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Topic: Interneuron


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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  
  Background
Since each interneuron is connected to many PCs and other interneurons, all of these postsynaptic cells will be inhibited simultaneously, and if the ongoing excitation in each cell is similar, they all will tend to fire at the same time when they recover from the inhibition.
If the interneuron is firing repetitively, for example because it and all of its neighbors in the network are generating their own theta rhythm, then the postsynaptic cells will be silenced repetitively, i.e.
The interneurons generate a timing signal, and the pyramidal cells generate their output at a fixed time relative to the ongoing oscillation.
www.neurophys.wisc.edu /phys675lab/hippo1_bakgnd.htm   (1286 words)

  
  APStracts 5:045N, 1998   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Three nonspiking interneurons are described that influence the activity of the motoneurons of three muscles of the proximal leg joints of the stick insect.
Depolarizing this interneuron inhibits motoneurons of protractor and thoracic depressor.
Interneuron NS 2 can be regarded as an important premotor interneuron for the switching from stance to swing and from swing to stance.
www.uth.tmc.edu /apstracts/1998/jn/January/045N.html   (433 words)

  
 Sample Contracts - Master Consulting Agreement - Interneuron Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Quintiles Inc. - Competitive ...
Interneuron and Quintiles agree that any computer software programs, statistical methodologies or other formulae or analyses used by Quintiles under or during the term of this Agreement are the product of Quintiles' technical expertise possessed and developed by Quintiles prior to the date of the Agreement and are the sole and separate property of Quintiles.
Interneuron and Quintiles agree that such technical expertise processes, methods, approach or analyses used by Quintiles under or during the term of the Agreement are the product of Quintiles' technical expertise possessed and developed by Quintiles prior to the date of this Agreement and are the sole and separate property of Quintiles.
Interneuron shall not indemnify, hold harmless, or defend an Indemnified Party from claims or damages to the extent such claims or damages are determined to have resulted solely from the following: a.
contracts.onecle.com /entremed/interneuron.consult.1996.07.12.shtml   (1387 words)

  
 Interneuron - Psychology Wiki - A Wikia wiki
An interneuron (also called relay neuron,association neuron or bipolar neuron) is a neuron that communicates only to other neurons.
One example of interneurons are inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex which selectively inhibit sections of the thalamus based on synaptic input both from other parts of the neocortex and from the thalamus itself.
Interneurons are the neurons that provide connections between sensory and motor neurons, as well as between themselves.
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Interneuron   (406 words)

  
 SEC EDGARpro API | View Text
Also, Interneuron, CPEC LLC and Incara subcontract a substantial portion of their research and development activities to external vendors, including contract research organizations, and rely on the systems of these vendors for data and information that may be date sensitive.
Interneuron, CPEC LLC and Incara are ascertaining Year 2000 compliance of their primary internal software systems, operationally-related systems, equipment with embedded microprocessors, and subcontractors through vendor inquiry and obtaining written assertions of Year 2000 compliance from each.
Interneuron has obtained letters from its primary internal software vendors and certain subcontractors that purport their current belief of Year 2000 compliance and generally indicate continued efforts to assess Year 2000 issues.
sec.freeedgar.com /displayText.asp?ID=176600   (5319 words)

  
 Background
Since each interneuron is connected to many PCs and other interneurons, all of these postsynaptic cells will be inhibited simultaneously, and if the ongoing excitation in each cell is similar, they all will tend to fire at the same time when they recover from the inhibition.
If the interneuron is firing repetitively, for example because it and all of its neighbors in the network are generating their own theta rhythm, then the postsynaptic cells will be silenced repetitively, i.e.
The interneurons generate a timing signal, and the pyramidal cells generate their output at a fixed time relative to the ongoing oscillation.
www.physiology.wisc.edu /phys675lab/hippo1_bakgnd.htm   (1286 words)

  
 SEC EDGARpro API | View Text
Interneuron's ownership in Intercardia's outstanding capital stock decreased from approximately 88% at September 30, 1995 to approximately 60% as a result of the Intercardia IPO.
Interneuron is expected to incur additional costs in fiscal 1996 and 1997 relating to a regional test launch of Melzone expected to commence in calendar 1996.
Interneuron is entitled to varying percentages of profit derived from sales generated by its sales force, after deducting costs, including cost of product revenue, royalties to Interneuron, and Interneuron's proportionate share of advertising and promotion costs.
sec.freeedgar.com /displayText.asp?ID=114748   (9494 words)

  
 97cv12254 Bardin v. Interneuron Pharmaceuticals - 10/15/98 Complaint
Defendant Interneuron was originally incorporated in New York in October 1988 and in March 1990 was reincorporated in Delaware.
Interneuron is a diversified biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development and commercialization of a portfolio of products and product candidates primarily for neurological and behavioral disorders, including obesity, stroke, anxiety and insomnia.
Yet, it was not until September 15, 1997, that Interneuron disclosed that it knew of the association between Redux and heart valve abnormalities and that, at the urging of the FDA, it was with drawing Redux from the market.
securities.stanford.edu /1009/IPIC97/complaint.html   (4519 words)

  
 Temporal overlap of excitatory and inhibitory afferent input in guinea-pig CA1 pyramidal cells -- Karnup and Stelzer ...
Interneuron AHPs prevented some EPSPs to become suprathreshold, effectively filtering the roughly 15 Hz AP frequency in the pyramical cell to a 7ยท5 Hz rhythm of synaptic APs in the interneuron.
Steeper EPSP slopes of the interneuron at a given intensity (Table 3A) indicate that the differences in activation kinetics and excitability in the two cell types were linked.
In interneurons that are connected in a feedforward manner, the AHP of the synaptic AP prevents recurrent unitary APs (Fig.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/516/2/485   (10917 words)

  
 synapses.bu.edu
Interneuron dendrites may be particularly vunerable to injury, due perhaps to the high density of synapses and an absence of spines to help isolate the postsynaptic compartments.
This is consistent with the fact that the synapse density is in fact reduced in the regions of the varicosities, as though the dendrite had a uniform synaptic density that was subsequently distorted by localized swelling.
This is also consistent with the accumulation of glycogen in interneuron dendrites as noted in a previous study in the hippocampus (Fiala et al.
synapses.bu.edu /index_june2006.htm   (1046 words)

  
 synapses.bu.edu
Interneuron dendrites may be particularly vunerable to injury, due perhaps to the high density of synapses and an absence of spines to help isolate the postsynaptic compartments.
This is consistent with the fact that the synapse density is in fact reduced in the regions of the varicosities, as though the dendrite had a uniform synaptic density that was subsequently distorted by localized swelling.
This is also consistent with the accumulation of glycogen in interneuron dendrites as noted in a previous study in the hippocampus (Fiala et al.
www.synapses.bu.edu /index_june2006.htm   (1046 words)

  
 TheStreet.com: Interneuron Soars After Inking Warner-Lambert Deal
Interneuron was up 2, or 54%, at 6 1/2, above its 52-week high of 8 3/4, reached earlier Monday.
Interneuron will turn a portion of the payments over to Aventis S.A. news) under the terms of a previous agreement.
Interneuron said clinical trials to test pagoclone's effect on panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are to begin in 2000.
www.thestreet.com /brknews/biotech/848709.html   (353 words)

  
 HepNet - Interneuron Licenses Phase 3 Compound for the Treatment and Prevention of Liver Disease
In addition, the Company announced the initiation of a government-funded Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating IP 501 in Hepatitis C. IP 501 is the subject of a recently completed Phase 3 clinical trial funded by the government to evaluate the compound in alcoholic cirrhosis.
Interneuron is responsible for all remaining clinical and regulatory development, manufacturing, and marketing of the compound.
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals is a biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development and commercialization of a diversified portfolio of product candidates, including multiple compounds in late-stage clinical development.
www.hepnet.com /hepc/news011001b.html   (363 words)

  
 Weill Cornell Research
Since some aspects of interneuron subtype specification do appear to occur within the ventral forebrain, a candidate molecule approach is being taken to study factors which may influence this process.
We are transplanting these cells to determine whether functional interneurons can be derived from embryonic stem cells, and may extend this work to the study of cell-based therapies for chronic focal seizures.
In a related project, we are studying the ability of transplanted interneuron progenitors from transgenic mice to reduce seizures in a mouse model of chronic epilepsy, in collaboration with Drs.
www.med.cornell.edu /research/saanderson   (447 words)

  
 Citizenship
Interneuron provided the funding for the startup and first year's expenses of the Kwa-Zulu Natal operations.
Interneuron is providing financial support to various educational institutions, charity organisations research and study programs in South Africa as well as further abroad in Africa.
Also in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Interneuron put up the initial costs for the site visits and architectural proposal for a complete new six faculty University Village in Kindu, a small town on the Congo river 400km from the eastern border of the Congo.
www.interneuron.co.za /Citizenship.htm   (341 words)

  
 FDA Authorizes Marketing of Interneuron's Medical Device for Neurological Imaging Business Wire - Find Articles
In the first phase of commercialization, Interneuron expects the System to be sold initially to researchers, radiation oncologists and neurosurgeons for both pre- and post- treatment uses.
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals is a diversified biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development and commercialization of a portfolio of products and product candidates primarily for neurological and behavioral disorders.
Interneuron is also developing products and technologies, generally outside the central nervous system field, through three subsidiaries: Intercardia, Inc. focused on cardiovascular disease and carbohydrate-based drug discovery; Progenitor, Inc. focused on developmental genomics; and InterNutria, Inc. focused on dietary supplement products.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_1998_July_15/ai_20906446   (472 words)

  
 Hippocampal Pyramidal Cell-Interneuron Spike Transmission Is Frequency Dependent and Responsible for Place Modulation ...
Spatial correlates of interneurons are attributable to their monosynaptic activation by presynaptic place cells.
Borst JG, Sakmann B (1999) Depletion of calcium in the synaptic cleft of a calyx-type synapse in the rat brainstem.
Freund TF, Buzsáki G (1996) Interneurons of the hippocampus.
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/22/2/RC197   (3525 words)

  
 Melatonin Politics
Interneuron is one of three companies that holds patents on melatonin.
SEC documents show that Dr. Wurtman sits on the Interneuron's Board of Directors, and that the company pays Wurtman and his wife more than $225,000 per year to serve as consultants, as well as other generous perks.
Couple this with Interneuron's $15 million loss in the six month period ending March 31, 1996 (and a $10 million loss in the corresponding period last year) and it's easy to imagine the pressure on the company to turn a profit for its shareholders.
www.monitor.net /monitor/5-27-96/melatoninpolitics.html   (1399 words)

  
 Fenphen Multistate class action website & Bulletin Board
In the proposed Interneuron settlement, Bechtle said, Interneuron would retain a portion of its assets in exchange for a debt instrument to be borne by the class members.
Interneuron's lawyers argued that the settlement was the only way to keep the company alive and get money to the plaintiffs.
Interneuron developed a third drug, dexfenfluramine, which came to be known as Redux, and was prescribed either alone or in combination with Phentermine.
www.leflaw.net /fenphen/10311999.html   (4257 words)

  
 APStracts 6:0448N, 1999.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Its impact on the generation of calling song was analysed both in resting and stridulating crickets and during cercal wind stimulation which impaired the stridulatory movements and caused transient silencing reactions.
A descending interneuron in the brain serves as a command neuron for calling song stridulation.
During sustained calling songs the interneuron activity is necessary to maintain the stridulatory behaviour.
www.uth.tmc.edu /apstracts/1999/jn/November/448n.html   (422 words)

  
 Active dendrites and spike propagation in multi-compartment models of oriens-lacunosum/moleculare hippocampal ...
Although the soma and dendrites of the O-LM interneuron are restricted to the oriens/alveus layer of the hippocampus, the axon is known to traverse through several layers and arborize within the lacunosum/ moleculare layer where it synapses onto the distal dendrites of pyramidal cells.
Given that O-LM interneurons are mostly involved in feedback inhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells, whereas the interneurons of r/l-m are involved in feedforward inhibition, LTP in interneurons may be related to their interconnections within the hippocampal circuitry of neurons.
Therefore, the role of the O-LM interneurons within the network is crucial and their highly excitable dendrites would seem to provide the appropriate characteristics for this interneuron type to have this distinct role and positioning in the neuronal network.
jp.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/552/3/673   (10876 words)

  
 Melatonin Politics
Interneuron is one of three companies that holds patents on melatonin.
Providing that Interneuron produces studies proving that Melzone, their brand of melatonin, is indeed safe and effective, the company would have a monopoly on "nature's sleeping pill."
Couple this with Interneuron's $15 million loss in the six month period ending March 31, 1996 (and a $10 million loss in the corresponding period last year) and it's easy to imagine the pressure on the company to turn a profit for its shareholders.
www.monitor.net:16080 /monitor/5-27-96/melatoninpolitics.html   (1399 words)

  
 Fen Phen Multistate litigation website & Bulletin Board
In the proposed Interneuron settlement, Bechtle said, Interneuron would retain a portion of its assets in exchange for a debt instrument to be borne by the class members.
Interneuron's lawyers argued that the settlement was the only way to keep the company alive and get money to the plaintiffs.
Interneuron developed a third drug, dexfenfluramine, which came to be known as Redux, and was prescribed either alone or in combination with Phentermine.
leflaw.net /fenphen/10041999.html   (4470 words)

  
 Interneuron Pharmaceuticals Sues American Home Products for Fraud; Marketing Partner Withheld Critical Data Regarding ...
&uot;Interneuron's mission has been to develop drugs, and in order to advance that mission, we have attempted to reach a comprehensive, fiscally responsible indemnification agreement with AHP that reflects the desire of our shareholders and Board to resolve Redux-related product liability litigation once and for all.
Interneuron will vigorously defend itself in all of these lawsuits and has filed or intends to file cross-claims against AHP in each and every one of these lawsuits seeking indemnification for any damages.
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals is engaged in the development and commercialization of a portfolio of products and product candidates for central nervous system and other disorders, including multiple compounds in late-stage clinical development.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2000_Jan_24/ai_58912519   (625 words)

  
 Redux To Be Voluntarily Withdrawn; Pondimin Also To Be Withdrawn, 9/15/97 Business Newswire
Interneuron has been named, together with other pharmaceutical companies, as a defendant in a number of legal actions involving the use of Redux and other weight loss drugs.
Interneuron Pharmaceuticals is a diversified biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development and commercialization of a portfolio of products and product candidates primarily for neurological and behavioral disorders.
Interneuron is also developing products and technologies, generally outside the central nervous system field, through four subsidiaries: Intercardia, Inc. focused on cardiovascular disease, Progenitor, Inc. focused on developmental genomics, Transcell Technologies, Inc. focused on carbohydrate-based drug discovery, and InterNutria, Inc. focused on dietary supplement products.
www.antidepressantsfacts.com /redux-3.htm   (1059 words)

  
 Endocannabinoids regulate interneuron migration and morphogenesis by transactivating the TrkB receptor -- Berghuis et ...
interneurons in the hippocampus in vivo, we conclude that prenatal
AEA induces the migration of CB R-expressing interneurons.
(A) Interneuron migration induced by 100 nM AEA is abolished by 100 nM K252a.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/102/52/19115   (3515 words)

  
 Feeding Stimulants Activate an Identified Dopaminergic Interneuron That Induces the Feeding Motor Program in Helisoma ...
Interneuron N1a is component of buccal CPG and its effects are mimicked by exogenous DA.
The activation of interneuron N1a in physiological saline
FaGlu-induced fluorescence characteristic of dopamine in the physiologically characterized interneurons N1a
jn.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/78/2/812   (7222 words)

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