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Topic: International Phonetic Alphabet

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The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet are divided into three categories: letters, diacritics, and suprasegmentals (symbols that indicate such things as the tone and inflection of a spoken utterance).
The development of the IPA began in 1886, when a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known as the International Phonetic Association.
The symbols chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet.
www.bangalorein.com /wiki-International_Phonetic_Alphabet   (3569 words)

  International Phonetic Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The general principle of the IPA is to provide a separate symbol for each speech segment, avoiding letter combinations (digraphs) such as sh and th in English orthography, and avoiding ambiguity such as that of c in English.
The letters chosen for the IPA are generally drawn from the Latin and Greek alphabets, or are modifications of Latin or Greek letters.
While the IPA does not itself have a set of capital letters (the ones that look like capitals are actually small capitals), many languages have adopted symbols from the IPA as part of their orthographies, and in such cases they have invented capital variants of these.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet   (4631 words)

 NATO phonetic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The century older International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is often confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet owing to their similar names.
To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States.
The NATO phonetic alphabet is referred to repeatedly in Robert Ludlum's novel The Bourne Identity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet   (2558 words)

 Learn more about International Phonetic Alphabet in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The International Phonetic Alphabet was originally developed by British and French phoneticians under the auspices of the International Phonetic Association, established in Paris in 1886 (both the organisation and the phonetic script are best known as IPA).
The alphabet has undergone a number of revisions during its history, including some major ones codified by the IPA Kiel Convention (1989).
Most letters are taken from the Roman alphabet or derived from it, some are taken from the Greek alphabet, and some are apparently unrelated to any standard alphabet.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /i/in/international_phonetic_alphabet.html   (416 words)

 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The IPA was first published in 1888 by the Association Phonétique Internationale (International Phonetic Association), a group of French language teachers founded by Paul Passy.
A phonetic script for English created in 1847 by Isaac Pitman and Henry Ellis was used a a model for the IPA.
The IPA is used in dictionaries to indicate the pronunciation of words.
www.omniglot.com /writing/ipa.htm   (206 words)

 Language Log: The International Phonetic Alphabet
The IPA is defined by the International Phonetic Association, which revises it from time to time as new speech sounds are discovered.
The fullest exposition of the IPA is to be found in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (also in paperback).
For instance, the IPA symbols for the voiceless and voiced post-alveolar fricatives, ʃ and ʒ;, do not appear on normal typewriters, especially English language typewriters, meaning that anyone writing in or about a language with these sounds, which are quite common, had to leave space for them and write them in by hand.
itre.cis.upenn.edu /~myl/languagelog/archives/000911.html   (1795 words)

 The International Phonetic Alphabet
In ASCII IPA, it is an asterisk: [*].
The IPA symbol for this segment is an ‘r’ with a retroflex hook.
The IPA symbol is a ‘c’ with cedilla.
www.madore.org /~david/misc/linguistic/ipa   (7060 words)

 IPA: Handbook
The Association have edited the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet', published by
It replaces the booklet, 'The Principles of the International Phonetic Association' (London 1949).
The application of the Alphabet is extensively demonstrated by the inclusion of 29 'Illustrations' - concise analyses of the sound systems of languages, accompanied by a phonetic transcription of a passage of speech.
www.arts.gla.ac.uk /ipa/handbook.html   (306 words)

 IPA Handbook
The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association was published by Cambridge University Press in July of 1999 and is being regularly reprinted in both hardback and paperback.
These audio files are licensed to the IPA by their authors and accompany the phonetic descriptions published in the Handbook of the IPA or in the Journal of the IPA.
The electronic data from the Handbook of the IPA or the Journal of the IPA are intended for scholarly research and educational use.
web.uvic.ca /ling/resources/ipa/handbook.htm   (742 words)

 The International Phonetic Alphabet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The initials "IPA" are used for both the International Phonetic Alphabet and for the International Phonetic Association which created it.
The International Phonetic Association was founded in France in 1886.
The International Phonetic Alphabet has been revised a number of times since 1888, most recently at the association's 1993 convention in Kiel, with a few minor changes approved in 1996.
www.umanitoba.ca /linguistics/russell/phonetics/transcription/the-ipa.html   (669 words)

 BBC - h2g2 - The International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) is a system of transcription used in linguistics to represent in writing the many and various sounds produced in human speech.
The 1888 IPA (and the 'International' nature of that system is the key difference) has been somewhat revised since its first publication, particularly at the 1989 IPA Kiel Convention, but has largely stood the test of time and been widely accepted and used in the field of linguistics.
The main use of the IPA today is in the study of linguistics, where it is of great value to be able to write down very precisely how sounds are pronounced by native speakers, especially of newly discovered or disappearing languages.
www.bbc.co.uk /dna/ww2/A863624   (757 words)

 yourDictionary.com • Library: The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created by the International Phonetic Association (also IPA), formed by a group of English and French linguists way back in 1886.
The alphabet has gone through several revisions: while the bulk of it is based on the 1989 Kiel Convention, some changes were made as late as 1996.
Because of the precision the IPA affords, it is used in everything from language journals to dictionaries.
www.yourdictionary.com /library/ipa.html   (2051 words)

 Handbook of the International Phonetic Association - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This book is a comprehensive guide to the International Phonetic Alphabet, whose aim is to provide a universally agreed system of notation for the sounds of languages, and which has been widely used for over a century.
The Handbook presents the basics of phonetic analysis so that the principles underlying the Alphabet can be readily understood, and gives examples of the use of each of the phonetic symbols.
The application of the Alphabet is then demonstrated in nearly 30 ‘Illustrations’ - concise analyses of the sound systems of a range of languages, each of them accompanied by a phonetic transcription of a passage of speech.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/print.asp?isbn=0521652367&print=y   (235 words)

 International Phonetic Alphabet - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The sound-values of the consonants taken from the Latin alphabet correspond to usage in French and Italian, and are close to those of most other European languages as well: [b], [d], [f], [ɡ], [k], [l], [m], [n], [p], (unvoiced) [s], [t], [v], [z].
So phonemic /nixt/ is equivalent to phonetic [najt], but only if you share Chomsky's belief that historical sounds such as the gh in night may remain in a word long after they have ceased to be pronounced.
The "looptail G" Image:Looptail g.PNG is not strictly an IPA character, but is an acceptable alternative.
www.psychcentral.com /psypsych/International_Phonetic_Alphabet   (4571 words)

 Phonetic Alphabet Recommended by the ITU   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
While many Veterans in the group will recognize this as the "Military Phonetic Alphabet", it was originally issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization, the United Nations specialized agency that coordinates aviation standards around the world.
This phonetic alphabet has also been adopted by another UN specialized agency, the International Telecommunications Union, which sets standards (called Reccommendations) for telephone and radio communications around the world.
Phonetics are wonderful for spelling out words over telephone circuits where it's easy to mistake an F for an S, among other things.
spaceyideas.com /ozzie/phonalph.html   (190 words)

 138: Phonetic Alphabets
Phonetic alphabets are designed (and necessary) for writing down utterances in a way that records how they sounded.
The reader of a phonetic transcription facing a given symbol could never be sure of what sound it was intended to represent.
The only proposed alphabet which has achieved widespread use is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), used by phoneticians, linguists, speech/language pathologists, and increasingly by dictionary makers and second language teachers.
www.umanitoba.ca /faculties/arts/linguistics/russell/138/sec1/ipa1.htm   (900 words)

 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Chart in Unicode and XHTML/CSS
This IPA chart is composed of Unicode characters and is written in valid XHTML/CSS; it is open source software released under the GPL.
To easily copy/enter/input/insert/type the IPA characters/symbols/letters/glyphs and diacritics, found in this chart, use the IPA Unicode “Keyboard”, which is built off of this document.
To easily copy and type the IPA symbols and characters found in this chart, use the IPA Unicode “Keyboard”, which is built off of this document.
www.linguiste.org /phonetics/ipa/chart   (417 words)

 Phonetics and Phonology
"The aim of the International Phonetic Association is to promote the study of the science of phonetics and the various practical applications of that science.
The IPA is based on the Roman alphabet, which has the advantage of being widely familiar, but also includes letters and additional symbols from a variety of other sources.
is the version revised by a Convention of the International Phonetic Association held in Kiel in 1989, subject to a subsequent set of minor modifications and corrections approved by the Council of the Association." (ibid, p3).
www.ling.mq.edu.au /speech/phonetics/transcription/ipa/ipa.html   (352 words)

 International Phonetic Alphabet --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!
IPA symbols are based on an extended version of the Latin alphabet, with modifications of some letters and the use of additional symbols, some of which had been used in earlier phonetic alphabets.
The Latin alphabet originally had 20 letters, the present English alphabet minus J, K, V, W, Y, and Z. The Romans themselves added K for use in abbreviations and Y and Z in words transcribed from Greek.
It is based only on mutual consent of sovereign states, and it is effective either because the nations of the world recognize that it is to their best interests to accept it or because stronger nations are able to force their point of view...
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9368087?tocId=9368087   (887 words)

 IPA Transcription with SIL Fonts
SIL International has produced several font sets over the years that allow for the transcription of linguistic data using the International Phonetic Alphabet.
SIL IPA 1.2 Home Page -- SIL IPA encodes the version of the International Phonetic Alphabet adopted at the 1989 Kiel convention.
The “IPA Unicode 1.0.5” keyboard, developed by Martin Hosken, is a mnemonic compiled Keyman 6 keyboard.
scripts.sil.org /cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=IPAhome&_sc=1   (1308 words)

 The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet | Antimoon.com
The symbol in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners — that is, A. Gimson's phonemic system with a few additional symbols.
Even though dictionaries represent each phoneme with one symbol of the IPA, you should remember that one phoneme can actually correspond to many IPA symbols.
The International Phonetic Alphabet is very popular, but there is a big problem with this alphabet: the IPA symbols are difficult to type on computers.
www.antimoon.com /how/pronunc-soundsipa.htm   (586 words)

 [No title]
The international phonetic alphabet (IPA) is, like the metric system, the standard for transcribing pronunciation throughout the world — except in the United States.
Most of our learner clients are familiar with the IPA from their dual-language dictionaries, and versions of it are used in the Longman’s, Oxford ESL, and in the various Cambridge dictionaries designed for nonnative speakers.
To type IPA symbols not in the Roman alphabet, phonetic fonts type the normal character in lower case and a similar phonetic symbol when the shift key is used.
www.esl-houghton.org /teachmater/TheInternPhone57E.doc   (540 words)

 Wikinfo | NATO phonetic alphabet
The NATO phonetic alphabet was developed in the 1950s by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to be intelligible (and pronounceable) to all pilots and operators of civil aircraft.
It replaced other phonetic alphabets, for example the US military Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet ("able baker") and several versions of RAF phonetic alphabets.
It is sometimes inappropriately referred to as International Phonetic Alphabet, which is actually the official name of an alphabet used in linguistics created in the late nineteeth century.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=NATO_phonetic_alphabet   (544 words)

 Phonetics for Beginners
In this alphabet each sound is given a unique symbol which allows us to capture similarities and differences that are obscured by the written form.
The manner of articulation categories are in the vertical bar and start with the highest degree of obstruction (plosives) and move progressively down to the least degree of obstruction (approximants).
As you move horizontally from left to right, the part of the tongue which is raised moves from the front of the tongue to the back.
www.jcarreras.homestead.com /RRPhonetics1.html   (1519 words)

 SAMPA computer readable phonetic alphabet
SAM (Speech Assessment Methods) in 1987-89 by an international group of phoneticians, and was applied in the first instance to the European Communities languages Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, and Italian (by 1989); later to Norwegian and Swedish (by 1992); and subsequently to Greek, Portuguese, and Spanish (1993).
All IPA symbols that coincide with lower-case letters of the Latin alphabet remain the same; all other symbols are recoded within the ASCII range 37..126.
In this current WWW document the IPA symbols cannot be shown, but the columns indicate respectively a SAMPA symbol, its ASCII/ANSI number decimal), the shape of the corresponding IPA symbol, the Unicode number (hex, decimal) for the IPA symbol, and the symbol's meaning or use.
www.phon.ucl.ac.uk /home/sampa/home.htm   (875 words)

 The International Phonetic Alphabet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The IPA is a writing system used by linguists to communicate with each other.
It is an international standard, promulgated by the International Phonetic Association.
The IPA has also defined a set of extensions for use in transcribing disordered speech.
www.ling.upenn.edu /phonetics/ipa.html   (55 words)

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