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# Topic: International Data Encryption Algorithm

###### In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

 IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) IDEA, unlike the other block cipher algorithms discussed in this section, is patented by the Swiss firm of Ascom. In IDEA, for purposes of multiplication, a 16 bit word containing all zeroes is considered to represent the number 65,536; other numbers are represented in conventional unsigned notation, and multiplication is modulo the prime number 65,537. Those that are multiplied in are replaced by their multiplicative inverse, modulo 65,537, in IDEA notation when used to change blocks directly, but those used to calculate the cross-footed F-functions are not changed. www.quadibloc.com /crypto/co040302.htm   (843 words)

 data encryption. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 Until 1976 the algorithms were symmetric, that is, the key used to encrypt the plaintext was the same as the key used to decrypt the ciphertext. This algorithm requires two keys, an unguarded public key used to encrypt the plaintext and a guarded private key used for decryption of the ciphertext; the two keys are mathematically related but cannot be deduced from one another. Data encryption is regarded by the U.S. government as a national-security issue because it can interfere with intelligence gathering—therefore, it is subject to export controls, which in turn make it difficult for U.S. companies to function competitively in the international marketplace. www.bartleby.com /65/da/dataencr.html   (520 words)

 :: glossary of terms :: An encryption algorithm is merely the process, usually a mathematical process, to encrypt and decrypt messages. IDEA is the data encryption algorithm used in PGP. Symmetric Algorithm - an encryption algorithm where the encryption key is the same as the decryption key, or where one key is easily calculated from the other. www.thawte.com /cryptochallenge/html/popups/glossaryTerms.html   (1501 words)

 Security through encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Data encryption is simply a more advanced form of the secret codes or cryptology, used by the military for nearly the last century, essentially scrambling information is such a way that can only be read by the intended recipient. The function of data encryption algorithms is to permit the seamless transfer of sensitive information between two parties and to maintain that information on a storage medium that can read by only an authorized user. DES, or data encryption standard, was originally developed by IBM in 1974, was adopted by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) in 1977 as a national standard to address the need for protecting non-classified data. radiomagonline.com /computers/radio_security_encryption/index.html   (968 words)

 Encryption algorithms Different encryption algorithms use proprietory methods of generating these keys and are therefore useful for different applications. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed and endorsed by the U.S. government in 1977 as an official standard and forms the basis not only for the Automatic Teller Machines (ATM) PIN authentication but a variant is also utilized in UNIX password encryption. International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is an algorithm that was developed by Dr. X. www.mycrypto.net /encryption/crypto_algorithms.html   (627 words)

 The Industrial Ethernet Book - Articles: Encryption technology for embedded network devices Each algorithm uses a string of bits known as a 'key' to perform the calculations: the larger the key, the greater the number of potential combinations that can be created, thus making it harder to break the code and unscramble the contents. To keep data secure, it is important to use data encryption as a means of data translation into another format, or alternate language which provides the highest level of security protection. Data encryption of networked devices is seen as the best way to cut the risks associated with misplaced, lost or stolen data. ethernet.industrial-networking.com /ieb/articledisplay.asp?id=514   (3028 words)

 The Data Center Journal - What is Data Encryption?   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Data encryption is, in its simplest terms, the translation of data into a secret code. Asymmetric encryption is considered very safe but is susceptible to private key theft or breaking of the private key (this is virtually impossible and would constitute trying billions of possible key combinations). Data Encryption Standard (DES) In 1977 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and IBM developed the Data Encryption Standard, or DES, to provide a means by which data could be scrambled, sent electronically to a destination, and then unscrambled by the receiver. www.datacenterjournal.com /News/Article.asp?article_id=164   (717 words)

 KEY-BASED ENCRYPTION: International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), RC2 and RC4 It is believed to be a strong algorithm and no practical attacks on it have been published. The algorithm for RC4 was a trade secret until it was published in a Usenet newsgroup. library.thinkquest.org /27158/concept2_5.html   (259 words)

 Encryption Options Beyond DES Virtually all conventional block encryption algorithms, including DES, have a structure first described by Horst Feistel of IBM in 1973, and is shown schematically in Figure 2. The inputs to the encryption algorithm are a plaintext block of length 2w bits and a key K. The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a symmetric block cipher developed by Xuejia Lai and James Massey of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1991. www.commsdesign.com /main/9811/9811feat3.htm   (2652 words)

 nuBridges: Data Encryption including AES, 3DES and others We leverage the ability to use the Federally approved AES encryption algorithm to ensure the compliance with many of the government security regulations. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits. It is an encryption algorithm that is a symmetric block cipher that uses a variable-length key, from 32 bits to 448 bits, making it useful for both domestic and exportable use. www.nubridges.com /solutions/protocols_algorithms.htm   (1044 words)

 Network Security: Practical Cryptosystems Because the DES algorithm is based on the "mysterious" S-boxes, which are just constants without any known connections, it has lead to some rumors that there was a trapdoor in the algorithm [1]. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an algorithm developed at ETH Zurich in Switzerland. IDEA is a fairly new algorithm, but it has already been around for several years, and no practical attacks on it have been published despite of numerous attempts to analyze it. www.tml.tkk.fi /Opinnot/Tik-110.501/1995/practical-crypto.html   (3717 words)

 Cryptography, Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithms IDEA - International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a cryptosystem developed by X. Lai and J. Massey in 1991 to replace the DES standard. It is a symmetric (same key for encryption and decryption) block cypher, operating on 8 bytes at a time, just like DES, but with a key of 128 bits. The RSA algorithm is named after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, who invented it in 1977. www.networkdictionary.com /security/cdeda.php   (449 words)

 data encryption - Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: ) data encryption the process of scrambling stored or transmitted information so that it is unintelligible until it is unscrambled by the intended recipient. Accelerating high-speed encryption: one bottleneck after another; as fatter pipes flood networks with data, high-speed encryption has become a serious system bottleneck. Data Encryption Systems announces major addition to award-winning DESlock+; New version offers multiple software encryption keys and increased administrative capability. www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-dataencr.html   (1053 words)

 User Identity: Local Authentication > 3 Encryption for Data Protection   (Site not responding. Last check: ) To understand what good encryption means, we will briefly examine the problem of bad encryption, the role of key length in cryptographic strength, and attack times on cryptographic keys. Most of the widely used modern algorithms are block algorithms: the old Data Encryption Standard (DES), the new Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), Blowfish, and the CAST algorithm (created by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares). The stream cipher generates a key stream that encrypts the data by performing an exclusive-or between corresponding bits of the key stream and the bits of the plaintext. www.informit.com /articles/article.asp?p=24478&seqNum=4   (2266 words)

 International Data Encryption Algorithm@Everything2.com The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a data encryption algorithm, which is internationally available. The same algorithm is used for encryption and decryption (like DES), and it is considered by many to be superior to DES, and to have a much cooler-sounding name. The 64 bit input block is divided into four 16 bit blocks: X1, X2, X3, and X4 which become the input blocks to the first round of the algorithm. www.everything2.com /index.pl?node_id=34994   (200 words)

 RFC 3058 (rfc3058) - Use of the IDEA Encryption Algorithm in CMS IDEA is added to the set of optional symmetric encryption algorithms in S/MIME by providing two unique object identifiers (OIDs). The IDEA key-wrap algorithm is defined by: 1. The IDEA key-unwrap algorithm is defined by: 1. www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc3058.html   (1793 words)

 Cryptography (Linktionary term) Encryption transforms some input into an output that is impossible to read without the proper key. While the algorithm always operates the same way, the use of a key ensures that the output will always be different (given the same input). Because algorithms are usually public and well known, good encryption relies on a solid algorithm and avoiding the use of weak keys. www.linktionary.com /c/cryptography.html   (579 words)

 Public Key Cryptography Cryptography is an algorithmic process of converting a plain text (or clear text) message to a cipher text (or cipher) message based on an algorithm that both the sender and receiver know, so that the cipher text message can be returned to its original, plain text form. The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) was invented by James Massey and Xuejia Lai of ETH Zurich, Switzerland in 1991 and is patented and registered by the Swiss Ascom Tech AG, Solothurn [Lai 92]. Therefore, the encryption key can be made public, provided the decryption key is held only by the party wishing to receive encrypted messages (hence the name public/private key cryptography). www.sei.cmu.edu /str/descriptions/publickey_body.html   (2079 words)

 Security through encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Data encryption is simply a more advanced form of the secret codes or cryptology, used by the military for nearly the last century, essentially scrambling information is such a way that can only be read by the intended recipient. The function of data encryption algorithms is to permit the seamless transfer of sensitive information between two parties and to maintain that information on a storage medium that can read by only an authorized user. DES, or data encryption standard, was originally developed by IBM in 1974, was adopted by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) in 1977 as a national standard to address the need for protecting non-classified data. beradio.com /computers/radio_security_encryption/index.html   (968 words)

 BasicCard - Cryptography functions The DES algorithm is the internationally recognised Data Encryption Standard, defined in the ANSI standard documents X3.92-1981 (Data Encryption Algorithm) and X3.106-1983 (Data Encryption Algorithm – Modes of Operation). RSA encryption with key length of 1024 bits is not broken and because of that recommended to be used today. In the first place, it is specified in the proposed IEEE standard P1363 as one of the approved hashing algorithms for use in Elliptic Curve digital signature generation; and in the second place, it provides a source of cryptographically strong pseudo-random numbers, for the generation of keys and signatures. www.basiccard.com /crypto.htm   (824 words)

 Speak Freely: IDEA encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: ) IDEA encryption is substantially faster and generally considered to be much more secure than DES encryption. However, IDEA is newer, has not been formally adopted by governments, and is patented, restricting its commercial use. The IDEA encryption algorithm is patented and may not be used commercially without a license; see "Patent issues" for further details. www.speakfreely.org /doc/idea.html   (242 words)

 Janne FrÃ¶sen, Network Security Seminar Page IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an algorithm developed at ETH Zurich in Switzerland. IDEA is a fairly new algorithm, but it has already been around for several years, and no practical attacks on it have been published despite of numerous attempts to analyze it. IDEA is patented in the United States and in most of the European countries. www.boran.com /security/CryptoAlgoStrength.html   (3540 words)

 What is International Data Encryption Algorithm? - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: IDEA - IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) is an encryption algorithm developed at ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. It uses a block cipher with a 128-bit key, and is generally considered to be very secure. IDEA is patented in the United States and in most of the European countries. searchsecurity.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci213675,00.html   (256 words)

 Encryption algorithms Encryption is the process of converting a plaintext message into ciphertext which can be decoded back into the original message. An encryption algorithm along with a key is used in the encryption and decryption of data. A symmetric encryption algorithm that processes the data a bit or a byte at a time with a key resulting in a randomized ciphertext or plaintext. www.networksorcery.com /enp/data/encryption.htm   (692 words)

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