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Topic: Internal improvements


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  Constitutional Highlights, 2002, Vol.II, No. 1 Internal Improvements
Improvements that are incidental to but necessary for the performance or completion of a proper governmental function, such as construction of a dam for the establishment of a wildlife refuge at Horicon Marsh.
Before 1969, the state used “dummy” corporations to circumvent the internal improvements clause in an arrangement in which the state would create corporations whose purpose was to construct or finance a facility for use or occupancy by the state.
If Libertarian Party provides the new test for the internal improvements clause, any building or construction project for which the state incurs debt, or to which the state is a party, need have only a predominantly governmental purpose, which could be the reduction of unemployment, the promotion of tourism, or the encouragement of industry.
www.legis.state.wi.us /lrb/pubs/consthi/02consthiII01.htm   (857 words)

  
  Public works - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics.
Examples of internal improvements are: airports, canals, dams, dikes, pipelines, railroads, roads, tunnels, and artificial harbours.
Opponents of internal improvement programs argue that such projects should be undertaken by the private sector, and not the public sector.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Internal_improvement   (313 words)

  
 Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.2, Entry 196, INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS: Library of Economics and Liberty
All the "internal improvements" provided for on the coast during this period were those in which the jurisdiction remained in the United States, such as "lighthouses, beacons, buoys, and public piers," for which congress appropriated money steadily after Aug. 7, 1789.
Internal improvement bills, aggregating $106,000,000, were reported by the committees, and the probabilities were in favor of the passage of very many of them.
The house, by resolution, declared that congress possessed the power to appropriate money for internal improvements; and with that the matter slept again until 1854, excepting that the house, in March, 1849, passed a river and harbor bill, which was not acted upon by the senate.
www.econlib.org /library/YPDBooks/Lalor/llCy587.html   (4008 words)

  
 Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) - Division of Waste Management
Through the auspices of the Great Pre-Emption Act of 1841, each new state admitted to the Union after that date was given 500,000 acres for the benefit of internal improvements.
At the beginning of the Internal Improvement Fund, the surveys of land were conducted by Federal agents under the control of the U. Surveyor General of Florida.
After the War Between the States, the Trust Fund, which had underwritten the building of the internal improvements named above, was forbidden by a Federal Court injunction from selling or donating lands to benefit other improvements until the bonds, which had been issued with lands a collateral, were paid in full.
www.dep.state.fl.us /lands/info/history.htm   (1276 words)

  
 Internal paper sizing improvements - US Patent 6540877   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
An improvement is disclosed over conventional internal sizing of stock furnish for papermaking, wherein alum is added to the thick paper stock and the long retention time permits complete reaction with the fibers.
Internal sizing serves primarily to increase resistance to water penetration; whereas external sizing does that as well as improve other surface properties, such as strength and/or printability.
The present invention improvement of such technology resides in the ability to add the aluminum rosinate size composition unconventionally in thin stock, where retention times are on the order of less that 1 minute.
www.patentstorm.us /patents/6540877.html   (4714 words)

  
 Lincoln/Net: Lincoln's Biography--Springfield, the Law, and the Whig Party, 1837-1843
While Lincoln and the Sangamon delegation were primarily occupied with anointing Springfield as the next state capital, an internal improvements craze gripped the state, that is, a desire for state-sponsored canals, railroads, and bridges.
Internal improvement conventions were held that summer in the counties, and they passed resolutions demanding improvements, and sent delegates to a state convention that met in Vandalia as the legislature opened.
Grand internal improvements passed only to founder on the rocks of the Panic of 1837, an economic depression that ravaged the credit of the State of Illinois, greatly reducing the value of its bonds.
lincoln.lib.niu.edu /biography3text.html   (1003 words)

  
 Society in America, Vol 2, Part 2, Ch 2, Section 1 - Internal Improvements - Harriet Martineau   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Adams's advocacy of internal improvements removed some lingering difficulties; and, while he was President, the public works were carried on with great activity.
Before his election, he always voted for internal improvements, going so far as to advocate subscriptions by government to the stock of private canal companies, and the formation of roads beginning and ending within the limits of particular States.
Yet large numbers of the democratic party are as strenuous for internal improvements as Adams and Webster themselves; the interests of the majority being clearly on that side.
www2.pfeiffer.edu /~lridener/DSS/Martineau/v2p2c2s1.html   (1278 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The notion of "internal improvements" ("public works") is part of economics and politics.
An internal improvement is some constructable object; via which, a nation can improve its economic infrastructure.
In some cases, it is argued that internal improvements can be used to "solve" problems of unemployment.
www.informationgenius.com /encyclopedia/i/in/internal_improvements.html   (112 words)

  
 Internal Improvement: National Public Works and the Promise of Popular Government in the Early United States
The voluminous literature on internal improvements, including classics such as George Rogers Taylor's Transportation Revolution, has too often glossed over the small role of the federal government without fully analyzing the political, economic, and ideological roadblocks to national planning.
The heart of Internal Improvement is a detailed narrative of the national political debates between these two differing visions of republicanism.
In downplaying the local impact of internal improvements -- or dismissing it as localism or selfishness -- Larson misses an opportunity to add even more nuance to his analysis.
www.eh.net /bookreviews/library/0381.shtml   (1512 words)

  
 1998-022 | 3/31/1998 | Kansas Attorney General Opinion
The 1871 Court characterized works of internal improvement as the "construction of every species of public improvement which is used, or may be used by the public generally.
A later Court added canals and highways to the list of internal improvements, and explained that the Constitution's framers may have recognized the unfairness, for instance, in taxing people in the southern half of Kansas for a road across the northern half.
Stranded costs are not works of internal improvement; regulation by KCC does not cause the State to be a party to the "work;" none of the potential bond issuers is a State entity; and the state has no actual or potential financial obligation on the transition bonds.
www.kscourts.org /ksag/opinions/1998/1998-022.htm   (1059 words)

  
 RG 492.000 - Governor as Ex Officio Fund Commissioner
The Governor continued to function as Fund Commissioner until nearly all the internal improvement debt was paid; the last appropriation to his office for the expenses of a secretary to the Fund Commissioner was made in 1875 (L. 1875, p.
Minutes of regular quarterly meetings of Fund Commissioners concern procurement of loans for internal improvements, subscription to stock of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, deposits with the Bank of Illinois and the State Bank, issuance of checks by commissioners, and the appointment and salary of a secretary to the board.
Lists are included for internal improvement bonds issued in 1839, state bonds and scrip received in payment for state land sales, interest bonds issued in 1847, canal and internal improvement scrip, and Illinois Bank and internal improvement stock issued in 1837.
www.sos.state.il.us /departments/archives/di/492__002.htm   (2564 words)

  
 [No title]
But it has been contended, that the constitution is not confined to mere appropriations of money; but authorizes congress directly to undertake and carry on a system of internal improvements for the general welfare; wherever such improvements fall within the scope of any of the enumerated powers.
Congress may not, indeed, engage in such undertakings merely because they are internal improvements for the general welfare, unless they fall within the scope of the enumerated powers.
The distinction between this power, and the power of appropriation is, that in the latter, congress may appropriate to any purpose, which is for the common defence or general welfare; but in the former, they can engage in such undertakings only, as are means, or incidents to its enumerated powers.
www.constitution.org /js/js_326.txt   (1730 words)

  
 Transportation Developments in the Early Republic
With growth of the nation came the natural desire for internal improvements; consequently, the National Republicans adopted this as a priority of their organization.
James Monroe favored internal improvements financed by the federal government ONLY if the Congress was empowered to do so by the Constitution; thus, the reason why he vetoed proposed expenditures.
Andrew Jackson initially advocated internal improvements, even favoring the distribution of federal surpluses to the states in order to finance the projects, though he also wanted the assurance of constitutionality.
www.connerprairie.org /historyonline/travel.html   (3562 words)

  
 Speech of Peter B. Porter in the House of Representatives on internal improvements
When they undertake the sale and settlement of wild lands, there is no policy so well understood, or so generally adopted, as that of opening easy and extensive communications, through the different parts of their lands, and of facilitating the approaches to them by means of good roads.
But, sir, there are some gentlemen who are friendly to this system of internal improvement, but who think the present time inauspicious to such an undertaking, on account of the reduced state of the treasury.
In the various aspects in which I have presented this system of internal improvement, I have considered it principally in reference to the effects which it is calculated to produce on the western country; because, in that point of view I consider it not only most important, but least understood.
www.history.rochester.edu /canal/bib/hosack/APP0V.html   (6081 words)

  
 Sec. 93. State engaging in internal improvements or lending money or credit for same; state interest in private or ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
State engaging in internal improvements or lending money or credit for same; state interest in private or corporate enterprises; construction, maintenance, etc., of public roads, highways and bridges, harbors and seaports and public airports and air navigation facilities.
When authorized by laws passed by the legislature the state may appropriate funds to be applied to the construction, repair, and maintenance of public roads, highways and bridges in the state.
When authorized by laws passed by the legislature the state may engage in the construction, improvement, repairs and maintenance and operation of public airports, air landing fields and other air navigation facilities in the state of Alabama and may appropriate money or otherwise provide funds for this purpose.
www.lrs.state.al.us /publications/recompiled_constitution/constitution/pages/constitutionp115.htm   (222 words)

  
 CHAPTER 1: INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDITING POLICIES
Internal auditing is an independent appraisal activity within an agency for the review of operations as a service to management.
Internal auditing functions by measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of various types of controls (primarily accounting and financial) and may also properly be concerned with matters of an operating nature.
Internal audit functions are not to be performed by individuals responsible for associated line operating assignments.
www.ofm.wa.gov /policybc/6121.htm   (647 words)

  
 CENTENIAL HISTORY of DECATUR and MACON COUNTY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
ACON county had no conspicuous part in the scheme for internal improvements authorized by the Illinois legislature in the year 1836, the story of which is a dark chapter in the history of the state.
The era of internal improvements, as it is called, began in 1835 at the beginning of Governor Joseph Duncan's administration.
The first engine was called the "Rogers." Following the collapse of the internal improvement program, the line was extended by private capital to Springfield, in 1843, the line being known as the Morgan and Sangamon.
www.iltrails.org /macon/maconcentennial_p77.htm   (881 words)

  
 American Values, The Constitution, and the Beginning of Water Resources Development   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The term "internal improvements" came to mean many things to the citizens of the young republic.
In fact, the term "internal improvements" cannot be found in the American Constitution, an obstacle for those seeking affirmative authority for federal involvement in public works.
This ambiguity not only produced a constitutional quagmire for internal improvements, but it provided a platform upon which larger issues of the role of government and the nature of liberty could be debated.
www.usace.army.mil /inet/functions/cw/hot_topics/11aug_wrd.htm   (1276 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Alternative 2 — Eight Internal Drainage Improvements (Proposed Action) Improving internal drainage to Gohlke Creek and its tributaries would increase conveyance of stormwater to the creek for all events between the current capacity of the drainage and the 25-year storm for which the Proposed Action is designed.
Therefore, improvements to internal drainage in the city are not anticipated to affect or be affected by any foreseeable future development.
A draft EA of the Internal Drainage Improvement Project in the City of Cuero, Texas, was made available for public review between August 18 and September 16, 2004, at the Cuero Public Library, 207 East Main Street, Cuero, Texas, between the hours of 8:00 a.m.
www.fema.gov /txt/ehp/cuero_final_ea.txt   (15711 words)

  
 eValid -- V5 Current Build Information
This release includes a number of internal upgrades that affect stability during recording and playback of activity on extremely complex web pages and/or pages that involve a large number of frames.
This release includes a number of internal upgrades that include: emhanced access to the PageMap (via the main Window pulldown); improved in-color reporting in the HTML versions of logfiles; improved performance for international versions of Windows; and, improved capability for recording and playing web pages which have frames served from different servers.
This version also includes improvements to mouseover recording [in various modes], improvements in handling of window resizing, and additional Warning and Error message when unusual or impossible situations are encountered during playback.
www.soft.com /evalid/Products/Documentation.5/current.build.html   (1629 words)

  
 Sectionalism
OPPOSES internal improvements at national government's expense because as an older region it has a good transportation network already.
OPPOSES internal improvements at the national government's expense because this older region has long been settled and has own roads and a good network of rivers.
FAVORS internal improvements at national government's expense because this frontier region needs roads and they are unable to pay for them.
www.tamuk.edu /artsci/history/kflgh00/Sectionalism.html   (306 words)

  
 Internal Improvements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Remaining funds were to be spent on the improvements of the Wabash, Illinois, Rock, Kaskaskia, and Little Wabash rivers.
The governor's wish that communication lines be "made straight," the desire to enrich the central part of Illinois at the expense of St. Louis, and the special expertise of political leaders who advocated the scheme were not enough to overcome the economic reality of the times.
For shortly after the internal improvement plans had been approved, Illinois as well as the rest of the nation was stricken by the Panic of 1837, assuring that it could not finance its ambitious dreams.
www.eslarp.uiuc.edu /ibex/archive/vignettes/internalimprove.htm   (499 words)

  
 Letter on "Internal Improvements".
Hence is it, that various sections of the State are encouraged to press schemes of "internal improvement," which, but for the adoption of this unwise policy, would never have been conceived.
There is a special reason, why the policy of constructing rail roads and canals by the government of this State should produce a remarkable number of schemes of "internal improvement." That reason is found in the fact of the extensive territory, great population, and great resources of the State.
But, the actual and anticipated expenditure during the last eight or ten years, of a hundred millions of dollars in our country on works of "internal improvement" is as much, perhaps, as all the banks, the occasion of these speculations.
libwww.syr.edu /digital/collections/g/GerritSmith/413.htm   (2501 words)

  
 Ignition system improvements for internal combustion engines - Patent 4846129   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
This invention relates to improvements in spark ignition systems of internal combustion engines having the capabilities of improving engine operation by permitting combustion of extremely lean fuel mixtures, more accurately setting and controlling spark timing, and further enabling ignition system components to be designed more efficiently.
In order to initiate combustion of an air/fuel mixture within an internal combustion engine chamber, a spark ignition system is used which generates a high energy arc at the appropriate time in the engine operating cycle.
Due to cylinder-to-cylinder variations for a given internal combustion engine, it may be desirable in some circumstances to calibrate each cylinder since the pressure and temperature characteristics of one cylinder may vary from the next, and thus erroneous indications of auto-ignition could result if a fixed hover voltage is used as a sensor of auto-ignition.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4846129.html   (7530 words)

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