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# Topic: Invariant (physics)

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 physics - Invariant (physics) In physics, invariants are usually quantities conserved (unchanged) by the symmetries of the physical system. The speed of light invariant under the Lorentz transformations of special relativity. rotational invariance implies that angular momentum is conserved. www.physicsdaily.com /physics/Invariant_(physics)   (100 words)

 Invariant mass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The invariant mass or intrinsic mass or proper mass or rest mass or just mass is a measurement or calculation of the mass of an object that is the same for all frames of reference. For any frame of reference, the invariant mass may be determined from a calculation involving an object's total energy and momentum. In particle physics, the mass is often calculated as a mathematical combination of a particle's energy and its momentum to give a value for the mass of the particle that is the same for all observers. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Invariant_mass   (363 words)

 6th International Conference on Clifford Algebras, TTU, Cookeville, Tennessee, Summer 2002 Invariant constructions in differential geometry often come from symmetry considerations on various "flat models", namely homogeneous versions of the geometry in question. Our product formulæ are based on invariant theory and are not tied to representations/matrices and are highly computationally effective. The observation is, that geometrical and physical properties of the solutions sensitively depend on the spacetime structure of the momentum vector associated by the variational principle to an orbit. www.math.tntech.edu /rafal/cookeville/plenary_abstracts.html   (2381 words)

 The Physics of a Global Episodic Quantum Frequency Change The invariant velocity model fits traditional cosmological ideas except that energy is not conserved across shell boundaries and time runs at a different rate within each shell. If the invariant frequency model is true, then energy is conserved but the speed of light changes in the same ratio as the length scale, and Einstein’s postulate regarding the universal constancy of the speed of light is false. If the invariant frequency model were true, then we would live near the center of a spherical lens, and we would be surrounded by concentric spherical lenses. home1.gte.net /res00bfl/redshift_physics.htm   (6257 words)

 chapter 1 Modern Relativity modernrelativity special general black hole mass energy Einstein wormhole time light Either perspective yields the same physics so the information about the magnet as received by the electrons must travel at a speed independent of whether we say the source is stationary and the receiver is moving or visa-versa. The laws of physics are invariant to inertial frame transformation. The invariant speed c, is finite and is the vacuum speed of light. www.geocities.com /zcphysicsms/chap1.htm   (2990 words)

 Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The first explicit study of the invariance properties of equations in physics is connected with the introduction, in the first half of the nineteenth century, of the transformational approach to the problem of motion in the framework of analytical mechanics. The diffeomorphism freedom of GTR, i.e., the invariance of the form of the laws under transformations of the coordinates depending smoothly on arbitrary functions of space and time, is a “local” spacetime symmetry, in contrast to the “global” spacetime symmetries of STR (which depend instead on constant parameters). In contemporary physics, the best example of this role of symmetry is the classification of elementary particles by means of the irreducible representations of the fundamental physical symmetry groups, a result first obtained by Wigner in his famous paper of 1939 on the unitary representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. plato.stanford.edu /entries/symmetry-breaking   (9815 words)

 Invariant (physics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics and theoretical physics, an invariant is that which remains unchanged under some transformation. The conservation laws list some invariants in physics, discussed under symmetry in physics. Covariance and contravariance generalize the property of invariance. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Invariant_(physics)   (68 words)

 The Reference Frame: Lorentz violation and deformed special relativity This principle requires that the laws of physics are invariant under a ten-dimensional group, generated by 1 temporal and 3 spatial translations, 3 rotations, and 3 Galilean boosts. It is something that was bad physics already in 1905 if not earlier and be sure that in 2006, without having any new evidence or a more attractive reincarnation of these ideas, it is even worse physics than it was 101 years ago. Physics must continue to search for exciting ideas that are moreover true and these ideas can't emerge if one is overly conservative or overly progressive. motls.blogspot.com /2006/12/lorentz-violation-and-deformed-special.html   (2797 words)

 [No title] A physical theory is largely dependent on the underlying philosophy used in its formulation. Mass is invariant in classical mechanics, and proven in a previous paper (http://wbabin.net/babin/guft.htm) to be also invariant in relativity theory. If h is invariant and two of its constituent parts (mass and velocity) are invariant then the third, a radius, is invariant by default. wbabin.net /babin/dvp.htm   (765 words)

 Mass of a trapped photon - Advanced Physics Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) Furthermore, since rest mass is an invariant quantity, once you have calculated its value in one reference frame you will find that the same value also applies to all other inertial reference frames, for example even the reference frame of the original system before the photon entered the picture. You may be puzzled where the increase in rest mass comes from, because clearly the rest mass of the photon itself is still zero, and the rest mass of the system without the photon is still its original rest mass. Again, the reason for the confusion is that the rest mass of a system is not the same thing as the sum of the rest masses of its parts. www.advancedphysics.org /forum/showthread.php?t=5233   (1672 words)

 Special Theory of Relativity - Advanced Physics Forums   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) However, modern usage defines mass as the invariant mass of an object mainly because the invariant mass is more useful when doing any kind of calculation. The interpretation most widely used is a compromise in which mass is invariant and always has energy so that total energy is conserved but kinetic energy and radiation does not have mass. Mass equivalent energy is invariant, but the total energy seen for a moving mass is the sum of the two. www.advancedphysics.org /forum/showthread.php?t=6324   (942 words)

 Relativistic mass From the formula relating relativistic mass to invariant mass, it follows that the invariant mass of a photon must be zero, but its relativistic mass need not be. Despite the general usage of invariant mass in the scientific literature, the use of the word mass to mean relativistic mass is still found in many popular science books. Let m be the invariant mass, v be the velocity as a column vector (whose entries are expressed as fractions of c and whose magnitude is the speed v as a fraction of c), let v math.ucr.edu /home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/mass.html   (2303 words)

 two-time-physics The new phenomenon in two-time physics is that the gauge symmetry can be used to obtain various one-time dynamical systems from the same simple action of two-time physics, through gauge fixing, thus uncovering a new layer of unification through higher dimensions. Two-time physics offers much more than conformal symmetry: it provides a surprizing unification of diverse one-time dynamical systems in d dimensions and reveals new hidden symmetries inherited from d+2 dimensions that were not noticed before even in familiar simple dynamical systems. An important gauge invariant concept is the global symmetry of the two-time action, which must be shared by all the gauge fixed one-time dynamical systems. physics.usc.edu /~bars/twoTph.htm   (1281 words)

 Universal Symmetry Symmetry is important in physics because there are all kinds of transformations which leave the laws of physics invariant. If the laws of physics are invariant under both rotations and translations then they must also be invariant under any combination of a rotation and a translation. If the laws of physics were invariant under any change of co-ordinates in a way which could be clearly observed, then we would expect the world around us to behave as if everything could be deformed like rubber. www.weburbia.com /pg/symmetry.htm   (4557 words)

 chap5.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) An important new ingredient in the rotor models is the presence of a continuous symmetry: the physics is invariant under a uniform, global O(N) transformation on the orientation of the rotors, which is broken in the magnetically ordered state. Apart from this, much of the technology and the physical ideas introduced earlier for d = 1 Ising chain generalizes straightforwardly, although we are no longer be able to obtain exact results for crossover functions. The characterization of the physics in terms of three regions separated by smooth crossovers, the high T and the two low T regions on either side of the quantum critical point, continues to be extremely useful, and is again the basis of our discussion. sachdev.physics.harvard.edu /qptweb/chap5.html   (269 words)

 Balents Group Home Page topological invariant of time-reversal invariant insulators in two dimensions, showed that the nontrivial ``topological insulator'' phase has an intrinsic spin Hall effect distinct from earlier proposals, and argued that graphene is a viable system in which to observe this effect. A direct and experimentally relevant characterization of the invariant was given in terms of edge states at the boundary of a 2D insulator: the topological insulator has an odd number of Kramers pairs of edge modes, while the ordinary insulator has an even number. invariant in two dimensions, and this paper by Kane and Mele which (two weeks after our paper) not only gives the same classification of 3d topological insulators as our own, but explores much more fully the physical consequences and also presents an explicit microscopic toy model for the effect. www.physics.ucsb.edu /~balents   (2134 words)

 Lorentz Transformation --- Exponential factor, why not Proportional? I believe that mother Nature has an awkward habit of following the principles of Relativity:1).The laws of physics are invariant to general coordinate transformations (change of noniertial reference frames).2)The speed of light in vacuo is constant and independent of the noniertial reference frame it is measured. Yes, because physics is a science of nature which is based on the experiment and observation. If the result came from the observation is diferrent from the module then we will have to elliminate that module and the theory and replace them by the new one. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=419830   (1417 words)

 The physical significance of tensors In particular, if a law of physics is true in one coordinate system then it is automatically true in every other coordinate system, subject to the proviso that both coordinate systems are inertial. Namely, when the laws of physics are expressed in a manner which makes their invariance under various transformation groups manifest then they tend to take a particularly simple form. One of the major goals of modern physics is to find the largest possible group of transformations under which the laws of physics are invariant, and then prove that when expressed in a manner which makes this invariance manifest these laws reduce to a single unifying principle. farside.ph.utexas.edu /~rfitzp/teaching/jk1/lectures/node12.html   (921 words)

 PL161: Philosophy of Relativity Physics The intuition behind the special principle is that if a chunk K of the physical world is sufficiently isolated from the external environment, then the physical goings-on in K are independent of the position, orientation, and velocity of K. The claim of the special principle can be broken into two parts. The special theory of relativity is the physical theory that Einstein arrives at by using the special principle of relativity and the law of light to derive the Lorentz transformations. The general theory of relativity is the physical theory that extends the special theory of relativity by dropping the requirement that the connection is flat and replacing it with Einstein's field equations, G=kT, and construing the gravitational force as merely encoded in the curvature of spacetime so that there really is no gravitational force. www.brown.edu /Departments/Philosophy/Douglas_Kutach/PL161.html   (9547 words)

 Frames of reference In other words, it is assumed that two independent observers, studying the same physical phenomenon, would eventually formulate identical laws of physics in order to account for their observations. This observation suggests that the independence of the laws of physics from the arbitrary choice of the location of the underlying coordinate system's origin, or the equally arbitrary choice of the orientation of the various coordinate axes, can be made manifest by simply writing these laws as interrelations between vectors. We conclude that valid laws of physics must consist of combinations of scalars and vectors, otherwise they would retain an unphysical dependence on the details of the chosen coordinate system. farside.ph.utexas.edu /teaching/301/lectures/node50.html   (603 words)

 Discussions on: Flat Universe, No Space Contraction, No Time Dilation Finally, common sense shows that the physical meaning of time is different from the physical meaning of space. This is not surprising since the physical interpretation of modern physics is not compatible with conventional logic and common sense. Then, after Newton's physics has been applied, the number of proper units calculated in the external frame can be transformed into the units of our frame. www.newtonphysics.on.ca /faq/flat-universe.html   (1552 words)

 Universal Symmetry It is said to be invariant under such a transformation and it is invariance which characterises symmetry. The infinite dimensional group of translation transformations is a symmetry of the laws of physics. He realised that the equivalence principle implied that space-time must be curved, and the force of gravity is a direct consequence of this curvature. www.weburbia.demon.co.uk /pg/symmetry.htm   (4557 words)

 The role of symmetry in fundamental physics -- Gross 93 (25): 14256 -- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Progress in physics depends on the ability to separate the analysis of a physical phenomenon into two parts. invariant, the singlet representation of the rotation group. For example the lowest energy state, the ground state of the Hydrogen atom is such a rotational invariant singlet state. www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/93/25/14256   (2997 words)

 String Theory from Sample space The laws of physics are invariant with changes in coordinate system. So the invariance of physical laws prove the necessity of some underlying logic to construct anything real. And it is hoped that the study of the geometry of this situation may result in quantities that can be interpreted as physical properties such as the mass and spin and the charge of particles, etc. www.sirus.com /users/mjake/StringTh.html   (2627 words)

 Fusion: the final frontier for plasmas (May 2000) - Review - PhysicsWeb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10) One of the standing jokes that those of us who work on fusion have to suffer every now and then from other physicists is that the best-conserved time invariant in physics is the time to achieve a controlled and sustainable fusion reaction. And certainly that prospect is still at least 25 years away, which only goes to prove the optimism of researchers in the field, who have continually been able to convince politicians that fusion is worth funding from the public purse. Although "plasma physics is a comparatively young science", as the author points out, it already has a history that people like Wilhelmsson have a duty to tell younger generations about. physicsweb.org /articles/review/13/5/2/1   (926 words)

 Big break for charge symmetry (June 2003) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. For example, the fact that physics is the same - or invariant - everywhere in the universe means that linear momentum is conserved. The wavefunctions of both the deuteron and the alpha particle are invariant under the interchange of up and down quarks but recall that the pion wavefunction is not. physicsweb.org /articles/world/16/6/3   (1740 words)

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