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Topic: Infibulation

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In the News (Fri 20 Apr 18)

  Infibulation - Biocrawler
Infibulation, in its modern use of the word, is the practice of surgical closure of the female labia majora by sewing them together to seal off the female genitalia, leaving only a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood.
Infibulation is usually reversed at the time of a girl's marriage by simply cutting the connected tissue.
Historically, infibulation has referred to the suturing of the labia, or suturing the foreskin of the male.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Infibulation   (273 words)

 Slave Infibulation in Ancient Greece and Rome
Eunuchs were prone to a number of health problems and would never be as strong as a fully mature man. Infibulated like this, there would be no risk of pregnancy amongst the female slaves, (and they would be infibulated also), nor of violation of the free-women and children of the house-hold.
If these are, indeed, infibulation chains covering the vulva of a female slave, the positions of the corroded and damaged links would exactly correspond to that of the urine flow.
From the owner's point of view, infibulation of the female slaves has all the advantages of the infibulation of male slaves.
www.bmezine.com /ritual/981115/slave.html   (945 words)

 Female Genital Mutilation and Risk of HIV Transmission
It is estimated that 2-25% of the cases of infertility in the Sudan are due to infibulation, either as a result of chronic pelvic infection or because of difficulty in having sexual intercourse and lack of penetration.
For the infibulated mother in labor with a narrow introitus, the inability to do a vaginal exam to monitor progress, apply fetal scalp electrodes, or blood sampling are for the obstetrician mid-wife serous reasons for concern.
Infibulation was made illegal in Sudan in 1946 and still today nearly 90% of the women in Sudan have been subjected to FGM.
www.cirp.org /library/disease/HIV/brady1   (3821 words)

 Infibulation in the Horn of Africa
Infibulation as practiced in the bush is carried out on one child at a time by a "gedda" or matron of the village.
Infibulation replaces the vulva with an almost solid wall of flesh that joins the thighs from the pubis nearly to the anus, with the exception of a small orifice at the inferior portion of the vulva.
Infibulation is the term given to a primitive sexual operation in which the labia are approximated to obstruct the vagina.
www.cirp.org /pages/female/pieters1   (1494 words)

 [No title]
Infibulation with excision is often called Pharonic Circumcision because it was practiced in ancient Egypt, but when it is practiced in Egypt it is called Sudanese Circumcision because it is so prevalent in Sudan.
Infibulation is the most painful and debilitating of these procedures, especially since it is often done repeatedly to a woman.
Infibulation is commonly used to control a woman's sexual activities, when polygyny is practiced, when the husband must be away from home, or if the women of the society engage in herding or other work that takes them away from home.
www.etext.org /Politics/Progressive.Sociologists/authors/Moen.Elizabeth/The-sexual-politics-of-female-circumcision.EMoen   (7609 words)

 FAQs on Female Genital Mutilation: United Nations Population Fund
Often, infibulated women are cut open on the first night of marriage (by the husband, or a circumciser), in order to enable the husband to be intimate with his wife.
In communities where infibulations is practised, the girls’ legs are often bound together to immobilize her for a period of 10 — 14 days, to allow formation of scar tissue.
Infibulation can cause severe scar formation, difficulty in urinating, menstrual disorders, recurrent bladder and urinary tract infection, fistulae, prolonged and obstructed labour (sometimes resulting in fetal death and vesico-vaginal fistulae and/or vesico-rectal fistulae), and infertility (as a consequence of earlier infections).
www.unfpa.org /gender/practices2.htm   (4276 words)

  Infibulation Explained - by Robert Pinkerton
Infibulation imposes an inner limit upon how widely the subject can spread her legs - literally, rather than as a vernacular vulgarism for admitting a male to intercourse.
Infibulation also reciprocally impinges upon the monthly problem of menstrual sanitation: If tampons are to be used for menstrual sanitation, this inflexibility dictates that the fibule be a padlock.
Indeed, the fact that a girl or woman is infibulated, can be displayed unambiguously only if she spreads her legs laterally as far as she can do so; or if she stands legs akimbo with her back to the viewer, and bends forward from the buttocks.
www.lockmeup.com /cb/facts/pinkerton-infibulation.html   (2116 words)

  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Infibulation
Infibulation, in its modern use of the word, is the practice of surgical closure of the female labia majora by sewing them together to seal off the female genitalia, leaving only a small hole for the passage of urine and menstrual blood.
Infibulation replaces the vulva with an almost solid wall of flesh that joins the thighs from the pubis nearly to the anus, with the exception of a small orifice at the inferior portion of the vulva.
Infibulation is the term given to a primitive sexual operation in which the labia are approximated to obstruct the vagina.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Infibulation   (905 words)

 Policy- Female Circumcision, Excision and Infibulation
Under the Canadian Criminal Code, the excision, infibulation and mutilation, in whole or in part, of the labia majora, labia minora or clitoris of a person (with certain exceptions) is categorized as aggravated assault.
In addition, as the performance of circumcision, excision or infibulation on a female child by any person may constitute child abuse, the physician who learns that such a procedure has been performed or is being contemplated must also notify the appropriate child protection authorities.
Infibulation: In this procedure, the clitoris, the labia minora and at least the anterior two thirds and often the whole of the medial part of the labia majora are cut.
www.cpso.on.ca /Policies/fcirc.htm   (433 words)

 Cultural Survival
In societies practicing infibulation, the sewing up of a young girl's vagina insures that her reproductive capacity will be safely secured until it can be incorporated into the lineage system of exchanges of women for bridewealth.
Another interpretation of clitoridectomy and infibulation is also possible, and that is that the custom may have the function of lowering the fertility of women in areas where, because of either desert conditions or high population density, the land is nearly at carrying capacity.
Clitoridectomy and infibulation exists today in a geopolitical context that is littered with land mines awaiting the culturally insensitive.
www.cs.org /publications/Csq/csq-article.cfm?id=344   (3442 words)

Infibulation or pharaonic circumcision (excision with infibulation) means that the entire clitoris and the labia minora are cut away and the two sides of the labia majora are partially sliced off or scraped raw and then sewn together, often with catgut.
Women who are infibulated have to be cut open to allow sexual intercourse and more cuts are needed for delivery of a child Wives, traditionally, are re-infibulated, for instance in the Sudan, after the baby is born; and when the child is weaned, they are opened again for intercourse.
Infibulation or pharaonic circumcision is practiced in the Sudan and adjoining areas throughout Somalia, parts of Ethiopia, Southern Egypt and Northern Kenya and in some areas of West Africa, for instance, Mali.
www.nocirc.org /symposia/first/hosken.html   (4570 words)

 FGM   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The word “infibulation” is derived from the Latin word fibula meaning a clasp used by ancient Romans on the penis of their slaves to prevent intercourse.
Infibulation at present means the cutting off of the whole of the clitoris, the whole of the labia minora and the adjacent parts of the labia majora and stitching the two sides of the vulva, leaving a small opening for urination and menstruation.
This is done on women who have lost their infibulation or on young mothers after delivery or on wives during a long absence of their husbands.
www.iac-ciaf.ch /FGM.htm   (1112 words)

 infibulation male infibulation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
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anywhereia.info /infibulation   (1214 words)

 2002_3_female genital cutting - Sexual Health Exchange - Royal Tropical Institute (KIT)
Infibulation is the most extreme and damaging type of FGC, where the clitoris and labia minora are removed along with all parts of the labia majora.
The strongest support for infibulation is found among mothers (88%), while 42% of fathers and 46% of male students still support it.
Among female pupils, prevalence of infibulation versus clitoridectomy was 57% and 43% respectively, while this was 85% and 15% among their mothers.
www.kit.nl /exchange/html/female_genital_cutting_-_sexua.asp   (1412 words)

 Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine
Infibulation by a ring in the prepuce was used to prevent premature copulation, and was in time to be removed, but in some cases its function was the preservation of perpetual chastity.
Rhodius mentions the usage of infibulation in antiquity, and Fabricius d'Aquapendente remarks that infibulation was usually practiced in females for the preservation of chastity.
Sir Richard Buxton, a distinguished traveler, also speaks of infibulation, and, according to him, at the time of the marriage ceremony the male tries to prove his manhood by using only Nature's method and weapon to consummate the marriage, but if he failed he was allowed artificial aid to effect entrance.
www.tpe.com /~altarboy/not90726.htm   (1085 words)

 Fem. Infibulation: Women mutilated
The two sides of the vulva are then pinned together by silk or catgut sutures, or with thorns, thus obliterating the vaginal introitus except for a very small opening, preserved by the insertion of a tiny piece of wood or a reed for the passage of urine or menstrual blood.
Lantier goes on to describe the wedding night in Somalia when the husband, having beaten his wife with a leather whip, uses a dagger to open her: `According to tradition, the husband should have prolonged and repeated intercourse with her during eight days.
Long-term complications: Chronic infections of the uterus and vagina are frequent, the vagina having become, in the case of infibulation, a semi-sealed organ.
www.holysmoke.org /fem/fem0181.htm   (1009 words)

 FGC Education and Networking Project
Infibulation is best described as a regional rather than a religious practice, however, since it is generally not found in an estimated 80% of the world's Moslems
At marriage, the infibulation must be torn, stretched or cut open by the bridegroom, and then prevented from healing shut.
Circumcision, and specifically infibulation, is believed to reduce the sexual drive (they do not), and to protect women not only from aggressive males (they also do not) but from her own rampant sexuality and irresistible inborn drive toward total promiscuity.
www.fgmnetwork.org /articles/prisonersofritual.php   (4383 words)

 [No title]
In the most extreme form of circumcision, called infibulation, the clitoris and both labia are removed and the two sides of the vulva are sewn together- except for a small opening for urine and menstrual blood to go through (Heise 1993).
The resulting scar tissue of infibulation also obstructs birth, and the consequential tears and hemorrhaging are "likely contributors to the very high rates of maternal mortality in Sudan and Somalia" (Lane and Rubinstein 1996).
Infibulation is intended to dull women's sexual enjoyment, and it appears to be extremely effective.
www.siue.edu /~jfarley/nicho490.htm   (3459 words)

 Origin of infibulation and footbinding
Although Islam, as a concept for rapetivism, is intimately connected to the infibulation "tradition" the cause and effect relation may be difficult to reveal at first sight.
The practise of infibulation may also have surged due to fear of Islamic rape and lslavery.
Whereas infibulation (female mutilation) historically is clearly anchored in Arabia and the African Horn (i.e.
www.geocities.com /klevius/FootbindingInfibulation.html?1155580109921   (605 words)

 UNHCR - Refugees Magazine Issue 105 (Life in a refugee camp) - Women: Video versus tradition
The program explained to women participants that the urinary, kidney and menstruation discomfort and complications most of them experience throughout their lives are a direct result of the rite of passage they suffered as children — a rite that ended with clumsy stitches smeared with egg to cover their bleeding wounds.
Hassan says she decided to stop inflicting deep infibulation on young children when she reflected on the suffering she herself had undergone.
She says that she is still sometimes asked to perform infibulation by mothers in the camp.
www.unhcr.org /publ/PUBL/3b582a575.html   (787 words)

 The Straight Dope: Have chastity belts ever been used on men?
Infibulation basically involves pulling the foreskin down over the tip of the penis (obviously you have to be uncircumcised for this to be feasible), drilling a couple holes in it, and clamping the whole thing in place with a ring or thread.
In ancient Rome infibulation was most common among comic actors and musicians, who believed that discouraging erections would help them preserve their voices.
Infibulation fell into disuse until the early 19th century, when it was resurrected by one Karl August Weinhold, a professor of surgery and medicine at the University of Halle.
www.straightdope.com /classics/a1_073.html   (486 words)

 Moondance - Nonfiction - Table of Contents - Spring 2001
Infibulation, the most radical and brutal form of genital mutilation, is primarily practiced in some Muslim and West African societies.
It basically consists of the removal of the clitoris and labia minora and the subsequent removal of some flesh of the labia majora that is sewn together to form a hood over the opening of the vagina.
Infibulation would be acceptable if it were used for a reasonable medical purpose.
www.moondance.org /2001/spring01/nonfiction/woman.html   (698 words)

 Female genital mutilation
In its most extreme form, infibulation, where the girl's vagina is sewn shut, the procedure ensures virginity.
The most extreme form of genital mutilation is excision and infibulation, in which the clitoris and all of the surround tissue are cut away and the remaining skin is sewn together.
Pregnant women who have been infibulated may have to have the labial tissue cut open to allow the baby to be delivered.
www.healthatoz.com /healthatoz/Atoz/ency/female_genital_mutilation.jsp   (928 words)

 African female genital infibulation
As described by Lightfoot-Klein, and by Smadar Lavie for Bedouin women of the south Sinai in The Poetics of Military Occupation: Mzeima Allegories of Bedouin Identity under Israeli and Egyptian Rule (Berkeley, 1990), it's practiced on girls in the age-range 4-8, quite capable of being traumatized by it.
But what's most interesting and challenging according to these women-centered cultural accounts is that the women in these cultures are 99% in favor of the operation, and presumably remember their own infibulations as painful but positive experiences.
The various "genital ordeals" described for various cultures have a range of evident local cultural meanings; but only African genital infibulation seems to be expressly designed to limit or remove the ability of the person it's performed on to experience sexual pleasure.
danny.oz.au /anthropology/notes/african-female-genital-infibulation.html   (505 words)

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