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Topic: Interplanetary medium


  
 The Solar System
Satellites of the planets, comets, asteroids, meteoroids, and the interplanetary medium constitute the remaining 0.015%.
Interplanetary gas is a tenuous flow of gas and charged particles, mostly protons and electrons -- plasma -- which stream from the Sun, called the solar wind.
The solar magnetic field is the dominating magnetic field throughout the interplanetary regions of the solar system, except in the immediate environment of planets which have their own magnetic fields.
www.solarviews.com /eng/solarsys.htm   (1562 words)

  
 Interplanetary medium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The temperature of the interplanetary medium is approximately 100,000 K, and its density is very low at about 5 particles per cubic centimeter in the vicinity of the Earth; it decreases with increasing distance from the sun, in proportion with the inverse square of the distance.
The plasma in the interplanetary medium is also responsible for the strength of the Sun's magenetic field at the orbit of the Earth being over 100 times greater than originally anticipated.
the interplanetary medium) in a magnetic field, induces electric currents which in turn generates magnetic fields, and in this respect it behaves like a MHD dynamo.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Interplanetary_medium   (749 words)

  
 Medium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Medium (spirituality), a person who claims to serve as an intermediary between the living and the dead
Medium of instruction, the language used to educate in
Medium (TV series), a 2005–2006 television series about a research medium for a district attorney's office
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Medium   (148 words)

  
 Medium
While the Sun's radiation is obvious, the other components of the interplanetary medium were not discovered until very recently.
The temperature of the interplanetary medium is about 100,000 K. Its density is about 5 particles/cm3 near the Earth and decreases by an inverse square law farther from the Sun.
The zodiacal light and the gegenschein are caused by interplanetary dust.
www.nineplanets.org /medium.html   (509 words)

  
 Cavendish Astrophysics
Measurements of the solar wind and the small-scale structure of the interplanetary medium.
Density gradients in the solar plasma observed by interplanetary scintillation.
Rees, W.G., Duffett-Smith, P.J., Tappin, S.F., Hewish, A. Interplanetary scintillation as a probe of the universe.
www.mrao.cam.ac.uk /publications/namesdir/ah120.htm   (895 words)

  
 [No title]
The known characteristics of the interplanetary medium suggest not only that the sun and the planets are electrically charged, but that the sun itself is the focus of a cosmic electric discharge- the probable source of all its radiant energy.
According to the physics of electricity, a charged body isolated in a vacuum, which is a dielectric medium, surrounds itself with an electric field that reaches to infinity, with strength diminishing as the square of the distance.
Thus, in a vacuous interplanetary medium, or even in a medium of neutral atomic or molecular gases, planetary charges must give rise to electric fields detectable by their influences upon planetary motions.
www.kronia.com /library/journals/electro.txt   (5265 words)

  
 interplanetary medium --  Encyclopædia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The material components of the interplanetary medium consist of neutral hydrogen, plasma gas comprising electrically charged particles from the Sun, cosmic rays, and dust particles.
The existence of interplanetary dust particles was first deduced from observations of zodiacal light, a glowing band visible in the night sky...
In addition to particles of debris (see interplanetary dust particle), the space through which the planets travel contains protons, electrons, and ions of the abundant elements, all streaming outward from the Sun in the form of the solar wind.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9042616   (805 words)

  
 THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM
The interplanetary medium is composed of a tenuous, magnetized plasma which originates with the supersonic solar wind.
Studies of turbulence in the solar wind exploit observations of background cosmic sources which, in the absence of the IPM, would be unresolved by the array.
Angular broadening and scintillation are then due solely to the intervening turbulent medium.
www.cv.nrao.edu /vla/upgrade/node30.html   (504 words)

  
 ISCS Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Similarly interplanetary disturbances usually occur in relative isolation during the initial phase of the rising portion of a solar cycle.
The transport of these solar emissions through the interplanetary medium is of importance in predicting which and when various phenomena will interfere with spacecraft operations and the geophysical environment.
In addition the interplanetary medium has been probed by many spacecraft: the inner heliosphere by HELIOS and the outer and high latitude heliosphere by Ulysses and the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft.
cspard.uah.edu /iscs/proposal.shtml   (6117 words)

  
 SWAVES Science
The objective of the STEREO mission is to significantly advance the understanding of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their interaction with the interplanetary medium and terrestrial magnetosphere using combined imaging, radio, and in situ measurements from two identical, stereoscopically-spaced spacecraft.
Most analyses of interplanetary type II radio emissions during the ISEE-3 era (1978 - 1984) were statistical studies that elucidated the characteristics of interplanetary type II radio bursts and their correlation with related phenomena such as CMEs, sudden commencement geomagnetic storms, and metric wavelength type II bursts.
The interplanetary type II radio tracking provides one important means of accurately determining the CME speed through the interplanetary medium from ~0.1 AU or less to 1 AU or more and thus accurately determining CME arrival times at Earth.
www-lep.gsfc.nasa.gov /swaves/swaves_science.html   (6997 words)

  
 1.7 Interplanetary medium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The technique of mapping the interplanetary medium using interplanetary scintillation (IPS) is one of the most cost-effective techniques in solar-terrestrial physics.
We have continued to maintain and operate the only facility in the world capable of producing daily maps of density fluctuations in the interplanetary medium by this method, and provide a service to the community by distributing the data to research groups around the world.
The general level of RF interference in the band 81--82MHz continues to be a concern, and during a 3 month period in 1994 no observations were possible due to transmissions from a commercial operator.
www.mrao.cam.ac.uk /publications/annrep95/node8.html   (270 words)

  
 Space Studies Board
The observation of this boundary between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium is one of the central objectives of contemporary space physics.
The influence of the comet in the interplanetary medium was observed as far as a million kilometers away from the nucleus.
The Ulysses mission represents a pioneering effort to observe the interplanetary medium, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, and the Sun's atmosphere at high solar latitudes—all classical phenomena in interplanetary and solar physics.
www7.nationalacademies.org /ssb/21och4.html   (3219 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Long-range interactions and probability distribution functions in the interplanetary medium Pronounced core-halo electron and ion velocity distribution characteristics are a persistent and ubiquitous feature of astrophysical plasmas, in particular manifest in the solar wind by space observations.
Theoretically the nonextensive character of the interplanetary medium, counting for long-range interactions or memory and non-locality in turbulence, can be introduced by pseudo-additive entropy generalization where a parameter kappa measures the degree of nonextensivity in the system.
It is argued that non-thermal core-halo velocity space distributions as well as the intermittency of the turbulent fluctuations must be related physically to the non-extensive character of the interplanetary medium counting for the long-range interactions via the entropy generalization.
lep694.gsfc.nasa.gov /seminar/previous_lep/spring2004/M_Leubner.txt   (279 words)

  
 Ogo 5 Observations of Upstream Waves in the Interplanetary Medium: Discrete
One class of waves observed in the interplanetary medium within several earth radii of the earth's bow shock consists of discrete wave packets with amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the background magnetic field.
The magnetic field observed upstream from the earth's bow shock in the interplanetary medium is often irregular or turbulent in appearance [Fairfield, 1969].
This is illustrated in Figure 13, where we have plotted the projection onto the ecliptic plane of the unit vector parallel to the propagation vector for 7 normal examples of the discrete wave packets plus the 2 anomalous examples illustrated in Figures 2 and 6.
www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu /personnel/russell/papers/16   (8091 words)

  
 ISCS WG3: Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
In addition the interplanetary medium has been probed with in-situ measurements by many spacecraft: inside of 1 AU by HELIOS and in the outer and high-latitude heliosphere by Ulysses and the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft.
We propose to use these observations of solar and interplanetary phenomena, and geomagnetic activity where appropriate, to address specific questions of importance to studies of solar and interplanetary disturbances and their coupling to the magnetosphere, including recent new initiatives on "Space Weather".
The effects and signatures of individual ejections on the interplanetary medium remain uncertain.
cspar.uah.edu /iscs/wg3/program.shtml   (1761 words)

  
 Interaction of the Sun and the Galaxy
Supernovae and interplanetary shocks are often driven into a turbulent medium, giving rise to highly asymmetric and sometimes unstable structures.
High levels of turbulence are typically observed at quasi-parallel shocks in the interplanetary medium and at the bow shocks of planets.
One aspect of the research supported by this grant is to explore the interaction of turbulence with shock waves.
www.igpp.ucr.edu /Interplanetary_medium.htm   (450 words)

  
 [No title]
The conference focused on many different aspects of magnetic storms, starting with its origin at the Sun and in the interplanetary medium, followed with the storm dynamics and structure in magnetospheric and ionospheric regions, and ending with studies about its main atmospheric and ground effects.
With respect to the solar-interplanetary coupling, J. Chen summarized several theoretical and observational aspects of the CME/prominence association and of the solar ejecta's transport in the interplanetary medium as a magnetic cloud structure.
They presented complementary talks showing that the ring current is mainly controlled by changes in the interplanetary electric field variability and that substorms, despite the fact that they occur more intensively and frequently during the storm's main phase, may not play an important role in ring current development.
www.oulu.fi /~spaceweb/textbook/tsurutani.txt   (2265 words)

  
 WIND Instrument Descriptions
To study acceleration, composition and transport of energetic particle populations, including particles from solar flares, particles accelerated in interplanetary shocks, and the anomalous component and galactic cosmic rays.
To establish the large-scale structure and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field as functions of time, and through correlative studies to relate them to the dynamics of the magnetosphere.
The detector is a 215 cubic cm high purity n-type germanium crystal of dimensions: 6.7 cm (diameter) X 6.1 cm (length), radiatively colled to 85 degrees K. The germanium serves as a reaction medium for incoming gamma rays, which, depending on their energy, are either stopped by or passed through the detector crystal.
pwg.gsfc.nasa.gov /wind_inst.shtml   (2584 words)

  
 Question 5   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Here a whole set of questions can be raised about the coupling relationship between the corona and the interplanetary space, except that the physics is contrastingly different from the ones applicable to the corona-photosphere coupling.
The interplanetary extensions of the coronal holes and helmet- streamers as the origin of the magnetic structures permeating the Earth's space environment has long been recognized and studied.
With the current understanding that it is the coronal mass ejections rather than the dynamical effects of the associated flares which violently disrupt the Earth's magnetosphere, the study of coronal mass ejections has been identified to be central to the Space Weather Program.
web.hao.ucar.edu /public/workshop/smi/question_five.html   (207 words)

  
 NASA/MSFC Dusty Plasma Experiment - Other Projects
In the interstellar medium, the particles are cycled through evolutionary processes with the formation of giant molecular clouds, protosuns, planetary systems, comets, and other debris objects.
The purpose of this experiment is to focus on direct laboratory measurements of the infrared scattering properties of common interstellar and interplanetary dust particles in the 1-25 micron spectral region.
Single dust grains of interplanetary and interstellar composition and physical types will be irradiated, and the scattered radiation intensity measured as a function of angle.
science.nasa.gov /ssl/PAD/sppb/dusty/projects.html   (303 words)

  
 Proton Studies and Interplanetary Processes
Interplanetary shock waves are known to produce increases in 0.3 to 0.5 MeV proton fluxes.
Results confirm the description of the interplanetary medium as a locale of particle energization, mainly during high solar activity where interplanetary shocks are almost always present based on SSC indicators.
There must be an interplanetary process or interplanetary acceleration which maintains, redistributes, and recirculates the lower energy particles in the interplanetary medium in contrast to the higher energy particles which are less affected by this process and originate within 1 AU, probably from flares or coronal ejection events.
www.ku.edu /~kuspace/outreach/protons.html   (1379 words)

  
 Basics of Space Flight Section I. The Environment of Space
At last, with interplanetary travel, instruments can be carried to many solar system objects, to measure their physical properties and dynamics directly and at very close range.
The "vacuum" of interplanetary space includes copious amounts of energy radiated from the Sun, some interplanetary and interstellar dust (microscopic solid particles) and gas, and the solar wind.
The actual properties of the interstellar medium (outside the heliosphere), including the strength and orientation of its magnetic field, are important in determining the size and shape of the heliopause.
www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf1-1.html   (2689 words)

  
 Untitled Document
Modelers assume that the injection of energetic particles into the interplanetary medium starts when a perturbation, originated as a consequence of a solar eruption, generates a shock wave that propagates across the solar corona.
The modeling of particle fluxes and fluences associated with SEP events has to consider (1) the changes in shock characteristics as it travels through the interplanetary medium, (2) the different points of the shock where the observer is connected to, and (3) the conditions under which particles propagate.
Those models describing the shock as a semicircle propagating at constant speed oversimplify the shock geometry and evolution and therefore misplace the cobpoint and neglect the physical conditions at the point where particles are accelerated and injected.
www.am.ub.es /~blai/enginmodel/SEP_History.html   (2458 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Interplanetary medium   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Heliospheric current sheet The Heliospheric current sheet (HCS), is the largest structure in the Solar System [1], resulting from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [2].
This interplanetary plasma consists of equal numbers of postively charge particles (mostly protons) and negatively charged particles (electrons) arranged such that charge of any volume of space is electrically neutral.
Ulysses has instruments onboard which are constantly measuring the characteristics of the interplanetary plasma as well as its chemical composition at the spacecraft.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Interplanetary-medium   (441 words)

  
 UK STP for the Next Millennium
For the present purposes, this report focuses on processes in the solar atmosphere, the interplanetary medium, and the Earth's upper atmosphere, with particular emphasis on connected sequences of events originating at the Sun through to their impact on the Earth.
The Sun's behaviour and that of the interplanetary medium are manifestations of astrophysical plasmas.
Interplanetary transport and local processes require in situ data stations; at a minimum some continuous monitoring of the region immediately upstream of the Earth is essential to pin down the input disturbances to the terrestrial environment.
www.space-plasma.qmul.ac.uk /UK_STP/UK_STP.html   (12658 words)

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