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Topic: Intervening variable


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  Herbert Blumer: Sociological Analysis and the "Variable"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
The variables do not stand directly for items of abstract human group life; their application to human groups around the world, to human groups in the past, and to conceivable human groups in the future is definitely restricted.
In variable analysis one is likely to accept the two variables as the simple and unitary items that they seem to be, and to believe that the relation found between them is a realistic analysis of the given area of group life.
Variable analysis is a fit procedure for those areas of social life and formation that are not mediated by an interpretative process.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Blumer/Blumer_1956.html   (4640 words)

  
 Research Methods: Concepts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Scientific analysis that is concerned with the process by which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another, either as a reasonable account of the intervening mechanisms or (in qualitative research) as a lived and meaningful experience for individuals and groups.
Variables that depict attributes or categories of a concept that cannot be reduced to a number or numerical scale; they vary in kind.
In partial crosstab tables, an intervening variable is revealed when the direction and strength of the originally hypothesized relationship (i.e., the difference of percentages in cells of each row) diminishes or disappears to zero after a third variable is controlled for by constructing partial tables.
vassun.vassar.edu /~lenevare/2005/soci254/concepts.htm   (2839 words)

  
 RESEARCH METHODS: PLANNING: Variables   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
For example, if the independent variable is the use or non-use of a new language teaching procedure, then the dependent variable might be students' scores on a test of the content taught using that procedure.
For example, if the use of a particular teaching technique is the independent variable and mastery of the objectives is the dependent variable, then the language learning processes used by the subjects are the intervening variables.
Typical moderator variables in TESL and language acquisition research (when they are not the major focus of the study) include the sex, age, culture, or language proficiency of the subjects.
linguistics.byu.edu /faculty/henrichsenl/ResearchMethods/RM_2_14.html   (402 words)

  
 Chapter Two
Variables (something that takes on different values or categories) are the opposite of constants (something that cannot vary, such as a single value or category of a variable).
The other set of variables in the table (under the heading role taken by the variable) are the kinds of variables we talk about when explaining how the world operates and when we design a quantitative research study.
An extraneous variable is a variable that may compete with the independent variable in explaining the outcome.
www.southalabama.edu /coe/bset/johnson/dr_johnson/lectures/lec2.htm   (2695 words)

  
 Introduction
Variable: A variable is any property or characteristic of some event, object, or person that may have different values at different times depending on the conditions.
Dependent variable: The variable that is the participant's response to, and dependent upon, the level of the independent or subject variable.
Simultaneous variation of a second variable with an independent variable of interest so that any effect the independent variable has on the dependent variable cannot be attributed with certainty to the independent variable.
otel.uis.edu /yoder/intro_h.htm   (851 words)

  
 Chapter 2: Clarifying the Research Problem
Control variables are characteristics that are controlled by the experimenter to reduce any impact they might otherwise have on other variables or on the interpretation of the results of a study.
Intervening variables are hypothetical concepts assumed to be created by the treatment and to have an impact on the observable outcome.
Intervening variables are hypothetical concepts that mediate between the independent and the dependent variables.
education.calumet.purdue.edu /vockell/research/chapter2.htm   (9062 words)

  
 Controls   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Control variables that are related to both the independent and dependent variable are used to investigate possible confounding relationships.
A spurious relationship is an apparent yet false or misleading relationship that is caused by a third variable that is related to both the independent and dependent variable.
Intervening variables are variables that the independent variable works through in its impact on a dependent variable.
www.usca.edu /polisci/apls301/Controls.htm   (1527 words)

  
 C   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
If the change in the first variable is enough by itself to cause the change in the second variable, we can say the this condition of change is a sufficient condition.
For example, A is an independent variable with respect to B, and B is an independent variable with respect to C, but with respect to A and C both, B is an intervening variable.
Variables that precede the independent variable are antecedent, and it is assumed that they are always there.
www.usca.edu /polisci/apls301/relationships.htm   (2476 words)

  
 POWERMUTT: Control Variables
The fact that two variables in a table are related does not necessarily mean that one is a cause of the other, even if the relationship is statistically significant and we are willing to reject the notion that the relationship is due to chance.
To introduce a control variable into a relationship displayed in a contingency table, the original table is broken down into two or more subtables, one for each value of the control variable.
intervening variable (that is, one that comes between the independent and dependent variables in a causal sequence).
www.csupomona.edu /~jlkorey/POWERMUTT/Topics/control_variables.html   (1527 words)

  
 [No title]
Types of Variables Independent Variable - a variable that affects the dependent variable under study and is included in the research design so that its effects can be determined.
Dependent Variable - a variable being affected or assumed to be affected by an independent variable.
Intervening Variable - a variable whose existence is inferred, but which cannot be manipulated or directly measured.
www.usd.edu /~mbaron/edad810/Chapter02.doc   (821 words)

  
 Research Methods (spring 2003)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
Ratio variables vary according to a specific order; the degrees of separation between their ranks can be numerically specified, and a true zero point orders their measured variation.
In crosstabulations, an intervening variable is revealed when the direction and strength of the originally hypothesized relationship (i.e., the difference of percentages in cells of each row) diminishes or disappears to zero after a third variable is controlled for by constructing partial tables.
The independent variable that is administered to subjects in an experiment.
vassun.vassar.edu /~lenevare/2003a/soci254/concepts.html   (2776 words)

  
 Classics in the History of Psychology -- MacCorquodale & Meehl (1948)
This equation asserts that habit strength is a certain joint function of four variables which refer to direct empirical quantities-number of reinforcements, delay in reinforcement, amount of reinforcement, and asynchronism between the discriminative stimuli and the response.
These hypothetical constructs, unlike intervening variables, are inadmissible because they require the existence of entities and the occurrence of processes which cannot be seriously believed because of other knowledge.
We propose a linguistic convention in the interest of clarity: that the phrase intervening variable be restricted to concepts of the first kind, in harmony with Tolman's original definition; and that the phrase hypothetical construct be used for those of the second kind.
psychclassics.yorku.ca /MacMeehl/hypcon-intvar.htm   (6258 words)

  
 Chapter 11
Table 2 is an explanation as the control variable explains the relationship between the birth rate and number of storks.
The intervening variable accounts for some of the relationship between the IV and DV suggesting another variable is involved.
We use multivariate analysis when it is not possible to randomize and the relationship we expected is not there either because another antecedent variable, a suppressor variable, or an intervening variable has distorted it.
www.uncc.edu /laahlgri/chapter_11.htm   (711 words)

  
 Elements of a theoretical framework
For example, if the cases are persons, the variables could be sex, age, height, weight, feeling of empowerment, math ability, etc. Variables are called what they are because it is assumed that the cases will vary in their scores on these attributes.
The independent variables, also known as the predictor or explanatory variables, are the factors that you think explain variation in the dependent variable.
An intervening or intermediary variable is one that is affected by the independent variable and in turn affects the dependent variable.
www.analytictech.com /mb313/elements.htm   (1325 words)

  
 ch2
Independent variables: “variables that can be used to predict or explain the values of another variable” (Vogt, 2005, p.
Dependent variables: variables whose values are predicted by independent variable(s), whether or not caused by them (after Vogt, 2005, p.
Intervening variable: “a factor that theoretically affects observed phenomena but cannot be seen, measured, or manipulated; its effect must be inferred from the effects of the independent and moderator variables on the observed phenomena” (Tuckman, 1999, p.
commfaculty.fullerton.edu /jreinard/comstats/new_page_1.htm   (1227 words)

  
 Hazards of
The simplest case in which to consider the intervening variable in psychology is when the behaving organism is treated as a “fl box” (or ellipse) with which there is no need to concern one's self about the physico-chemical foundations of behavior.
In the case of an intervening variable, such as “fear,” we acknowledge that as an observable entity, event, or process, fear does not exist independently of the observed antecedents and consequents; that is, an intervening variable reduces completely to the observed empirical relationships.
In brief, as intervening variables, emergents have antecedents both external and internal to the organism, although identifying them clearly may be an extremely difficult if not practically impossible undertaking.
htpprints.yorku.ca /archive/00000011/00/HOE.htm   (3853 words)

  
 Lab 7 - Elaboration
In the case of a spurious relationship we must also determine whether the control variable is antecedent to the two variables or intervening between them.
An intervening variable is a variable that is prior in time to one of the original variables but occurs after the other.
You could argue that the control variable is antecedent to both the dependent and the independent variable, that is to say that political ideology determines party affiliation.
www.chass.utoronto.ca /~josephf/pol242/LM-Elaboration.htm   (1560 words)

  
 Guide 2: Variables and Hypotheses
multidimensional variable, a variable in which several variables are simultaneously embedded.
In this definition, an intervening variable IS NOT a confounded variable.
variable is a characteristic or factor that has values that vary.
edf5481-01.fa01.fsu.edu /Guide2.html   (2272 words)

  
 Intervening variable - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An intervening variable is a hypothetical concept that attempts to explain relationships between variables, and especially the relationships between independent variables and dependent variables.
That is, it is simply a summary of the relationships observed between independent and dependent variables.
For example, hunger is a hypothetical internal state which has been used to explain the relationships between independent variables such as length of time without food, or amount of food consumed, and dependent variables which are measures of eating.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Intervening_variable   (206 words)

  
 Pattern Variable Constraints
It binds the pattern variable to the expansion of the macro.
Note that an ellipsis that stands for a pattern variable is a body-variable when that pattern variable is one.
Define an intermediate-variable to be a pattern variable that either immediately follows a body-variable in a left-hand side, or appears at the beginning of a left-hand side in an auxiliary rule-set named by an intermediate-variable.
www.cs.indiana.edu /~jsobel/dylan-manual/drm-82.html   (432 words)

  
 Hallahan Course Resources
Hypothetical construct (HC) A construct representing a wide range of stimulus (antecedent) and response (consequent) conditions which are not specified; hence, an intervening (intraorganismic) construct with "surplus meaning" and a relatively low degree of operational specificity (usually distinguished from the intervening variable (IV), which is more strictly abstractive of the S-R relationship.
Independent variable A factor or condition that is experimentally or otherwise manipulated and whose influence on the dependent variable is under investigation.
Postulate 1) A proposition concerning the relationship of variable that is indirectly tested by means of its theorems (implications); hence, a formalized type of hypothesis, usually occurring in a deductive theory.
lamar.colostate.edu /~hallahan/hglossary.htm   (775 words)

  
 analysis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
For ordinal and interval variables you should present a mean and variance for the all cases except those that are missing, don't know, no answer, and inapp.
If one or more of your variables is continuous, you will need to recode that variable into a discrete variable for the cross-tab.
You should present Chi-squared tests of whether the association between the independent and dependent variable is significant.
www.utexas.edu /courses/soc317mral/analysis.html   (291 words)

  
 [No title]
Another snapshot of data was obtained by asking youth questions that related to driving while impaired as well as the frequency with which drivers engage in dangerous activities while driving.
Each set of quarterly data will be compared against the data available for these intervening variables from the planning stage and then against each quarter's progress from that point onward.
These data will allow for continued monitoring of intervening variables that were not included in the initial change efforts as well as those that were.
captus.samhsa.gov /southwest/documents/SJCP_SPF_STRATEGIC_PLAN_April_2006.doc   (1131 words)

  
 Types of Variables   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
In order to conduct research, you must be able to identify your variables.
Moderator variables, control variables and confounding variables are all forms of independent variables.
Intervening variable - Variables which may not be accounted for
www.engr.sjsu.edu /pabacker/types_of_variables.htm   (254 words)

  
 projectexample
You should have one dependent variable and as many independent, antecedent and intervening variables as your proposition requires.
The status inconsistency variable did correlate with a belief in cutting welfare spending and that people are not treated equally.
The only variable I could find that was correlated with the Perot vote was opposition to foreign aid.
crab.rutgers.edu /~goertzel/projectexample.htm   (614 words)

  
 Exercise 4. Gender and presidential vote
We can attempt to explain this relationship by examining possible intervening variables (i.e., those that are influenced by the independent variable and in turn affect the dependent variable).
As we saw in exercise three, in order to examine a potential intervening variable, you should run the original two-variable relationship with the potential intervening variable added as a control variable.
If the original two-variable relationship had largely disappeared in the three-variable table (which is what happened in exercise 3), then we would have concluded that the control variable was a key intervening variable in this relationship, but that is not what happened.
www.icpsr.umich.edu /SETUPS/exercises/04/index.html   (422 words)

  
 Introduction to Statistics
Subject/participant variable: A variable that is measured to determine its relationship with the dependent variable.
Behavior is the basic dependent variable in psychology.
Scientific method: Method of fixing belief that seeks to understand phenomena in which decisions are made on the basis of data collected in repeatable, self-correcting ways.
otel.uis.edu /yoder/303_intro_h.htm   (758 words)

  
 Chapter: Psychology: Its Nature and Nurture
Intervening variables: concept for what must be occurring inside a subject.
It identifies the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
One of the important concepts you've used is that of the independent variable.
learn.sdstate.edu /PhelpsB/PsyNatNurtureNotes.htm   (3382 words)

  
 Examples   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-01)
There is recent awareness that non-smokers who are consistently in close proximity to smokers (spouses, bartenders) have higher incidences of lung cancer than other nonsmokers.
The mediating variable is the tar and nicotine in the air (assuming that nicotine and tars cause cancer).
Write a plausible story in which age is an intervening variable between smoking and cancer.
www.missouri.edu /~rouderj/3010/lectures/lect3_variables/node2.html   (160 words)

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