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# Topic: Inferential statistics

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 Defining and Conceptualizing Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Inferential Statistics: A method that takes chance factors into account when samples are used to reach conclusions (or make inferences about) populations. The goal of inferential statistics is to help researchers decide between the two interpretations. Inferential statistics begins with actual data (sample data) from the experiment above and ends with a probability statement (i.e., the probability of obtaining data like those above if there is no effect of vitamin C on cognitive ability in the population) www.uni.edu /~hitlan/techniques.htm   (387 words)

 World Bank Group | Social Analysis | Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics are so named because they permit us to infer the characteristics of the population from a representative sample. Because the logic is the same regardless of the inferential statistics used, once we understand the logic, it is easier for us to understand how a given statistic works and when and how it is appropriate to use its. In statistical tables, the significance level is often indicated with asterisks, a single asterisk for the.05 level and two asterisks for the.1 levels. lnweb18.worldbank.org /ESSD/sdvext.nsf/61ByDocName/InferentialStatistics   (2005 words)

 Chapter 16 Inferential statistics is defined as the branch of statistics that is used to make inferences about the characteristics of a  populations based on sample data. A point estimate is the value of your sample statistic (e.g., your sample mean or sample correlation), and it is used to estimate the population parameter (e.g., the population mean or the population correlation). The researcher uses inferential statistics to determine the probability of the evidence under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true. www.southalabama.edu /coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec16.htm   (5232 words)

 inferential statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Inferential statistics are used to draw inferences about a population from a sample. There are two main methods used in inferential statistics: estimation and hypothesis testing. In estimation, the sample is used to estimate a parameter and a confidence interval about the estimate is constructed. home.hawaii.rr.com /vangorder/math/inferential_statistics.htm   (160 words)

 statistics.html Statistics is the applied branch of mathematics especially appropriate to a variety of research analyses. Inferential statistics, on the other hand, assists researchers in drawing conclusions from their observations; typically, this involves drawing conclusions about a population from the study of a sample drawn from it. Inferential statistics are used to estimate the generalizability of findings arrived at through the analysis of a sample to the larger population from which the sample has been selected. www.wadsworth.com /sociology_d/templates/student_resources/0534519040_babbie/statistics_primer.htm   (13367 words)

 Inferential statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with statistical inference. Inferential statistics or statistical induction comprises the use of statistics to make inferences concerning some unknown aspect (usually a parameter) of a population. Two schools of inferential statistics are frequency probability, and Bayesian inference. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Inferential_statistics   (135 words)

 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics: Summary Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses we use when we want to describe the population we are studying, and when we have a population that is small enough to permit our including every case. But to extend your conclusions to a broader population, like all such classes, all workers, all women, you must be use inferential statistics, which means you have to be sure the sample you study is representative of the group you want to generalize to. Inferential statistics are for generalizing your findings to a broader population group. www.csudh.edu /dearhabermas/stat2f98.htm   (692 words)

 Statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Inferential statistics is used to model patterns in the data, accounting for randomness and drawing inferences about the larger population. A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on a response or dependent variable. Early statistical models were almost always from the class of linear models, but powerful computers, coupled with suitable numerical algorithms, caused a resurgence of interest in nonlinear models (especially neural networks and decision trees) and the creation of new types, such as generalised linear models and multilevel models. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Statistics   (3173 words)

 SPSS for Windows: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics The F statistic represents a test of the null hypothesis that the expected values of the regression coefficients are equal to each other and that they equal zero. Education level was entered as a covariate in the model, and therefore the statistics associated with it are a measure of the linear relationship between education level and salaries. The F statistic (277.96) and significance level (p <.000) associated with education level allows us to reject the null hypothesis that there is not a linear relationship between education and salaries. www.utexas.edu /its/rc/tutorials/stat/spss/spss2/index.html   (7659 words)

 Education 2900: Introduction to Statistics in Education -- Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics are statistics that we calculate on samples of data and that we then use to make inferences to the population. For example, the sample mean is a statistic indicating the central tendency of a sample of data, whereas if the mean were calculated on a population it would be called a parameter. SPSS conveniently calculates the statistics for you, as well as a whole pile of additional information, but it is your task to interpret them and to use the results to draw conclusions about the data and ultimately about the research study. www.ucs.mun.ca /~coadym/ed2900/contents/stats_infer.html   (2764 words)

 Student's Guide to Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics encompasses a variety of procedures to ensure that the inferences are sound and rational, even though they may not always be correct. Thus, for the scientist using inferential statistics, population parameters represent the true state of affairs. We use inferential statistics to make tentative assertions about population parameters that are most consistent with the observed data. www.sdecnet.com /psychology/stathelp.htm   (4028 words)

 [No title] Descriptive statistics do a fine job of describing those sample distributions, but the researcher really wants to know if the data collected on the sample are representative of the population from which the sample was drawn. Inferential statistics are used to infer or explain something about the population that the (hopefully) representative sample was drawn from. Despite their lack of statistical power, nonparametric statistics are ideal for use with variables that generate discreet data (nominal or ordinal data.) So, they permit researchers to answer a wider range of questions than would be allowed with parametric statistics alone. www.candleinthedark.com /inferentialchapter.html   (3530 words)

 Descriptive Statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. With inferential statistics, you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study. www.socialresearchmethods.net /kb/statdesc.htm   (1682 words)

 inferential - eLearners.com The purpose of statistics, as applied to educational research, is introduced; inferential and descriptive measures are examined and methods for evaluating... This unit is designed to introduce you to the use of inferential statistics in research. Inferential statistics seek to infer whether the findings from a study can be applied to the larger population. www.elearners.com /search/courses/inferential.htm   (457 words)

 Statistics Help: Statistical Analysis and Consulting Services for Researchers Inferential statistics is the most important part, so let me say a few quick words about descriptive statistics to get it out of the way. Inferential statistics is the most important part of the field of statistics. Inferential statistics can be broken down into two categories: 1) Estimation, and; 2) Hypothesis testing. www.statisticallysignificantconsulting.com /Statistics101.htm   (574 words)

 Research Methods - Inferential Statistcs in AllPsych Online Inferential statistics refer to the use of current information regarding a sample of subjects in order to (1) make assumptions about the population at large and/or (2) make predictions about what might happen in the future. The basic statistical methods explained in the previous chapter are used a great deal in inferential statistics, but the data is taken a step further in order to generalize or predict. The goal of inferential statistics is to do just that - to take what is known and make assumptions or inferences about what is not known. allpsych.com /researchmethods/inferentialstatistics.html   (279 words)

 Inferential Statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) For example, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from a sample of the population what the population might think. This form of statistical inference produces an interval or range of values (e.g., -.12 to +.35) by a process that has a known probability of including the true but unknown parameter value in the interval. One of the simplest inferential statistics, the t-test, is used to compare the average performance of two groups on a single measure to see if there is a difference. colfa.utsa.edu /Sociology/masters/inferential.htm   (446 words)

 Community Health Research Methods: Lesson 7, Page 2 Inferential statistical techniques produce results that permit us to infer whether a difference or relationship exists within our population. You can analyze grouped aspects of interval data, such as the mean or standard deviation using descriptive statistics, but not the data themselves. This means that while it is more difficult to find statistical significance with a nonparametric statistic, if you do, you can be more confident of it than if you used the parametric test. isu.indstate.edu /gabanys/course341/page41.html   (1030 words)

 Sriram, N. (1999) Inferential Statistics are Descriptive , Psycoloquy: 10,#46 Social Bias (18)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) I contend that inferential statistics are used primarily as descriptive landmarks in negotiating uncertain terrain, and that fashioning suitable null hypotheses can be nontrivial. Inferential statistics, in its purest form, can be relegated to population census, poll surveys, physical measurements by organisations such as the National Institute of Standards Technology, and applied contexts such as those examining mean time between failures for electronic components and agricultural research. The machinery of inferential statistics provides the researcher with valuable descriptive signposts in poorly defined territory, and also aids in communication among research workers. psycprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk /archive/00000681   (3440 words)

 Inferential Statistics In statistics, these conflicting statements are called hypotheses, and their truth is tested using hypothesis tests. One of the important properties about making decisions using inferential statistical procedures is that you get to determine the level of your type 1 error. When the alpha level is set for an inferential test, it is also said that the confidence interval for the test is set. espse.ed.psu.edu /edpsych/faculty/rhale/statistics/Chapters/Chapter8/Chap8.html   (2903 words)

 Basic Statistics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Given an example of a variable used in statistics, students will be able to classify the variable as quantitative or qualitative. Given a scenario requiring the application of statistics, students will be able distinguish between the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Given a defined population, the student will be able to identify the meaning of a sampling distribution for a sample statistic and its relevance in computing a confidence interval for a population parameter. www.thequalitygroup.net /Statistics/003.asp   (1589 words)

 Into to Inferential Statistics Inferential statistics is the application of statistics to a body of data to make inferences about a larger group. In research, inferential statistics allow us to draw conclusions that apply not only to the data, but the group under study. Explaining inferential statistics without introducing a great many additional concepts and terms and doing mathematic proofs is difficult. rightwingnation.com /asmotext/stats/intro_infer.html   (156 words)

 Definitions, Uses, Data Types, and Levels of Measurement Descriptive statistics generally characterizes or describes a set of data elements by graphically displaying the information or describing its central tendancies and how it is distributed. Statistic: A statistic is a characteristic of a sample, presumably measurable. The 23% represents a parameter (not a statistic) of the class because it is based on the entire population. www.andrews.edu /~calkins/math/webtexts/stat01.htm   (1460 words)

 inferential--expanded   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Inferential Statistics is a way of deciding whether differences between samples are likely to reflect true differences between populations. Inferential statistics uses the following method to address the question of whether that difference is a significant difference (a difference that reflects differences in population means). In the most common test statistics (t test; ANOVA) you calculate a proportion in which the numerator represents how much the sample means actually differ from each other and the denominator how much you would expect them to differ based on chance alone. www.uark.edu /misc/lampinen/inferential.htm   (429 words)

 David and Lorraine Cheng Library - Statistics and Data Sets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) A directory of statistical tables featuring national statistics on population, human settlements, water supply and sanitation, housing, health, child-bearing, education, literacy, income and economic activity, and unemployment. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), a component of the Office of Justice Programs in the U.S. Department of Justice, is the United States' primary source for criminal justice statistics. The information was drawn from a statistical data file created by the the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) [Study Number 0003, "Historical Demographic, Economic and Social Data: The United States, 1790-1970"]. www.wpunj.edu /library/ReadyRef/stat.shtml   (2083 words)

 Inferential Statistics In any statistical test we can never be 100% sure that we have to reject (or accept) the null hypothesis. The "power" of a statistical test refers to the probability of claiming that there is a significant difference when this is true. A typical example might be comparing a variable in two experimental groups of patients, one treated with drug A and one treated with drug B. Such situations are common in medicine where an accepted treatment already exists and it would not be ethical to withhold this from a control group. www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk /1010/1011-20.html   (3379 words)

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