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Topic: Initialization vector


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The initialization vector generator is configured to receive a selected input value and generate an initialization vector therefrom using a selected initialization vector generation methodology.
The selected initialization vector generation methodology is selected so that (a) a small change of the selected input value will result in a large change in the initialization vector; and (b) for any two randomly-selected selected input values, it is unlikely that the corresponding initialization vectors will have the same value.
In this case, the value that is hashed for use as the initialization vector may be, for example, a value that corresponds or is otherwise related to the storage address or location of the information on the storage medium, and therefore need not be stored with the ciphertext.
www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=99/34548.990708&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (7423 words)

  
 The Caml Development Kit - Libraries cryptgps cryptgps Modules Cryptmodes_64   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Decrypts the string whose length MUST be a multiple of 8 bytes with the given key and initialization vector, resulting in the output vector (for the next CBC cascade) and the decrypted string.
Encrypts the string (with arbitraty length) with the given key and initialization vector, resulting in the output vector (for the next CFB cascade) and the encrypted string (of the same length).
Decrypts the string (with arbitraty length) with the given key and initialization vector, resulting in the output vector (for the next CFB cascade) and the decrypted string (of the same length).
pauillac.inria.fr /cdk/newdoc/htmlman/cdk_172.html   (1042 words)

  
 JavaScript AES Example   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Note that with modes that use an initialization vector, it is important that although the IV doesn't have to be secret, it does have to be unique.
Output Feedback - The initialization vector is enciphered using the specified block algorithm.
The initialization vector is enciphered using the specified block algorithm.
falcon.eku.edu /faculty/styer/460/Encrypt/JS-AES-Chain.html   (685 words)

  
 Initialization vector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In straight-forward operation of block ciphers or so-called Electronic Code Book (ECB) mode, encryption of the same plain text with the same key results in the same ciphertext, which is a considerable threat to security.
Use of an initialization vector linearly added to (XORed with) the first block of plaintext or included in front of the plaintext prior to encryption in one of the streaming modes of operation resolves this problem.
In stream ciphers, IVs are loaded into the keyed internal secret state of the cipher, after which a number of cipher rounds is executed prior to releasing the first bit of output.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Initialization_vector   (244 words)

  
 bdes(1) - encrypt/decrypt using the Data Encryption Standard
vector; the vector is interpreted in the same way as the key.
In either case, only the leading 64 bits of the key or initialization vector are used, and if fewer than 64 bits are provided, enough 0 bits are appended to pad the key to 64 bits.
The Sun implementation always uses an initialization vector of 0 (that is, all zeroes).
www.gsp.com /cgi-bin/man.cgi?section=1&topic=bdes   (970 words)

  
 Encryption using destination addresses in a TDMA satellite communications network (US4418425)
A superframe initialization vector is transmitted from a master station to all other stations in the network.
A plurality of frame initialization vectors is sequentially generated at each station in an encryption engine, from the superframe initialization vector, using a key which is common only to authorized users within the network.
Each data channel is initialized with encryption bits produced by exclusive ORing the channel destination address and the frame initialization vector for the frame in which that channel is to be transmitted, and then passing the output of the exclusive OR through the encryption engine using either the same key or a second, different key.
www.delphion.com /details?pn10=US04418425   (666 words)

  
 Obviex™ - How to Calculate the Size of Encrypted Data?
Before being encrypted, the first block of the plaintext data is XORed with the initialization vector and the result of the XOR operation is encrypted producing the first encrypted block.
Because the initialization vector is required during decryption, it must be stored along with the encrypted data.
A reasonable alternative could be using the same initialization vector but appending a randomly generated salt at the beginning of the plaintext value before encrypting data (this is similar to hashing with salt).
www.obviex.com /Articles/CiphertextSize.aspx   (2369 words)

  
 NSA Patent 4,731,840 - 1988   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The method of claim 4 wherein said initialization vector is generated by DES encryption of a first arbitrary binary word read from a circular counter which is actuated whenever said master unit is powered.
The method of claim 15 wherein the generation of said initialization vector in step (a) is conducted by DES encryption of a first arbitrary binary word read from a circular counter which is actuated each time said master unit is powered.
The master unit then transmits to the remote unit the encrypted DEK; the initialization vector (IV); and the value of X. In this regard, the values of IV and X are transmitted in plain text, or in non-encrypted form.
www.ussrback.com /crypto/nsa/nsa-patents/nsa4731840.htm   (4172 words)

  
 Block cipher modes of operation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Also, to make each message unique an initialization vector is used.
Note that nonce in this graph is the same thing as the initialization vector (IV) in the other graphs.
All modes (except ECB) require an initialization vector, or IV - a sort of dummy block to kick off the process for the first real block, and also provide some randomisation for the process.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Block_cipher_mode_of_operation   (1272 words)

  
 TCLLIB - Tcl Standard Library: des
An initialization vector of the same size as the cipher block size is used to handle the first block.
The initialization vector should be chosen randomly and transmitted as the first block of the output.
In CFB mode the initialization vector is encrypted and the output is then xor'd with the plaintext stream.
tmml.sourceforge.net /doc/tcllib/des.html   (801 words)

  
 Stroustrup: C++ Glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A copy constructor is used for initialization of objects of type T with objects of type T. If a copy constructor is not declared for a class, memberwise initialization is used.
Use a vector if you need insertions and deletions only at one end (as is typical).
What a handler can't do is simply tell the thrower to just carry on; by the time the handler is invoked we have returned from the block/function that threw and all blocks/functions that led to it from the handler's try-block.
public.research.att.com /~bs/glossary.html   (9700 words)

  
 Lava class reference: Class DesCfbDecoder
Initializes with DES funcction, value for k, and initialization vector.
Initializes with arbitrary block cipher, value for k, and initialization vector.
Details: This constructor initializes a new instance to decrypt k-bit symbols using the DES encryption function corresponding to the given key and initialization vector (IV).
sharkysoft.com /archive/lava/docs/javadocs/lava/security/des/DesCfbDecoder.html   (155 words)

  
 [No title]
Initialization Vector The AES-CTR IV field MUST be eight octets.
Initialization Vector The IV field is 64 bits.
The first three test vectors use AES with a 128 bit key; the next three test vectors use AES with a 192 bit key; and the last three test vectors use AES with a 256 bit key.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc3686.txt   (4022 words)

  
 OpenVMS Programming Concepts Manual   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Because an initialization routine is executed when the executive image is loaded, it serves as an ideal mechanism for locating the callable routines of an executive image in memory.
Indicates whether the initialization routine is external to the module invoking the macro.
It enters a vector for the routine in the initialization routine vector table, guaranteeing that this routine is called when the image is loaded by the OpenVMS loader.
www.cuis.edu /doc_vms_html/000000/731final/5841/5841pro_013.html   (2427 words)

  
 (WO 99/34548) SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DERIVING AN APPROPRIATE INITIALIZATION VECTOR FOR SECURE COMMUNICATIONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The source device generates the ciphertext from plaintext in accordance with the cipher block chaining mode, using an initialization vector that is generated using a hash function selected so that small changes in an input result in large changes in the initialization vector.
As a result values such as sequence numbers or time stamps can be used in generating the initialization vector, while still providing for cryptographic security for the ciphertext as against cryptanalytic attack.
The destination device receives the message packet and decrypts the ciphertext to generate plaintext in accordance with the cipher block chaining mode, using an initialization vector that is generated using the corresponding hash function.
www.wipo.int /ipdl/IPDL-CIMAGES/view/pct/getbykey5?KEY=99/34548.990708   (301 words)

  
 Define cipher block chaining - a Whatis.com definition - see also: CBC   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Cipher block chaining (CBC) is a mode of operation for a block cipher (one in which a sequence of bits are encrypted as a single unit or block with a cipher key applied to the entire block).
One of its key characteristics is that it uses a chaining mechanism that causes the decryption of a block of ciphertext to depend on all the preceding ciphertext blocks.
Ideally, the initialization vector should be different for any two messages encrypted with the same key.
searchsecurity.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci344945,00.html   (337 words)

  
 Archives of the Caml mailing list > Message from Pierre Weis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
I also agree with you that initializing a vector with a dummy value is not a good practice and not an acceptable solution.
However, the Java's way of testing further accesses to elements of vectors does not seem to be more appealing, since it does not ensure proper initialization of vectors, and thus spurious exceptions, due to access into improperly initialized vectors, can occur at anytime after the creation of the faulty vector.
For instance: [random_initialize f i0 n] returns a vector [v] of length [n], initialized using the function [f], starting from index [i0].
caml.inria.fr /pub/ml-archives/caml-list/2000/05/a6ddaffd930b4479540eb2d758cf4ff2.fr.html   (346 words)

  
 RIM Device Java Library: Class InitializationVector
Represents an initialization vector (IV) for block cipher modes.
Thus if the same message is encrypted twice with the same key, the resulting ciphertexts will be different, as long as different initialization vectors are used.
An integer that represents the number of bytes in the initialization vector.
www.blackberry.com /developers/docs/4.0.2api/net/rim/device/api/crypto/InitializationVector.html   (854 words)

  
 C335 Lab Tools
The initialization of the vector table is included in this file.
The interrupt will cause the address at vector number to be executed every time that the timer expires.
At download the address for vector 200 in the vector table is replaced by the timer interrupt handler.
www.cs.indiana.edu /l/www/csg/hardware/c335_tools/motor_board.html   (628 words)

  
 MIT Scheme Reference - Construction of Vectors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Otherwise the initial elements of the result are unspecified.
Returns a newly allocated vector whose elements are the given arguments.
Returns a newly allocated vector initialized to the elements of
www-swiss.ai.mit.edu /projects/info/SchemeDocs/man/ref-manual/html/scheme_83.html   (155 words)

  
 Component: CBCModeM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The IV is a pointer to the initialization vector (of size equal to the blockSize) which is used to initialize the encryption.
The IV is a pointer to the initialization vector (of size equal to the blockSize) which is used to initialize the decryption.
IV - The initialization vector that was used to encrypt this particular data stream.
www.ee.ucla.edu /~parixit/nesdoc/mica2/tos.lib.TinySec.CBCModeM.nc.html   (874 words)

  
 EETimes.com - Pitfalls to network security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
On the receiving end, the key needed for decryption is generated from the initialization vector.
The major issue with WEP is that in order to be secure, the initialization vector must be changed frequently or an attacker could use multiple messages to back-solve for the unknown value.
As a result, even if the initialization vector is changed frequently, a persistent attacker who might listen in on the channel for extended periods of time might be able to take advantage of reused initialization vectors.
www.eetimes.com /showArticle.jhtml?articleID=23901081   (1494 words)

  
 Lava class reference: Class DesCbcEncoder
Details: This constructor initializes a new instance with the given block cipher and initialization vector.
Details: This constructor initializes a standard DES CBC cipher with the given initialization vector and DES encryption key.
initializes this transform in preparation for processing a new input text stream.
sharkysoft.com /archive/lava/docs/javadocs/lava/security/des/DesCbcEncoder.html   (422 words)

  
 CBCAlgorithmIdentifier (Oracle Phaos Crypto 3.0.1)
An algorithm identifier for Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode symmetric block ciphers, which use an initialization vector as a parameter.
using the OID from the given algorithm identifier and initialization vector.
containing the encoding of the bytes of the initialization vector.
www.oracle.com /technology/products/id_mgmt/phaos/fips/doc/apidoc/com/phaos/crypto/CBCAlgorithmIdentifier.html   (179 words)

  
 (In)Security of the WEP algorithm
To avoid encrypting two ciphertexts with the same key stream, an Initialization Vector (IV) is used to augment the shared secret key and produce a different RC4 key for each packet.
The initialization vector in WEP is a 24-bit field, which is sent in the cleartext part of a message.
When the attacker intercepts the encrypted version of his message sent over 802.11, he will be able to decrypt all packets that use the same initialization vector.
www.isaac.cs.berkeley.edu /isaac/wep-faq.html   (2016 words)

  
 [No title]
PLAINTEXT and CIPHERTEXT may be the same vector.") (defgeneric decrypt (contex ciphertext plaintext &key (ciphertext-start 0) ciphertext-end (plaintext-start 0)) (:documentation "Decrypt data located in CIPHERTEXT according to CONTEXT.
certain things, however, become ;;; more complicated, particularly specifying initialization vectors and ;;; iv-indices (since the iv-index has to be updated between calls).
;;; option 3 seems like a nice compromise, but something inside of me ;;; wants cipher/mode specific information (like the initialization vector) ;;; to be stored inside the context rather than being passed along as a ;;; separate argument.
www.cs.rice.edu /~froydnj/lisp/crypt-proposal.lisp   (853 words)

  
 Low Cost Embedded x86 Teaching Tool
Disconnect Vector (Real/Protected mode) - This vector is used to perform a cleanup from an unsuccessful boot attempt on an IPL device.
During initialization, a Plug and Play Option ROM may hook any vectors and update any data structures required for it to access any attached devices and perform the necessary identifications and initializations.
Initialization length must be greater than or equal to runtime length.
www.geocities.com /mamanzip/Articles/Low_Cost_Embedded_x86_Teaching_Tool.html   (10656 words)

  
 [No title]
This per-packet value is one of the component parts of the nonce, and it is referred to as the initialization vector (IV).
Initialization Vector (IV) The AES-CCM IV field MUST be eight octets.
SK_ei and SK_er are the encryption keys for the initiator and the responder, respectively.
wwwsnmp.cs.utwente.nl /ietf/internetdrafts/complete/draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ccm-02.txt   (3058 words)

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