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Topic: Inference

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  Rule of inference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prominent examples of rules of inference in propositional logic are the rules of modus ponens and modus tollens.
Rules of inference must be distinguished from axioms of a theory, which are assertions that are assumed to be true without proof.
Rules of inference play a vital role in the specification of logical calculi as they are considered in proof theory, such as the sequent calculus and natural deduction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rule_of_inference   (1115 words)

 Inference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows.
That is, a valid inference does not depend on the truth of the premises and conclusion, but on the formal rules of inference being used.
But even if those facts were certain, the inference is of an inductive nature: perhaps you have often heard your neighbour at night, and the best explanation you have found is that he or she is an insomniac.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Inference   (1572 words)

 Bayesian inference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bayesian inference is statistical inference in which evidence or observations are used to update or to newly infer the probability that a hypothesis may be true.
Bayesian inference uses aspects of the scientific method, which involves collecting evidence that is meant to be consistent or inconsistent with a given hypothesis.
Bayesian inference can be used in a court setting by an individual juror to coherently accumulate the evidence for and against the guilt of the defendant, and to see whether, in totality, it meets their personal threshold for 'beyond a reasonable doubt'.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Bayesian_inference   (3588 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Statistical inference is inference about a population from a random sample drawn from it or, more generally, about a random process from its observed behavior during a finite period of time.
There are several distinct schools of thought about the justification of statistical inference.
All are based on some idea of what real world phenomena can be reasonably modeled as probability.
wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/s/st/statistical_inference_1.html   (84 words)

The inference may or may not be a correct one.
An observation is the awareness of some condition; inference is the result of a mental process which attempts to explain or catalog or speculate about that observation.
Another inference you might make is that there was a brush fire in the direction that the the picture was taken, or perhaps Mt.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch104-02/inference.htm   (615 words)

 19. The Primitive Inference Procedures
This primitive inference procedure attempts to use the assumption given as argument to replace the assertion to be proved.
This primitive inference procedure applies the argument macete to the given sequent node, in the same way as macete-application, but with the following important difference: whenever the truth or falsehood of a convergence requirement cannot be determined by the simplifier, the assertion is posted as a additional subgoal to be proved.
This primitive inference procedure simplifies the assertion of the given sequent with respect to the context of the sequent.
imps.mcmaster.ca /manual/node25.html   (1305 words)

 Reading Comprehension   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Inference can be a critical analysis of a text: a mental or expressed argument with an author, an active skepticism about what is stated in the text, or recognition of propaganda.
Inference is, in some situations, synonymous with learning and remembering… Predictions are inferences.
Inferences are revised based on the inferences and interpretations of other readers.
www.springfield.k12.il.us /resources/languagearts/readingwriting/readinfer.html   (757 words)

 What Is a “Necessary Inference”? : ChristianCourier.com
The word “inference” derives from Latin roots that signify “to gather in.” In logic (the science of critical thinking), it suggests the idea of gathering in data from various sources, and then drawing such deductions as are demanded by the evidence.
And, based upon that inference, he may wish to take his umbrella when he leaves his house.
Inference has fallen on hard times in the church these days.
www.christiancourier.com /articles/read/what_is_a_necessary_inference   (829 words)

 Jena 2 Inference Support
Finally, having created a inference model then any API operations which access RDF statements will be able to access additional statements which are entailed from the bound data by means of the reasoner.
Once the preparation phase is complete the inference graph will act as if it were the union of all the statements in the original model together with all the statements in the internal deductions graph generated by the rule firings.
When the inference Model is queried then the query is translated into a goal and the engine attempts to satisfy that goal by matching to any stored triples and by goal resolution against the backward chaining rules.
jena.sourceforge.net /inference   (10590 words)

 Bayesian inference
Before the 1920s, another approach to statistical inference was in general use, based on a result that flows directly from the axioms of probability.
The second key feature of Bayesian inference that is not sufficiently appreciated is that initial prior beliefs in a specific hypothesis become progressively less important as data accumulate.
In such cases, Bayesian inference still gives valuable insight, as it allows one to estimate the level of prior probability necessary to sustain a belief that the effect is illusory, even in the light of Nelson’s data.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/rajm/twooesef.htm   (7413 words)

 Williams Inference
As with all intelligence work, the Williams Inference starting point is the search for clues - anomalies - irregularities, surprises and the unusual.
Williams Inference maintains a staff of readers who monitor a broad spectrum of global information and select the anomalies.
Williams Inference does not guarantee its accuracy or completeness or assume responsibility for actions taken with respect to information presented here.
www.williamsinference.com   (318 words)

 Type inference for Python | Lambda the Ultimate
The subject of type inference for dynamically-checked languages came up in the Buried Treasure thread.
A question was raised in that thread having to do with why static type inference in these languages is difficult.
The whole point of "soft" type inference approaches is to be able to get some of the benefits of static type analysis without the requirement that the entire program be explicitly well-typed.
lambda-the-ultimate.org /node/1519   (1793 words)

 Implement Bayesian inference using PHP, Part 1
Bayesian inference techniques have been widely used in developing various types of Artifical Intelligence (AI) systems (for instance for text retrieval, classification, medical diagnosis, data mining, troubleshooting, and more), so this article series will be of interest to anyone interested in building intelligent Web applications.
You will often find Bayesian inference sharing the same bed with a subjective view of probability in which the probability of a proposition is equated with one's subjective degree of belief in the proposition.
The likelihood system of inference is preferred by many statisticians because you don't have to resort to the dubious practice of trying to estimate the prior probability of each hypothesis.
www-128.ibm.com /developerworks/web/library/wa-bayes1   (5295 words)

 Inference Thinking   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Inference is one of five basic categories of thinking in the North Carolina 1992-93 booklet on thinking assessment and later retained in the 1994 revisions.
In deductive tasks, students are given a generalization and are required to recognize or explain the evidence that relates to it.
Application of a rule is one kind of deductive reasoning: synthesis, putting parts together to form a generalization, occurs in both inductive and deductive reasoning.
www.ceap.wcu.edu /Houghton/Learner/think/inference.html   (228 words)

 RedOrbit - Science - Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms
Students taking classes in probability and statistics often come away thinking that those subjects are relevant only for determining whether dice are loaded or calculating the odds that a particular sequence of colored balls will be drawn from an urn.
Sections on information theory, probability and inference methods are interleaved in a manner that may not be to everyone's liking but is consistent and logical.
The use of Bayesian statistics-for inference in general as well as in specific models such as Gaussian processes and neural networks- follows naturally.
www.redorbit.com /news/display?id=99618   (1001 words)

 picturing inference
The paper argues that factual inference has four important general properties: the complexity and intricacy of marshaled collections of evidence, the diversity of evidence marshaling methods, the influence of time and change on inference, and the role of imagination and invention in factual inference.
An inference network or diagram that is complex for this reason can, of course, consume a great deal of the time and resources of a user or fabricator of such a network or diagram.
The obvious strategy for attacking simple chains of inference with numerous nodes is divide-and-conquer: start at the beginning; consider each possible inference in sequence; make a judgment about each such possible inference; and then move on to the next possible inference in a series of inferences and repeat the procedure.
tillers.net /pictures/picturing.html   (6922 words)

 inference and prediction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In this activity, a graph is used to represent the map of a city.
This is a complete webquest of math activities revolving around the collection of weather data from various locations to determine, based upon the data, the best city to live in.
This is a teacher lesson plan outlining the use of M and M's to predict what color is prominent in each package, and then graphing the results.
www.svsu.edu /mathsci-center/eip.htm   (832 words)

 Commens Peirce Dictionary: Inference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Again, a given belief may be regarded as the effect of another given belief, without our seeming to see clearly why or how.
Such a process is usually called an inference; but it ought not to be called a rational inference, or reasoning.
"Inference is any act of deliberate assent, in any degree, however slight, which a man accords to a proposition because he thinks that assent warranted by his already accorded assent to another proposition or propositions, called the premisses.
www.helsinki.fi /science/commens/terms/inference.html   (178 words)

 Type Inference
If further inference shows that x1 has the "real" type of X, then it is also known that "type a" is actually X, and that x2 is therefore also of type X, and so on.
That is not type inference, that is still just type specialization; when the compiler looks at the instantiation of add(T1, T2), it doesn't have to do any analysis whatsoever to discover that T1=int, T2=double, because that is simply the types of what was passed to add().
A similar language with actual type inference might see that x and y are double, since they are used that way after the template instantiation, and given that knowledge, work backwards to see that add() should be specialized on (double, double).
c2.com /cgi/wiki?TypeInference   (1932 words)

 Inference Rules of Natural Deduction
Note, again, that both the inference rules and the rules of replacement are tautologies.
The inference rules in Table 1 operate at once on one or more than one of the previous wffs in the deduction sequence and produces a new wff.
B is called a conditional, A is the antecedent (premise), and B is the consequent (conclusion).
www.mathpath.org /proof/proof.inference.htm   (1383 words)

 Implement Bayesian inference using PHP: Part 2
Bayes inference methods are distinguished from other inference methods (such as least squares, maximum likelihood, maximum entrophy, minimum description length) by the fact that a Bayes inference method can be applied to every type of problem in this list and often represents the optimal method to use.
Statisticians, philosophers, and computer scientists have proposed numerous guides to reliable inference, but Bayes inference methods reign supreme as the most versatile and often the most effective set of methods to use for a vast range of inductive inference problems.
When estimating parameters, the most common inference technique used to estimate the "true value" of a parameter is the maximum likelihood technique.
www.ibm.com /developerworks/web/library/wa-bayes2   (5025 words)

Preventing people from using inference to obtain knowledge they are not supposed to have.
For example, if there are many conflicting rumours about the sexual practices of certain celebrities, this may cause some people to dismiss all such rumours as rubbish, while others will fall for the "No Smoke Without Fire" fallacy.
People are generally not equipped to detect well-orchestrated campaigns of spin and propaganda, and are vulnerable to a range of inference tricks and errors.
www.users.globalnet.co.uk /~rxv/kmoi/inference.htm   (286 words)

 Reading Resources: Inferences
Inferences drawn while reading are much like inferences drawn in everyday life.
Drawing inferences while you read requires exactly the same willingness to look at the evidence and come to a conclusion that has not been expressed in words.
In drawing the appropriate inference, which piece of information is more useful.
users.dhp.com /~laflemm/reso/inference.htm   (1666 words)

 Approximate Bayesian Inference
However, in real-world situations it is rarely possible to perform exact inference; in fact, exact Bayesian inference is in general NP hard.
One of the most successful approaches to address this problem is to exploit a factorial structure of both the sampling distribution and the prior.
Then, there are a variety of methods that exploit the factorisation for efficient approximations in inference.
research.microsoft.com /users/rherb/approximate_bayesian_inference.htm   (99 words)

 Inferring meaning
When we see and hear communications from others or have various different experiences we infer their meaning from the combination of a range of different inference filters.
The output of the inference is some form of meaning.
The deep systems of needs, goals, values, beliefs, mental models, memories and emotional state both influence the inference activities and may be changed when the inference does not work.
changingminds.org /explanations/sift/infer.htm   (711 words)

 Data & Inference Inc.
Data and Inference Inc. co-operates with clients at every stage to facilitate work and expedite the project implementation process.
Data and Inference Inc. specialises in managing turn key projects including data management of clinical trials, surveys and other investigational projects.
We also provide statistical advice and assistance with publications in cases of surveys, or where Data and Inference Inc. had only limited involvement in the early stages of the research study.
www.data-inference.com /service.html   (252 words)

 BIPS: Bayesian Inference for the Physical Sciences
This is an undergraduate text on Bayesian inference written for physical scientists by Devinder Sivia, and published by Oxford University Press.
Genz is a leader in the development of new algorithms for numerical computation of mulitiple integrals; his recent research focuses on integrals that arise in Bayesian inference.
BUGS is a program for Bayesian inference using the Gibbs Sampler Markov chain Monte Carlo technique produced by the Biostatistics Unit of the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom.
www.astro.cornell.edu /staff/loredo/bayes   (2870 words)

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