequality between 1967 and 1980 are ambiguous, it is clear that the household income distribution became increasingly unequal beginning in 1981.
www.census.gov /hhes/income/incineq/p60204/p60204txt.html   (4308 words)

  
 Income Inequality   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The topic of income inequality in the United States has captured increased interest in the past few years as it has become clearer that the economic expansions of the 1980s and 1990s have not benefited all segments of the population equally.
Inequality measures speak to the overall strength of the community and that elusive metric, "quality of life".
A great disparity between inequality levels of the central city and the suburbs, such as the one that exists in Atlanta, is dramatic evidence that a single metropolitan area is actually composed of two very different areas.
www.utexas.edu /academic/uip/research/docstuds/coll/gubits.html   (4804 words)

  
 PlanetMath: proof of arithmetic-geometric-harmonic means inequality
Now we shall prove the inequality between arithmetic mean and geometric mean.
So far we have proved the inequality between the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean.
This is version 3 of proof of arithmetic-geometric-harmonic means inequality, born on 2002-05-30, modified 2005-09-29.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/ProofOfArithmeticGeometricHarmonicMeansInequality.html   (229 words)

  
 One tailed version of Chebyshev's inequality - by Henry Bottomley
Chebyshev's Inequalities: one of his own and one from 'Probability and Random Processes', by Grimmett and Stirzaker, published by Oxford Science Publications, ISBN 0 19 853665 8.
The similarity of the probability values for high k between Chebyshev's inequality and the one-tailed version is slightly misleading, as can be seen when the distribributions which turn the inequalities into equalities are considered, with examples in the chart below.
The equality distribution for Chebychev's inequality is symmetric, while the equality distribution for the one-tailed version is not.
www.btinternet.com /~se16/hgb/cheb.htm   (1002 words)

  
 Economic inequality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inequality is most often measured using the Gini coefficient (defined based on the Lorenz curve).
That is to say, inequality reduces the sum total of personal utility because of the decreasing marginal utility of wealth.
One argument in favor of the acceptance of economic inequality is that, as long as the cause is mainly due to differences in behavior, the inequality provides incentives that push the society towards economically healthy and efficient behavior, and is therefore beneficial.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economic_inequality   (4530 words)

  
 Throw the Books at Them -- In These Times
But 30 percent of children born in the top 10 percent remain there. There are many reasons for this—including race, wealth and personality—but the editors of Unequal Chances conclude that “genetic transmission of IQ appears to be surprisingly unimportant” and education and superior cognitive performance explain at most half of the persistence of rank between generations.
The evidence that greater inequality in rich countries leads to higher death rates and shorter lives—by as much as 15 years for those with low incomes and status—comes from a large number of comparative studies.
Early observers of America, including Alexander de Tocqueville, linked the democratic republicanism to “the equality of conditions” of Americans. Now, democracy is threatened by inequality of conditions—both through the undue influence of the monied and through the withdrawal (and exclusion) of low-income voters who see politics as irrelevant to their lives.
www.inthesetimes.com /site/main/article/2413   (2705 words)

  
 Economic Inequality
The increase in inequality has varied from state to state and, for the most part, has been highest in states with heavy industry.
Income inequality is greatest throughout the entire southern portion of the country and in New York.
Many believe that economic inequality is a disturbing trend because of the increasing polarization of what had been an admirably pluralistic society.
www.newsbatch.com /econ.htm   (2351 words)

  
 :: University of Texas Inequality Project | Abstracts ::
While the evolution of inequality in manufacturing earnings cannot be taken as per se indicating the larger movements of inequality in household incomes, including those outside the manufacturing sector, we argue on theoretical grounds that the two will rarely move in opposite directions.
We suggest that this pattern is consistent with the Kuznets conjecture relating inequality to economic growth; the problem of rising inequality in China is in part the uneven character of growth and development across the country.
Changes in pay inequality appear intrinsically related to macroeconomic phenomena: while GDP and investment were growing, pay inequality in the manufacturing sector decreased; conversely, under recessionary conditions we observe increases in pay inequality in manufacturing.
utip.gov.utexas.edu /abstract.html   (7248 words)

  
 Income Inequality
The ratio between the average income of the top 5% in the world to the bottom 5% increased from 78 to 1 in 1988 to 114 to 1 in 1993 (Milanovic 1999).
While the rapid growth was impressive, it had little effect on global inequality due to the relatively small populations involved.
Although not evident in the graph, the UNDP report also found that world income inequality was decreased somewhat by the rapid growth in China since 1970s and India since 1980s, and the fact that European economies began to "catch-up" with the United States.
ucatlas.ucsc.edu /income.php   (952 words)

  
 Inequalities
A "solution'' of an inequality is a number which when substituted for the variable makes the inequality a true statement.
Only ``easy'' inequalities are solved using these three rules; most inequalities are solved by using different techniques.
The basic strategy for inequalities and equations is the same: isolate x on one side, and put the "other stuff" on the other side.
www.sosmath.com /algebra/inequalities/ineq01/ineq01.html   (560 words)

  
 PlanetMath: Jensen's inequality
is a concave function, the inequality is reversed.
With this approach, the weights of the first form can be seen as probabilities.
This is version 8 of Jensen's inequality, born on 2001-10-15, modified 2006-09-13.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/JensensInequality.html   (167 words)

  
 :: University of Texas Inequality Project ::
The methods we use to measure inequality are presented in the tutorials section and the working paper series section.
We produce data sets on pay inequality at the global level, at the national level including for Russia, China and India, and at the regional level for Europe.
We have also used pay inequality as an instrument to estimate measures of household income inequality, for a large panel of countries from 1963 through 1999.
utip.gov.utexas.edu   (678 words)

  
 Economic Inequality in the United States (11/6/2006)
This inequality, coupled with increased turbulence in family incomes associated with job displacement and restructuring, sheds substantial light on the sources of the disappointment and concern that show up in the opinion polls.
Indeed, inequality in consumption among U.S. families is notably lower than inequality in pre-tax income due to these programs and others that involve the direct provision of services such as healthcare, housing, childcare, and food stamps to families in need.
The inequality gap in the United States is associated with higher levels of overall and child poverty relative to a majority of OECD countries.
www.frbsf.org /news/speeches/2006/1106.html   (5574 words)

  
 UC Atlas of Global Inequality
The Mapping Global Inequalities: Beyond Income Inequality conference held this last December on the UC Santa Cruz campus provided a new forum for a wide range of academics, policy experts and professionals to further the debate over global inequality.
The paper studies the relationship between globalization and inequality, and suggests that the income of the poorest 20% (bottom quintile) should be the focus for policy-makers.
CGD is an 'independent think tank that works to reduce global poverty and inequality by encouraging policy change in the U.S. and other rich countries through rigorous research and active engagement with the policy community.'...
ucatlas.ucsc.edu   (1065 words)

  
 Inequality and Risk
If you want to reduce economic inequality instead of just improving the overall standard of living, it's not enough just to raise up the poor.
To the extent you reduce economic inequality, you decrease the number of startups.
If we're determined to eliminate economic inequality, there is still one way out: we could say that we're willing to go ahead and do without startups.
www.paulgraham.com /inequality.html   (2635 words)

  
 Linear Inequalities - single variable - Using the Graphing Calculator
If you look at the table, 0’s will be listed where the inequality is false and 1’s will be listed where the inequality is true.
You will have to determine which circle is needed based upon whether the inequality includes "equal to".
It may be necessary to look carefully in your table to find the exact point where the inequality answer begins.
www.mathbits.com /MathBits/TISection/Algebra1/linearinequ.htm   (230 words)

  
 That Silly Inequality Debate
On the opposite side are the antiglobalists, who regard the extension of international markets and corporate and financial interests as the cause of increasing global inequality (and poverty) and declining levels of human welfare.
He blames this rising inequality on differing rates of population growth between rich and poor countries, the fall in non-oil commodity prices, excessive debt, and the pressures of technological change.
And though inequality of average incomes across countries has increased, that is mostly because today's richest economies have had such strong growth, leaving the poorest countries that have hardly grown at all further and further behind.
www.brook.edu /views/articles/birdsall/200205.htm   (759 words)

  
 Inequality: Causes and Consequences
The public uncertainty over the importance of economic inequality in the contemporary United States is matched by wide divisions of opinion in the academic and policy communities.
Because poverty and inequality are so intimately linked, IRP research has maintained a consistent focus on inequality issues.
During this academic year, the Institute is presenting a series of seminars on the causes and consequences of inequality, by nationally distinguished scholars.
www.irp.wisc.edu /research/inequality/causeconseq.htm   (865 words)

  
 Paul Krugman: Graduates versus Oligarchs
The notion that it's all about returns to education suggests that nobody is to blame for rising inequality, that it's just a case of supply and demand at work.
And it also suggests that the way to mitigate inequality is to improve our educational system - and better education is a value to which just about every politician in America pays at least lip service.
It's time to face up to the fact that rising inequality is driven by the giant income gains of a tiny elite, not the modest gains of college graduates.
www.truthout.org /cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi/48/17995   (915 words)

  
 Cafe Hayek: Inequality
The real problem with these theories of inequality is that they fail to see that the income distribution is an emergent phenomenon rather than under someone's nefarious control.
Perhaps today’s most significant inequality is the one separating residents of industrial societies (for example, the United States and Japan) from residents of subsistence and oppressive nations (for example, Niger and North Korea) – an inequality fundamentally of freedoms that manifests itself starkly as an inequality of living standards.
In my recent posts on the challenges of measuring inequality, I wrote about how hard it is to compare income distributions over time because family structure and immigration among other factors have changed dramatically in recent decades.
cafehayek.typepad.com /hayek/inequality/index.html   (13531 words)

  
 Shirky: Power Laws, Weblogs, and Inequality
Given the ubiquity of power law distributions, asking whether there is inequality in the weblog world (or indeed almost any social system) is the wrong question, since the answer will always be yes.
The question to ask is "Is the inequality fair?" Four things suggest that the current inequality is mostly fair.
Inequality occurs in large and unconstrained social systems for the same reasons stop-and-go traffic occurs on busy roads, not because it is anyone's goal, but because it is a reliable property that emerges from the normal functioning of the system.
www.shirky.com /writings/powerlaw_weblog.html   (2354 words)

  
 YouNotSneaky!: Inequality
That more inequality is the price you have to pay for higher standards of living (right wing).
On the other hand the good news is that most of the observations fall within (.42,.46) interval and anything outside of that is unlikely to have come from that distribution.
Here it looks like higher income is associated with lower welfare (because of higher inequality, so the change in inequality dominates (which is why some folks love this measure)).
notsneaky.blogspot.com /2007/10/inequality.html   (1594 words)

  
 Symposium: Inequality and American Democracy
In 2001, the American Political Science Association (APSA) initiated a Task Force on Inequality and American Democracy, chaired by Lawrence Jacobs and then-APSA President Theda Skocpol.
In 2004, the Task force issued a report, a set of critical analyses, teaching materials, and their findings were published in a book, Inequality and American Democracy: What We Know and What We Need to Learn.
Andrea Brandolini and Timothy Smeeding set the stage for the interchange by examining patterns of inequality in Western democracies.
www.apsanet.org /section_651.cfm   (326 words)

  
 Inequality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other senses of this word, see inequality (disambiguation).
Note that, for the transitivity, reversal, addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division properties, the property also holds if strict inequality signs (< and >) are replaced with their corresponding non-strict inequality sign (≤ and ≥).
Mathematicians often use inequalities to bound quantities for which exact formulas cannot be computed easily.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Inequality   (1309 words)

  
 A State Of Inequality
Income inequality is now near all-time highs, with over 50 percent of 2004 income going to the top fifth of households, and the biggest gains going to the top 5 percent and 1 percent of households.
The pace of inequality has grown steadily over three decades, under both Republican and Democratic administrations and Congresses.
The Gini index, the global measure of inequality, grew as quickly under President Clinton as it has under President George W. Bush.
www.informationclearinghouse.info /article10733.htm   (685 words)

  
 Inequality -- from Wolfram MathWorld
Inequalities in two dimensions can be plotted using
Similarly, the portions of three-space satisfying a number of specific inequalities in the three Cartesian coordinates are illustrated above.
Inequalities in three dimensions can be plotted using
mathworld.wolfram.com /Inequality.html   (236 words)

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