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Topic: Information processing


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In the News (Sun 21 Oct 18)

  
  Information processing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system.
Information processing can more specifically be defined in terms by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information.
The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Information_processing   (330 words)

  
 Educational Psychology Interactive: The Information Processing Approach
In this theory, information is thought to be processed in a serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from one stage to the next.
The parallel-distributed processing model states that information is processed simultaneously by several different parts of the memory system, rather than sequentially as hypothesized by Atkinson-Shiffrin as well as Craik and Lockhart.
The two processes most likely to move information into long-term memory are elaboration and distributed practice (referred to as periodic review in the direct instruction model).
chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc.html   (2406 words)

  
 edf7232a - Information Processing Theory
"Information processing is one area of research within the larger domain of cognitive psychology." Research in information processing attempts to explain the ways in which "individuals perceive, organize, and remember information related to" the "processing of data from the environment."
The "five main points" (mental processes, speed and accuracy, strategies for task performance, forms of mental representation, and organization of kownledge base) of information processing theory research is discussed.
Summary: Cognitive Information Processing (CIP) is not associated with the work of a single theorist; rather, it builds on the work of a number of researchers who share a common paradigm.
reach.ucf.edu /~edf7232a/infoproc.html   (1592 words)

  
 Cognitive Information Processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Information Processing Theory approach learning primarily through the study of memory and how to retrieve that memory.
It is critical that the learner concentrates to the information at this stage and further stages in order for information to move on to the next.
Information Processing Theory suggest the importance of feedback and the necessity of making mistakes so that the learner develops problem solving strategies.
chd.gse.gmu.edu /immersion/knowledgebase/strategies/cognitivism/informationprocessing.htm   (1211 words)

  
 NSW HSC ONLINE - Professional Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Information is translated into some meaningful form (encoded) and retrieved through a process of identification and recall for a particular purpose.
From the information processing viewpoint, people are active learners who can control and manipulate information and devise strategies to deal with particular situations, for example, thinking aloud when completing a complex task.
The information processing perspective is linked with the development of computers and improved knowledge of the functions and processes of the nervous system.
hsc.csu.edu.au /pro_dev/teaching_online/how_we_learn/information.html   (1439 words)

  
 Data entry and information processing workers
Data entry and information processing workers held about 633,000 jobs in 2002 and were employed in every sector of the economy; 392,000 were data entry keyers and 241,000 were word processors and typists.
It is common for data entry and information processing workers to transfer to other administrative jobs, such as secretary, administrative assistant, or statistical clerk or to be promoted to a supervisory job in a word processing or data entry center.
Data entry and information processing worker also must be comfortable working with office automation, and in this regard they are similar to court reporters, medical records and health information technicians, secretaries and administrative assistants, and computer operators.
stats.bls.gov /oco/ocos155.htm   (1496 words)

  
 Information Processing Language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Information Processing Language (IPL) was a programming language developed by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw and Herbert Simon at RAND Corporation and the Carnegie Institute of Technology from about 1956.
It included features intended to support programs that could perform general problem solving, including lists, associations, schemas (frames), dynamic memory allocation, data types, recursion, associative retrieval, functions as arguments, generators (streams), and cooperative multitasking.
"An Introduction to Information Processing Language V." CACM 3(4): 205-211.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Information_Processing_Language   (367 words)

  
 Langston, Cognitive Psychology, Notes 1
Many manifestations: Information comes from the environment, is stored briefly, some is selected for additional processing, something is done to it, it may result in some additional behavior.
Information processing roots: Communication theory has to do with transmitting a signal (information) along a channel to a receiver.
Information is transmitted along a channel, received, and processed.
www.mtsu.edu /~wlangsto/CogPsyNotes1.html   (2966 words)

  
 Information Processing - Ebook   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
However, knowing that this model is a cognitive processing model and knowing that the model is based on an explicit metaphor with a computer is helpful in understanding IP theory.
The process of elaboration occurs when information is retrieved from the LTM in order to link to the new information.
Failure to remember information does not mean that it has been forgotten; it is merely the procedure for retrieval has been forgotten.
www.coe.uga.edu /epltt/InformationProcessing.htm   (4661 words)

  
 OPI - Ośrodek Przetwarzania Informacji
The Information Processing Centre (OPI) was called into being in 1990 as a research and development unit supervised by the State Committee for Scientific Research, at present the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology.
The Information Processing Centre owns information resources ready to be used for the formulation of the state policy related to research and innovation as well as for preparation of due analyses and statistics.
Works conducted at the Information Processing Centre are aimed at the adjustment of binding national norms and standards related to the scientific information to those being in force in the European Union.
www.opi.org.pl /index.php?zmienna=false   (161 words)

  
 Information Processing
Processing information means taking raw information and making it more useful by putting it into context.
Labeling information during the collection phase is critical if one is to avoid information overload.
Making use of your information means being able to view it in the context of a current activity.
www.zootsoftware.com /ftp/HTML/informationprocessing.htm   (627 words)

  
 Learning Theories: Information Processing Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Information processing theorists approach learning primarily through a study of memory.
Information processing theory has become a general theory of human cognition; the phenomenon of chunking has been generally verified for all levels of cognitive processing.
Information processing approaches to learning find expression in other cognitive theories of learning, but in general they can be applied to instruction by following these guidelines:
www.educationau.edu.au /archives/cp/04h.htm   (411 words)

  
 TIP: Theories
George A. Miller has provided two theoretical ideas that are fundamental to cognitive psychology and the information processing framework.
Miller (1956) presented the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two) where a chunk is any meaningful unit.
Information processing theory has become a general theory of human cognition; the phenomenon of chunking has been verified at all levels of cognitive processing.
tip.psychology.org /miller.html   (382 words)

  
 Biases Affecting Information Processing
The problem is that the unavailable information, or the information that is harder to get, may actually be the more reliable or the more definitive for use in making good decisions.
Similarly, information arriving in the middle of a project may be unfairly discounted or ignored, simply because of its position in the data stream.
Information that is easy to understand, presented clearly and simply, described in exact and graspable terms, is much more likely to influence us than difficult, tedious, or ambiguous information.
www.virtualsalt.com /infobias.htm   (1562 words)

  
 P540 - Cognitive information processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Cognitive information processing (CIP) is not associated with the work of a single theorist; rather, it builds on the work of a number of researchers who share a common paradigm.
This is useful, because if someone tells you a story about eating in a restaurant, they don't have to provide all of the details about being seated, giving their order to the server, leaving a tip at the end, etc., because your schema for the restaurant experience can fill in these missing details.
Provide unifying themes for content, since information that lacks a theme can be difficult to comprehend, or, worse, the learner may "accrete" the information to the wrong schema.
education.indiana.edu /~p540/webcourse/cip.html   (2758 words)

  
 Information Processing
One way to think of this is to picture the process of acquiring, retaining, and using information as an activity called information processing, which is diagrammed in Figure 6.1.
It may be convenient to view information processing as parallel to the way in which an executive manages a business.
Information comes into the business across the executive's desk - mail, phone calls, personal interactions, problems, etc. (This is like short-term memory.) Some of this information goes into the waste basket (like being forgotten), and some of it is filed (like being stored in long-term memory).
education.calumet.purdue.edu /vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy6/edpsy6_info.htm   (649 words)

  
 information processing --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Business firms, other organizations, and individuals in contemporary society rely on information systems to manage their operations, compete in the marketplace, supply services, and augment personal lives.
It attempts to bring together concepts and methods from various disciplines such as library science, computer science and engineering, linguistics, psychology, and other technologies in order to develop techniques and devices to aid in the handling—that is, in the collection, organization,...
The means by which information is transformed into a typed or printed page is called word processing.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9106312   (825 words)

  
 Information Processing Theory Basics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Retrieval- The information is found at the appropriate time, and reactivated for use on a current task, the true test of effective memory.
The initial appeal of information processing theories was the idea that cognitive processes could be described in a stage-like model.
The stages to processing follow a path along which information is taken into the memory system, and reactivated when necessary.
www.bsu.edu /classes/cassady2/EDPSYCH/infoprocess1.html   (441 words)

  
 Information Retrieval Links
The Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology works with industry, academia and other government agencies to promote the use of more effective and efficient techniques for manipulating (largely) unstructured textual information, especially the browsing, searching, and presentation of that information.
The Information Filtering Project is a joint effort of the University of Maryland Medical Informatics and Computational Intelligence Laboratory and the Computational Linguistics and Information Processing (CLIP) Lab.
The Natural Language Processing Laboratory is active in the areas of sentence analysis, discourse analysis, corpus-driven text comprehension and information extraction.
web.syr.edu /~diekemar/ir.html   (972 words)

  
 Lyman's Information Processing Activities   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Information Processing class covers the second semester of the year.
In the class, students are taught to to apply skills learned in Keyboarding I. In the class they learn to use the word processor to type reports, tables, and integrate graphics in their word processing documents.
The skills are all brought together in information processing simulations.
lyman.dtc.millard.k12.ut.us /ip/ip.htm   (456 words)

  
 QIP 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Quantum information processing is the intersection of quantum mechanics and computer science.
After Peter Shor's 1994 discovery of efficient quantum algorithms for factoring and the discrete log (threatening current "classical" cryptography), the field has grown explosively and is now one of the hottest subfields of both computer science and physics.
QIP 2002 is the fifth workshop on quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum information theory in the tradition of AQIP 98 in Århus, AQIP 99 in Chicago, QIP 2000 in Montréal, and QIP 2001 at the CWI in Amsterdam.
www.research.ibm.com /quantuminfo/qip2002/home.html   (210 words)

  
 Information Processing Group -- Overview
The mission of the Information Processing Group is to provide leadership and expertise in information theory, coding theory, and communications systems, in line with the missions of JPL and NASA.
Robert McEliece, a longtime member, supervisor, and consultant in the Information Processing Group has been awarded the 2004 Claude E. Shannon Award, the highest honor accorded by the Information Theory Society of the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
The Information Processing Group dates to 1960, and includes a number of prominent former members.
coding.jpl.nasa.gov   (366 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Books: CJKV Information Processing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
CJKV Information Processing covers all major writing systems for Vietnamese (including Quôc ngu, chu Nôm and chu Han), Japanese (kana and kanji), Korean (hangul and hanja), and Chinese (hanzi), plus the various means of integrating multiple character sets and systems for transliterating these languages into the Latin alphabet.
CJKV Information Processing is the definitive guide for tackling the difficult issues faced when dealing with complex Asian languages -- Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese -- in the context of computing or Internet services.
The information he has gathered is not easily found and it is indispensible.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1565922247?v=glance   (1455 words)

  
 FIPS 55-3 - State Codes, County Codes, Place Codes, Place Names, MSA, Congressional Districts
Federal Information Processing Standards Publications (FIPS PUBS) are issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology after approval by the Secretary of Commerce pursuant to Section 111(d) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended by the Computer Security Act of 1987, Public Law 100-235.
ANS X3.31-1973, Information SystemsCodesStructure for the Identification of the Counties and County Equivalents of the United States and Its Outlying and Associated Areas for Information Interchange, American National Standards Institute.
This guideline is recommended for the collection, processing, and interchange of coded data by Federal agencies, and whenever requirements for such data are imposed by a Federal agency or industry, State or local governments, or the public.
www.itl.nist.gov /fipspubs/fip55-3.htm   (9769 words)

  
 University of Oulu | Department of Information Processing Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Department of Information Processing Science was established at the University of Oulu in 1969.
The goal is to advance their previous degree level or to supplement their professional knowledge by completing the degree of Master of Science in Information Processing Science.
In addition, a permanent programme in information processing science was launched in Kajaani in 2004.
www.tol.oulu.fi /english   (634 words)

  
 IFIP 8.2 - 2005 - Cleveland, Ohio   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Companies like FedEx and UPS are investing millions of dollars to upgrade their wireless network infrastructure that will bring the information about the packages, trucks, and courriers ever closer to their customers.
At the same time, the emergence of ubiquitous information environments challenges many of the traditional assumptions about organizations, computing, communication, and work.
The increased mobility in ubiquitous information environments will bring new meaning about issues of time and space in organizational behavior.
ifip2005.cwru.edu   (373 words)

  
 ISO17799 (BS7799) Information Security - Plain English Introduction
Once this ISO IEC information technology committee adopted the ISO IEC 17799 standard, it was circulated to member organizations for approval.
Information needs to be protected because modern organizations are faced with a wide range of security threats.
of information means to protect the accuracy and completeness of information and the methods that are used to process it.
praxiom.com /iso-17799-intro.htm   (1096 words)

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