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Topic: Intercalation

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  Intercalation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ethidium bromide, e.g., intercalates between adjacent nucleotide side chains.
Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons.
The determination of whether a year has intercalation may be calculated (Julian, Gregorian and Hebrew calendars), or determined by observation (Iranian calendar).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Intercalation   (255 words)

 Graphite intercalation - Patent 4035434
Intercalation of a Lewis acid fluoride in graphite is effected in the presence of gaseous fluorine.
Such method entails effecting intercalation in the presence of fluorine which appears to act as a catalyst for the reaction and is not retained in the graphite structure.
Intercalation of PF.sub.5 in graphite was accomplished by constreaming PF.sub.5 and 10 volume percent of fluorine in nitrogen each at 40 cc/minute through a 15 gram bed of graphite.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4035434.html   (3954 words)

 Intercalation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Intercalation of single polymer chains involves the uptake of polymers between inorganic layers to form ordered layered structures.
Intercalation yields highly oriented multilayers consisting of single chains of the polymer alternatively stacked within the host.
The image in the middle at the right shows intercalation, where the ceramic is represented by rectangular bars and the polymer is represented by fl lines.
www.rpi.edu /dept/materials/COURSES/NANO/mcmanus/body/intercalation.html   (125 words)

 Intercalation Compounds of Hydrotalcite-like Anionic Clays With Anti-inflammatory Agents, II: Uptake of Diclofenac for ...
Drug release from the intercalation compound was performed in vitro in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 7.5 according to USP 24 and in a pH 7.0 solution designed to mimic the ionic conditions of the small intestine.
The purpose of this work is to investigate whether HTlc is able to intercalate DIK and to release it in a controlled way in order to obtain a formulation in which the release of the drug is prolonged with the aim of maintaining therapeutic activity, reducing toxic effects, and improving patient compliance.
C, H, and N elemental analysis of the intercalation compound gave experimental data that agreed with those calculated on the basis of the above formula: H found was 4.23% (calculated 4.27%), C found was 31.12% (calculated 31.42%), and N found was 2.57% (calculated 2.62%).
www.aapspharmscitech.org /view.asp?art=pt030326&pdf=yes   (3137 words)

 S. H. Taqizadeh: Old Iranian Calendars
The place of the epagomenae indicates that the intercalation was the seventh and eighth together, and not the eighth and ninth.
The next or the ninth intercalation would have fallen in AD 639, just two years after the fall of the capital of the Iranian empire on the Arab invasion, which brought to an end the national sovereignty of Persia and all its official institutions including the intercalation in their calendar.
It is a curious fact that many of the feasts connected with, and owing their origin to, the solar seasons and astronomical points of the year, have been transferred to the vague year, being detached from the tropic or fixed solar year, and attached to the civil year.
www.avesta.org /taqizad.htm   (16035 words)

 Intercalation of Primary Diamines in the Layered Perovskite Oxides, HSr2Nb3O10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The XRD patterns of intercalation compounds a re shown in Figure 2 and their lattice parameters are presented in Table 2.
This result implies that, for the diamines intercalation compounds, the hydrogen bonding be tween the ammonium head group and the oxygen atoms of layer surface con trols the chain orientation due to the strong interaction with bifuncti onal amine groups.
These intercalation r eactions are relatively facile even though the strontium niobate layers are thick and rigid compared to the layers of clay minerals or other o xides known to undergo intercalation reaction.
journal.kcsnet.or.kr /publi/bul/bu96n8/bu96n8t20.html   (2559 words)

 iqexpand.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Anticancer Anthracycline - DNA complex by intercalation Intercalation between Anthracyclines and DNA First of all, consider the 3-D structure of a DNA fragment (including a solvated magnesium ion...
Epiboly Intercalation Convergent Extension Epiboly During epiboly, a sheet of cells spreads by thinning.
Intercalation of Single Polymer Chains Intercalation of single polymer chains involves the uptake of polymers between inorganic layers to form ordered layered structures.
intercalation.iqexpand.com   (439 words)

 Bristol University School of Veterinary Science - Intercalation places
The attraction of intercalation is the opportunity to study one subject in depth, as opposed to the broader more superficial coverage, which is the strength and weakness of the veterinary programme.
The major reasons for not intercalating are financial and loss of contact with their peer group.
Intercalation is the ability for veterinary undergraduates to take a year out of their veterinary course to study on the final year of a science degree and to graduate with a B.Sc.
www.vetschool.bris.ac.uk /vtri/training/intercalation.html   (187 words)

 Calendars and their History
Decisions on intercalation were influenced, if not determined entirely, by the state of vegetation and animal life.
The form of the Islamic calendar, as a lunar calendar without intercalation, was laid down by the Prophet in the Qur'an (Sura IX, verse 36-37) and in his sermon at the Farewell Pilgrimage.
Intercalation was performed by repeating the day VI Kalends March, i.e., inserting a day between VI Kalends March (February 24) and VII Kalends March (February 23).
astro.nmsu.edu /~lhuber/leaphist.html   (8496 words)

 Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries - Patent 6838072
The process according to claim 1, wherein the lithium intercalation powder being produced has a formula selected from the group consisting of LiMO.sub.2, LiM.sub.X M'.sub.1-x O.sub.2, Li.sub.1+x Mn.sub.2-x, O.sub.4 and LM.sub.x O.sub.2, where M is a transition metal and M' is a second transition metal or a non-transition metal.
The process according to claim 12, wherein the lithium intercalation powder being produced has a formula selected from the group consisting of LiMO.sub.2, LiM.sub.x M'.sub.1-x O.sub.2, Li.sub.1+x Mn.sub.2-x O.sub.4 and LM.sub.x O.sub.2, where M is a transition metal and M' is a second transition metal or a non-transition metal.
These compounds are in a class of compounds known as intercalation compounds which allow the insertion and removal of guest species (especially metal ions) into their crystalline lattice structures.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6838072.html   (3841 words)

 Intercalation compounds of graphite - Patent 4645620
Raman Scattering of Stage 2 Graphite Fluorine Intercalation Compounds, I. Ohara et al., Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Apr. 25, 1985.
181-211, intercalation is the insertion of ions, atoms or molecules into the interplanar voids of a lamellar structure without destruction of the host's layered bonding network and hundreds of intercalation products of graphite have been reported to date.
Thus graphite has been intercalated with alkali metal compounds such as potassium, rubidium and cesium, with acid salts, e.g., of sulfuric, chlorosulfonic, fluorosulfonic, selenic, perchloric and nitric acid and with metal halides.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4645620.html   (1824 words)

 intercalation --  Encyclopædia Britannica
One example is the periodic inclusion of leap-year day (February 29) in the Gregorian calendar now in general use.
To keep the months of a lunar calendar (e.g., the Hindu calendar) in their proper seasons, an entire month must be intercalated or extracalated (dropped)...
This lunar year of about 354 days was more or less reconciled with the solar year, or year of the seasons, by the occasional intercalation of an extra month.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9042538   (459 words)

 Rechargeable Batteries Based on Intercalation in Graphite
Storage batteries based on intercalation of lithium and bromine in graphite have been proposed.
It is known from prior research that graphite forms intercalation compounds with halogens and with alkali metals.
The expectation that one could also recharge the cell thermally is based on the observed temperature dependence of the intercalation of bromine in graphite.
www.nasatech.com /Briefs/Feb01/NPO19824.html   (523 words)

 Intercalation of Alcohols in Ag Sulfonates: Topotactic Behavior Despite Flexible Layers
This article presents the inaugural intercalation study of a layered metal sulfonate network.
In contrast to many other layered hosts, no preheating of Ag triflate is required to liberate a coordination site for intercalation to take place, owing to the ability of the triflate ion to reorient.
PXRD data on the family of complexes show that the intercalation is topotactic, as verified by the linear increase in d-spacing and calculated c-axis lengths for the intercalates, with increasing chain length.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/jtext?inocaj/41/i02/abs/ic010800q   (211 words)

 Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics studies of the intercalation of dynemicin-A with oligonucleotide models of ...
Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics studies of the intercalation of dynemicin-A with oligonucleotide models of DNA -- Cardozo and Hopfinger 40 (6): 1023 -- Molecular Pharmacology
Articles by Cardozo, M. Articles by Hopfinger, A. Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics studies of the intercalation of dynemicin-A with oligonucleotide models of DNA
Intercalation into the minor groove is preferred for both base
molpharm.aspetjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/40/6/1023   (207 words)

 New Lithium Intercalation Compounds
The performance of this material as an intercalation electrode can be enhanced by replacing only a few percent of the Mn by other ions such as Co or Ni or Li.
Spinel is also an intercalation host but the ability to remove and insert lithium rapidly degrades on cycling, yet this is not the case for the layered compound which converts in situ to spinel.
The material changes colour on lithium intercalation and given the nano nature of the material we have the basis of a potentially fast switching electrochromic display.
ch-www.st-and.ac.uk /staff/pgb/group/sscm.html   (507 words)

 The Prescise Iranian Calendar
Those who were to abide by regular seasons for their flocks and fields, had to count and, as far as possible, synchronize the lunar and solar years.
The difference was corrected by an intercalation of eleven days at the end of the year on the Hamaspathmaidhaya Gahanbar of the vernal equinox.
The usual reference to one month intercalation at the end of 120 years only reminds us of the disorder that prevailed during the last days of the Sassanian Empire and its subsequent fall.
www.zoroastrian.org /articles/The%20Precise%20Iranian%20Calendar.htm   (4059 words)

 Intercalation (chemistry) - Encyclopedia Glossary Meaning Explanation Intercalation (chemistry)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Intercalation (chemistry) - Encyclopedia Glossary Meaning Explanation Intercalation (chemistry).
Here you will find more informations about Intercalation (chemistry).
In host-guest chemistry, Intercalation is the reversible inclusion of a molecule (or group) between two other molecules (or groups).
www.encyclopedia-glossary.com /en/Intercalation-chemistry.html   (103 words)

 Intercalation - Mesostructural Intercalation Cathodes - Storming Media   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
intercalation Intercalation (chemistry) - Intercalation can also refer to the insertion of a molecule (or group) being inserted between two other.
Intercalation is one of the useful methods to apply some functions to carbon Host effect on the intercalation of alkali metals from their solutions of
Mesoporous intercalation electrode materials were prepared, characterized, and their electrochemical performance evaluated.
infosvc.com /ifsv/intercalation.htm   (260 words)

 Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences: Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics
Intercalation is the insertion of atomic or molecular species into the structure of a host material.
Intercalation can be accomplished by a variety of methods.
.  Last of all neutral intercalation species can be intercalated.  Benzene is one good example.  Because there is not a strong driving force for the insertion of neutral species, only a small number of these have been intercalated.  Often neutral species accompany donor or acceptor species from solution reactions.
www.bpc.edu /mathscience/faculty/jones/chapter_1_04.html   (254 words)

Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive spectral methods to characterize changes occurring in diffusion-reduction processes on microcrystalline cellulose under silver clusters intercalation.
Silver intercalation into the cellulose matrix proceeds via various mechanisms depending on the type of the reducer and solvent.
The fibre morphological structure of microcrystalline cellulose samples and those subjected to silver clusters intercalation were observed in the raster and transmission electron microscopes.
nte.univ-lyon1.fr /spectroscopie/resumESOPS/Kotelnikova.htm   (277 words)

 Early Events in Intercalation Reactions: The Preintercalation State
Ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling spectroscopy (UHV-STS) is used to make the first in situ measurements of reactant charge transfer with the host basal planes during the early events in lamellar intercalation processes to clarify the role and importance of charge transfer in intercalation reactivity.
Once intercalation occurs, ammonium forms and cointercalates with ammonia via the bulk redox rearrangement intercalation process, with substantial additional basal-plane charge transfer.
UHV-STS has been shown to be a powerful technique for determining the level of basal-plane charge transfer throughout the intercalation process.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/jtext?jpchax/100/i50/abs/jp9619548   (250 words)

 Intercalation of solid C60 with iodine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Correspondence should be sent to J.E.F. METALLIC and superconducting donor-type intercalation compounds of C
These involve electron transfer from a sublattice of alkali-metal dopants to a sublattice of fullerene molecules.
Oxidative intercalation by electron acceptors, meanwhile, has not previously been reported.
www.nature.com /nature/journal/v355/n6362/abs/355712a0.html   (286 words)

 Bath Spa SU : Intercalation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
If you wish to take a break from university for personal, health or financial reasons then you may be able to apply for intercalation.
In order to do so you will need to complete a NOTIFICATION OF INTERCALATION form which you can get from the Student Programmes Office (Main House Newton Park).
During the time that you are on intercalation you will still be registered as a student and this may have financial implications i.e.
www.bathspasu.co.uk /main/advice/academic/intercalation   (114 words)

 Intercalation of small molecules into hydrogen-bonded solids   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The layers of these crystals are hydrogen-bonded as well as ionic, but only hydrophobic components are found between the layers, making them ideal, we believe, for intercalation to occur.
Our study includes intercalation experiments using solvents of varying boiling points (volatility) as well as different sizes in order to fully explore the abilities of these crystalline structures to intercalate.
We will report on several techniques and methods that we have used for intercalation, and data collected to support our hypothesis.
acs.confex.com /acs/56serm/techprogram/P11305.HTM   (170 words)

 Amazon.ca: Books: Progress in Intercalation Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This volume reviews the tremendous amount of work that has been achieved in the field of intercalation compounds since the first volume on `Intercalated Layered Materials' was published in this series in 1979.
Leading experts in a number of important fields of current research present an up-to-date collection of contributions on materials, methods, models and applications.
The book has an interdisciplinary character and addresses itself to chemists, physicists and materials scientist interested in intercalation research.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0792323572   (255 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Mohammed and Mohammedanism (Islam)
In conclusion, reference must be made here to the sacred months, and to the weekly holy day.
The Arabs had a year of twelve lunar months, and this, as often as seemed necessary, they brought roughly into accordance with the solar year by the intercalation of a thirteenth month.
The Mohammedan year, however, has a mean duration of 354 days, and is ten or eleven days shorter than the solar year, and Mohammedan festivals, accordingly, move in succession through all the seasons.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/10424a.htm   (3969 words)

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