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# Topic: Information theory

 Information theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Information theory, however, does not involve message importance or meaning, as these are matters of the quality of data rather than the quantity of data, the latter of which is determined solely by probabilities. Information theory is generally considered to have been founded in 1948 by Claude Shannon in his seminal work, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." The central paradigm of classic information theory is the engineering problem of the transmission of information over a noisy channel. Information theory is a broad and deep mathematical theory, with equally broad and deep applications, amongst which is the vital field of coding theory. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Information_theory   (3070 words)

 math lessons - Information theory Information theory is a branch of the mathematical theory of probability and mathematical statistics, that quantifies the concept of information. His theory for the first time considered communication as a rigorously stated mathematical problem in statistics and gave communications engineers a way to determine the capacity of a communication channel in terms of the common currency of bits. The transmission part of the theory is not concerned with the meaning (semantics) of the message conveyed, though the complementary wing of information theory concerns itself with content through lossy compression of messages subject to a fidelity criterion. www.mathdaily.com /lessons/Information_theory   (948 words)

 info-theory.nb Although information is sometimes measured in characters, as when describing the length of an email message, or in digits (as in the length of a phone number), the convention in information theory is to measure information in bits. The information content of a sequence is defined as the number of bits required to transmit that sequence using an optimal encoding. Information theory provides us with a formula for determining the number of bits required in an optimal code even when we don't know the code. www-2.cs.cmu.edu /~dst/Tutorials/Info-Theory   (2126 words)

 The Beginnings of ``Information Theory" information" and the ``amount of information." Information exists in the transmission of symbols, with symbols having ``certain meanings to the parties communicating." When someone receives information, each received symbol allows the recipient to ``eliminate possibilities," excluding other possible symbols and their associated meanings. The amount of information in the output of a process is related to the amount of information that is available about the input to the process combined with the information provided by the process itself. The information that is input to the function has measurable information, in its capacity as being the output of some other process, about which it provides information, the amount being measurable in terms of this earlier process. www.ils.unc.edu /~losee/b5/node7.html   (2065 words)

 Information Theory and Music Information Theory is a branch of communications theory which originated with the work of Claude Shannon, a researcher at the Bell Telephone Laboratories during the late 1940s and '50s. Information Theory depends upon a precise (but limited) definition of the word information which answers the question of how to define the quantity of information contained in a message being transmitted, received, or stored. Information Theory defines the quantity of information conveyed by a particular message as inversely proportional to the predictability of that message; when a message is entirely certain (that is, its probability is 1), then the quantity of information conveyed is zero. www.music-cog.ohio-state.edu /Music829D/Notes/Infotheory.html   (1686 words)

 Information Theory The hierarchical model of information may be applied to the description of any domain in which information appears, such as that used by Claude Shannon in the 1940s when he developed what is now referred to as "information theory" to study communication systems. Information theory is often considered to have begun with work by Harry Nyquist. The model for information transmission proposed by Shannon has been heavily abused by scholars who have applied the theory in domains distant from the electrical communication environment in which it was developed. maththeory.info   (2077 words)

 Information, science and biology Information confronts us at every turn both in technological and in natural systems: in data processing, in communications engineering, in control engineering, in the natural languages, in biological communications systems, and in information processes in living cells. Yes, paradoxical though it may sound, considered from the point of view of information theory, a random sequence of letters possesses the maximum information content, whereas a text of equal length, although linguistically meaningful, is assigned a lower value. Shannon’s information theory makes it possible to determine the smallest number of letters that must be combined to form a word in order to allow unambiguous identification of all amino acids. www.answersingenesis.org /tj/v10/i2/information.asp   (4686 words)

 INFORMATION THEORY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) This formula is another example of the cybernetic analysis of systems, according to which any whole system is accounted for or defined in terms of a set of components and its organization. The total amount of information transmitted in a quantitative analogue to and hence can be thought of as a measure of a system's structure. Information theory has provided numerous theorems and algebraical identities with which observed systems may be approached, e.g., the law of requisite variety, the TENTH theorem of information theory (Krippendorff) pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ASC/INFORM_THEOR.html   (155 words)

 Information theory The basics of information theory were worked out in the late 1940's by Claude Shannon, and his work has ever since been at the centre of the conventional understanding of the word. In this, they are to some extent justified: information theory was developed specifically for use in electronic communications, and while it can to some extent be applied in biology, its uses are limited. Using conventional information theory, it is not immediately obvious which of them contains the most information, but it should be clear that their information content will be about the same. www.geocities.com /brianvds/skeptic/info.htm   (2428 words)

 Physics 219 Course Information Information is something that can be encoded in the state of a physical system, and a computation is a task that can be performed with a physically realizable device. Therefore, since the physical world is fundamentally quantum mechanical, the foundations of information theory and computer science should be sought in quantum physics. In fact, quantum information -- information stored in the quantum state of a physical system -- has weird properties that contrast sharply with the familiar properties of "classical" information. www.theory.caltech.edu /people/preskill/ph229   (1043 words)

 Information theory - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) However, in information theory complexity and randomness are positively correlated. In Kolmogorov-Chaitin information theory a string is algorithmically complex or algorithmically random if it has a high entropy (relative to its length). Mutations in a message may add information that is not desirable to the receiver; in fact, in biotic systems this is generally the case. wiki.cotch.net /index.php/Information   (2482 words)

 Information theory The key to gaining an intuitive understanding of the formula for calculating information content is to see the duality between the number of combinations to be encoded and their probabilities. The advantage of using the probability approach is that when the distribution is non-uniform, the information content can only be expressed in terms of probabilities. What information theory says we can do is consider each value separately, and assume that it is drawn from a uniformly distributed set of values when calculating its information content. www.infomationtheory.org /intuition.html   (388 words)

 Information Theory The new information theory reveals the theoretical flaws of other data compression methods, including: the Huffman; Ziv Lempel; LZW codes and commercial compression codes such as V.42bis and MPEG-2. According to Shannon’s theory, information “removes uncertainty” so that the more bits transmitted, the more accurate is the data pattern reconstruction in the receiver. Information is communicated with address tokens, called “Tips”, each of which may represent any amount of data. www.autosophy.com /infotheo.htm   (9963 words)

 Information Theory and Creationism: Algorithmic Information Theory (Chaitin, Solomonoff & Kolmogorov) Computational complexity theory deals with the amount of computing resources (time and memory) needed to solve a problem. The joint information content H(X,Y) of strings X and Y is the size of the smallest program to produce both X and Y simultaneously. It must be stressed that, despite a similarity in notation and form to Classical Information Theory, Algorithmic Information Theory deals with individual strings, while Classical Information Theory deals with the statistical behavior of information sources. www.talkorigins.org /faqs/information/algorithmic.html   (3567 words)

 Lucent | Information Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) Information Theory regards information as only those symbols that are uncertain to the receiver. For years, people have sent telegraph messages, leaving out non-essential words such as "a" and "the." In the same vein, predictable symbols can be left out, like in the sentence, "only infrmatn esentil to understandn mst b tranmitd." Shannon made clear that uncertainty is the very commodity of communication. The amount of information, or uncertainty, output by an information source is a measure of its entropy. www.lucent.com /minds/infotheory/what1.html   (120 words)

 Educational Psychology Interactive: The Information Processing Approach The focus of this model is on how information is stored in memory; the model proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages. In this theory, information is thought to be processed in a serial, discontinuous manner as it moves from one stage to the next. We constantly use information that we gather through the senses (often referred to as bottom-up processing) and information we have stored in memory (often called top-down processing) in a dynamic process as we construct meaning about our environment and our relations to it. chiron.valdosta.edu /whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc.html   (2406 words)

 Information Theory Society The winner of the 2006 IEEE Information Theory Society Claude E. Shannon Award is Dr. Sergio Verdu, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University. The winner of the 2006 IEEE Information Theory Society Aaron D. Wyner Distinguished Service Award is Dr. Anthony Ephremides, the Cynthia Kim Professor of Information Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Insitute for Systems Research, University of Maryland. The winners of the 2005 IEEE Information Theory Society Paper Award are Shuo-Yen Robert Li, Raymond W. Yeung, and Ning Cai for their paper, "Linear network coding", which appeared in the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. www.itsoc.org /index.html   (747 words)

 Amazon.com: Information Theory: Books: Robert B. Ash   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) Mathematical Foundations of Information Theory by A. Ya. This 1990 Dover publication of the original 1965 edition serves as a great introduction to "the statistical communication theory", otherwise known as Information Theory, a subject which concerns the theoretical underpinnings of a broad class of communication devices. Pierce is one of the finest authors of his era and he published several books on information theory; most of which are more "engineer friendly" and are more relavent to the study of electronic communications. www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0486665216?v=glance   (1836 words)

 Information Theory: Finding Immaterial Properties of life...by the IDEA Club   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) The meaning or message does not depend on whether it is represented as sound waves in the air or as ink patterns on paper or as alignment of magnetic domains on a floppy disk or as voltage patterns in a transistor network. Some might argue that the high level of information in the genetic code could be generated without a guiding Intelligence through chance and physical laws that govern the behavior of matter. Information and language always arise from a mind that is not locked into the physical realm, and is able to step outside physical constraints into the world of ideas to form the abstract associations needed for a language structure to exist. www-acs.ucsd.edu /~idea/infotheory.htm   (1401 words)

 Information Processing Theory The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory. Information processing theorists approach learning primarily through a study of memory. The key factors for effective encoding of information include ensuring that the material is meaningful and that activation of prior knowledge occurs. www.istheory.yorku.ca /informationprocessingtheory.htm   (1128 words)

 Information Theory Resources A Short Course in Information Theory by David J. Mackay. Information theory applied to physics by Phil Fraundorf. Jaynes Book This book is about a philosophy of probability and information theory. www-lmmb.ncifcrf.gov /~toms/itresources.html   (127 words)

 Amazon.com: Elements of Information Theory: Books: Thomas M. Cover,Joy A. Thomas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20) Up-to-date introduction to the field of information theory and its applications to communication theory, statistics, computer science, probability theory and the theory of investment. Thomas Cover is a well-known researcher for both his excellent and sometimes surprising work in information theory, and his reputation as a teacher. Although this book doesn't focus too heavily on the "practical" aspects as far as implementation of information theory, it is clear that todays books are not nearly as mathematically rigorous as the books of yesteryear. www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0471062596?v=glance   (1711 words)

 Information theory His approach employed probability and ergodic theory to study the statistical characteristics of communication systems. Since then information theory has been used in a variety of disciples, well beyond telecommunications, ranging from physics to medicine to computer science. (where pi is the probability of i) that, when applied to an information source, could determine the capacity of the channel required to transmit the source as encoded binary digits. www.infomationtheory.org   (391 words)

 Computer Laboratory - Information Theory and Coding The aims of this course are to introduce the principles and applications of information theory. How the metrics of information are grounded in the rules of probability. Diverse illustrations of the principle that information, even in such a signal, comes in quantised, countable, packets. www.cl.cam.ac.uk /Teaching/current/InfoTheory   (509 words)

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