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Topic: Integral Fast Reactor

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In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

  Fast neutron reactor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons.
The Dounreay fast reactors, DFR (Doureay Fast Reactor) and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor), in Caithness, in the Highland area of Scotland.
Integral Fast Reactor, a design of fast rector with an integral fuel cycle, developed and cancelled in the USA in the 1990's.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Fast_reactor   (661 words)

 Integral Fast Reactor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The IFR was designed such that the fuel expanded if the reactor were to overheat and thus the chain reaction would automatically slow down due to the lowered density -- a passive safety feature in the event of certain classes of reactor runaway which could envelope some existing reactor designs.
John Kerry (D, MA) and O'Leary led the opposition to the reactor, arguing that it would be a threat to non-proliferation efforts, and that it was a continuation of the Clinch River breeder reactor effort that had been cancelled by Congress.
Despite support for the reactor by then-Rep. Richard Durbin (D, IL) and U.S. Senators Carol Mosley Braun (D, IL) and Paul Simon (D, IL), funding for the reactor was slashed, and it was ultimately cancelled in 1994.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Integral_Fast_Reactor   (1002 words)

 National Policy Analysis #378: Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power - December 2001
Partly for historical reasons (originally, fast reactors were investigated because of their potential to breed), partly because of genuine confusion, and partly for the emotional impact, since "breeder" carries the subliminal connotation of runaway plutonium production.
In December, 1995, at the Monju reactor, a temperature sensor broke and sodium leaked from a secondary sodium loop and caught fire.
If their IFR plants were safeguarded, the material in the processing stream would be highly undesirable, as I explained earlier, and their chances of diverting it undetected would be slim indeed.
www.nationalcenter.org /NPA378.html   (4302 words)

 Fast breeder
The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor designed primarily for the purpose of producing ("breeding") plutonium for use in nuclear weapons or for refueling of the reactor.
The project was canceled in the late 1980s after all elements of the system had been tested, but before engineering designs could be completed for an operational power plant.
As of 2001, two fast breeders remained in operation worldwide, neither of which was in the United States.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/fa/Fast_breeder.html   (229 words)

 U.S. Nuclear Reactors
Of these 104 reactors, 69 are categorized a pressurized water reactors (PWRs) totaling 65,100 net megawatts (electric) and 35 units are boiling water reactors (BWR) totaling 32,300 net megawatts (electric).
New Reactor Designs: This feature article focuses mainly on the new Generation IV reactors, but also discusses other designs that could have an impact on the future of the U.S. and international nuclear market.
All of the licensed U.S. commercial reactors are required to have a containment dome to protect the reactor from external damage and to prevent the release of radiation.
www.eia.doe.gov /cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/reactsum.html   (1576 words)

 The Integral Fast Reactor: Fulfilling Nuclear's Promise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
IFR is a type of fast reactor which uses high-energy neutrons opposed to the lower-energy ones used in most exisiting nuclear power plants.
IFR waste, however, consists of only fission products, and its volume is very small and the fission products are highly radioactive but have short half-lives.
The reactor vessel will never be subject to extreme pressure of superheated water and there is no risk of a pipe breaking and all of the coolant flashing to steam, exposing the core and creating a huge amount of pressurized steam.
cbll.net /articles/ifr   (2747 words)

 The Integral Fast Reactor (Gregory Greenman; E. Michael Smith; John De Armond; T Orth)
Fast reactors fueled by plutonium have a smaller effective delayed neutron fraction, and hence have less of a margin between critical and prompt critical.
Fast reactors can usually be operated in a breeding mode by surrounding the reactor with a U238 "blanket" that absorbs the neutrons which leak out to produce Pu239.
IFR is an example of an unconstrained and uncontrolled government agency trying to develop a solution to a problem that doesn't exist except in politics.
yarchive.net /nuke/ifr.html   (20360 words)

 FRONTLINE: nuclear reaction: Dr. Charles Till
He is co-developer of the Integral Fast Reactor, an inherently safe nuclear reactor with a closed fuel cycle.
The reuse of recycled fuel in the IFR is where the potential great benefits lie, in the solution of the waste problem, in the sense that the waste is much easier to get rid of.
The IFR could be allowed to go for another year, and then a change of mind in an administration, and it's canceled, it's gone.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/interviews/till.html   (4158 words)

 Methods - Design and Applications of the Nuclear Reactor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
A nuclear reactor that uses a moderator is called a slow or thermal reactor, and it is normally categorized according to the type of moderator.
A nuclear reactor is controlled by adjusting the configuration of neutron absorbers in and around the core, the configuration of the neutron moderator (if any), and the sometimes the configuration of the fuel itself.
Fast reactors use fast neutrons to sustain the fission chain reaction, and are characterised by the lack of moderating material.
www.edinformatics.com /inventions_inventors/nuclear_reactor.htm   (3755 words)

 Integral Fast Reactor
IFR is a better, safer reactor design than most reactors now in use.
However, as a "breeder" reactor, it does make plutonium 239, which can be used as nuclear fuel, from uranium 238, which cannot be used as a nuclear fuel.
However, IFR fuel must be removed periodically to be reprocessed, to take out the waste materials that interfere with the nuclear reaction.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/phy99/phy99xx7.htm   (874 words)

"Fast" means that the reactor uses fast neutrons to cause fission, so it does not need a moderator and does not require "enriched" fuel.
"Integral" means that when fuel elements have achieved optimum burn-up in the reactor, they are robotically removed and reprocessed in a facility located right next to the reactor, inside the containment structure.
Perhaps the most important application for IFR technology would be the peaceful disposition of the 100 metric tons of plutonium obtained from 30,000 U.S. and Russian dismantled nuclear weapons.
www.papillonsartpalace.com /ignore.htm   (779 words)

 About the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The heart of an IFR power plant is a liquid-sodium-cooled reactor loaded with a new type of metal-alloy fuel.
Compared to today's reactors, safety of the IFR takes more advantage of the natural characteristics of the materials and the system design, and depends much less on proper mechanical and electric functioning of complex engineered systems or operator actions.
The IFR process reduces the volume, heat generation, and longevity of nuclear wastes, making deeply buried high-level nuclear waste as benign as uranium ore within a few hundred years.
www.nuc.berkeley.edu /designs/ifr/ifr1.html   (301 words)

 The Journal of History - Fall 2002
EBR II is the prototype of the IFR.
The IFR is basically a reactor core using a special metallic fuel submerged in a swimming pool of liquid sodium.
The IFR is clearly the environmentalist's dream come true and the environmental issue of the century.
truedemocracy.net /td2_4/57-fast.html   (1507 words)

Till also explained that nuclear reactors are not fuel efficient, using only a small fraction (less than 1%) of the mined uranium for fission and discarding the rest in spent fuel rods.
He said the goal of his work on the IFR was, in part, to solve the enormous fuel inefficiency of nuclear reactors.
Unfortunately, the potential benefits of the IFR may never be realized since the research program was shut down in 1994 do to presidential budget cuts, he said.
www.coasttocoastam.com /shows/2004/12/18.html   (395 words)

 ANS : Store : Electronic Articles
Homogeneous reactor cores based on the American and Russian experiences on fast reactor technology have been designed for conception evaluation.
The main core parameters are evaluated in the first and in the equilibrium cycles as a function of the pin diameter in the 6.35- to 10.4-mm range, pin pitch-to-diameter (p/d) ratio in the 1.308 to 1.495 range, and reactor power in the 300- to 1500-MW(electric) range.
The Doppler effect is small, as expected in a fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel.
www.ans.org /store/index.cgi?i=E120000-nt-140-3-233-254   (316 words)

 FRONTLINE: nuclear reaction: related links
Under the No Nukes Campaign section a very friendly index shows icons for topics such as reprocessing, spent fuel, reactors, weapons, etc. (One factoid that raises a red flag is that reprocessing spent nuclear fuel creates 189 times as much waste!?) Unfortunately, sources for information are rarely provided.
For a little intrigue, visit the Reactors section where you can read daily reports from plants around the country including various mishaps, like a potential contaminated employee and valve and pump break-downs.
Developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the mid-'80s, this reactor would not only have generated electricity, but would have produced the fuel to run it, recycle the fuel and take care of the waste.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/etc/links.html   (2610 words)

 INIS Internet Directory - Fast Reactor Sites
The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a new reactor concept that was being developed by Argonne National Laboratory-West.
The concept of nuclear power with fast reactors being developed in the IPPE is aimed at general improvement of its safety, solution of ecological problems related to radioactive wastes, and radical expansion of sources of raw materials for nuclear power.
The IAEA initiative seeks to establish a comprehensive, international inventory of fast reactor data and knowledge, which would be sufficient to form the basis for fast reactor development in 30 to 40 years from now.
www.iaea.org /inis/ws/fnss/fr.html   (557 words)

 Ten Second Response: Reprocessing Nuclear Fuel is the Way to Make Yucca Mountain Work for Everyone - May 8, 2002
New technology such as the Integral Fast Reactor and pyroreprocessing make all this possible with absolutely no danger of nuclear proliferation.
DISCUSSION: When work on the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) and pyroreprocessing was halted by former Energy Secretary, Hazel O'Leary in 1994, on the groundless fear that it would create a market in bomb-grade plutonium, Argonne National Laboratory was just 2-3 years and $200-300 million dollars from completing the research necessary to build full-scale reactor/reprocessors.
For information on the Integral Fast Reactor, which could change Yucca Mountain from a long term repository to a shorter term, temporary storage facility, read National Policy Analysis #378, "Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power" by George S. Stanford, Ph.D. at http://www.nationalcenter.org/NPA378.html.
www.nationalcenter.org /TSR50802.html   (326 words)

 [No title]
Two years later, he accepted a position at Argonne National laboratory out of Chicago, where civilian reactor development for the US was then concentrated.
His goal was nothing less than to develop a wholly new kind of nuclear reactor technology.
Nuclear physicist Dr. Charles Till, who spent nearly 20 years at Argonne National Laboratory working on the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), discussed the history and current state of nuclear reactors, as well as reasons for the cancellation of his IFR program....
www.coasttocoastam.com /guests/887.html   (243 words)

 Fast Reactors Database   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Another advantage of the LMFR is its higher thermal efficiency with respect to water-cooled reactors.
The IWGFR was established in 1967 and has mostly focused on the experimental and theoretical aspects of LMFR technology and safety.
Participation in IWGFR activities ensures that no country is isolated in fast reactor technology development and, at the same time, that international safety practices are taken into account during the design and operation of LMFRs.
www-frdb.iaea.org   (179 words)

 Nuclear is Our Future: Anti-Nuclear Quote of the Day
It is safe, designed and tested to be meltdown-proof using the same test that resulted in the Chernobyl accident, except that the IFR shut off automatically.
It is renewable in that it is a breeder reactor.
Slightly radioactive fresh nuclear fuel would be transported in, along with battery cases, and hot water, electricity, and batteries would come out.
blog.niof.org /2005/11/anti-nuclear-quote-of-day_30.html   (347 words)

 Fast Reactor Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Unfortunately, most people in this country hear the word "nuclear power" and all they think of is Three Mile Island and nuclear weapons.
The IFR was going to be a system that used nuclear fuel very efficiently and even more safely than today's nuclear power plants.
The technology is still here at Argonne in some ways, but for the most part, it is no longer a viable project here.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/phy99/phy99403.htm   (193 words)

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