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Topic: Ionization energies of the elements


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 Significance and Use of the Periodic Table
Ionization energies, atomic and ionic radii, oxidation states, and electronegativities are four periodic atomic properties of great help in understanding and predicting the chemical properties of elements.
Prepare a graph of the ionization energies of the elements versus atomic number.
Is the trend in ionization energies paralleled by a corresponding trend in metallic to nonmetallic characteristics?
dwb.unl.edu /Chemistry/DoChem/DoChem033.html

  
 Chapter 2-b sci 210 by J Gniadek Unit 1: Section 2
The ionization energy decreases as the atomic mass increases within a given family of the representative elements.
The energy required to remove a second electron from the outer level of an atom (the second ionization energy) is always greater than that required to remove the outermost electron.
The first ionization energy of an atom is the energy (work) required to remove the least tightly held electron from an isolated atom in the vapor state to form a positive ion.
www.chemistry210.com /notes/u01s06f.htm

  
 Chapter 7, Section 3
Generally, the ionization energies of the transition elements increase slowly as we proceed from left to right in a period.
Ionization energies for the elements sodium through argon are listed in Table 7.2.
The ionization energy of an atom or ion is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the isolated gaseous atom or ion.
cwx.prenhall.com /bookbind/pubbooks/blb/chapter7/medialib/blb0703.html

  
 Slides10
Values that are unknown because they are too low to measure have been filled in to reveal, again, the general pattern of ionization energies and the implicit dependence on electron configuration.
It is numerically equal to minus the ionization energy for that negative ion.
The energy needed to remove the easiest-to-remove electron from a neutral atom is called the first ionization energy.
www.andrew.cmu.edu /course/09-105/S98Slides10.html

  
 Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity
The energy required to form a Na ion in the gas phase is the sum of the first, second, and third ionization energies of the element.
We might expect the first ionization energy to become larger as we go across a row of the periodic table because the force of attraction between the nucleus and an electron becomes larger as the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom becomes larger.
By definition, the first ionization energy of an element is the energy needed to remove the outermost, or highest energy, electron from a neutral atom in the gas phase.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch7/ie_ea.html

  
 Chemical Bond Data
The ionization energy can be thought of as a kind of counter property to electronegativity in the sense that a low ionization energy implies that an element readily gives electrons to a reaction, while a high electronegativity implies that an element strongly seeks to take electrons in a reaction.
A chemical bond forms when it is energetically favorable, i.e., when the energy of the bonded atoms is less than the energies of the separated atoms.
The ionization energy or ionization potential is the energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral atom.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/chemical/bondd.html

  
 Ionization Energy
It states that the ionization energy of an atom or molecule is equal to the energy of the orbital from which the electron is ejected.
The ionization energy of an atom is equal to the amount of energy given off when an electron is added to an atom.
Ionization energy values are typically very high and follow trends throughout the periodic table.
www.shodor.org /chemviz/ionization/students/background.html

  
 Fourth Ionization of Lithium
Ionization energy for an element is the energy required for an electron to be removed from orbiting the nucleus of an atom.
The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove the first electron, the second ionization energy is the energy required to remove the second electron, and so on.
The third ionization energy for lithium is 11,815 kJ/mole.
www.newton.dep.anl.gov /askasci/chem03/chem03402.htm

  
 Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities
Ionization Energy (or "oxidation potential") is the energy necessary to completely remove an electron from an atom.
This energy depends upon the "n" and "l" value of the electron, and is also dependent upon whether the energy level is full or half full.
Here we can see that the ionization energy increases sharply from H to He because the 1s level has been filled in He, and then the energy plummets with Li which has an electron in the 2s.
neon.chem.uidaho.edu /~honors/ionpot.html

  
 Periodic Table - Trends
Recall, that Ionization Energy is the energy needed to remove a mole of electrons from a mole of neutral gaseous atoms.
Explain why the second ionization energy of barium is relatively small and the third ionization energy is very large.
First Ionization Energy is the energy needed to remove One mole of ___________________ from One mole of Atoms( in the gaseous phase).
www.avon-chemistry.com /p_table_lecture.html

  
 Gaining and Losing Electrons
You have learned that the ionization energies are lowest for the elements down and on the left hand side of the periodic table and increase as you go up and all the way across to the right including the inert gases.
The elements on the left side lose their electrons fairly easily and the elements on the right side of the periodic table do not lose their electrons very easily.
The ionization energy, of course, is the amount of energy that it takes to remove an electron from an atom.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch104-07/gaining.htm

  
 Electronic Basis for the Properties of the Elements - Vertical Relationships
Shell structure is also evident in the ionization potentials and orbital energies of atoms.
Elements to the left of the periodic table, the alkali metals for example, do have vacancies in their outer quantum shell but their effective nuclear charges are very small in magnitude.
The ionization potential is the energy required to remove one electron from an atom, and an orbital energy is a measure of the binding of a single electron in a given orbital.
www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca /esam/Chapter_5/section_2.html

  
 Media Portfolio
The first ionization energies of the elements generally increase from right to left across a row as a result of the increasing nuclear charge and decreasing atomic radius.
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion.
The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of an uncharged atom.
cwx.prenhall.com /bookbind/pubbooks/petrucci8/medialib/media_portfolio/10.html

  
 Double-Shell Periodic System of the Elements, Applet version
In the presentation of the ionization energies of different degrees we adopt the iso-electronic view: each atom/ion is placed according to the number of its electrons and not according to its nuclear charge (e.g.
Thus, each curve of the chart belongs to the elements of the same color in the abstracted periodic system which is displayed below the curves.
By the two dots of identical color in the same column, each chemical element and its property is identified.
www.neubert.net /PSEApple.html

  
 Chapter 7: Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ionization energy depends of effective nuclear charge and average distance of the electrons from the nucleus
Ionization energy of transition metals increase slowly across row
the greater ionization energy, harder it is to remove electrons
www.geocities.com /wh0ami5/htmlnotes/Chapter7.htm

  
 Ionization energies of the elements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This page was last modified 19:15, 29 March 2005.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ionization_energies_of_the_elements

  
 First Ionization Energies
The plot of the first ionization energies versus atomic number for the first 40 elements.
The plot of the first ionization energies versus atomic number shows some interesting periodic trends that provide information about the structure of atoms.
chemistry.beloit.edu /Stars/pages/IE.html

  
 More Info on Periodicity of the Elements
When elements are listed in order according to the number of protons (called the atomic number), repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements with similar properties.
Students should understand that when elements are listed in ascending order of the number of protons (atomic number), the periodic table is seen to be a consequence of a repeating pattern of the elements' outermost electrons (valence electrons).
Elements can be grouped or classified according to their physical and chemical characteristics (metals, nonmetals, and metalloids).
dev.nsta.org /ssc/moreinfo.asp?id=1041

  
 AP Exam Questions
a) The second ionization energy of sodium is about three times greater than the second ionization energy of magnesium.
The primary reason is related to the energy of a single s electron in the n = 4 level and the n = 2 level.
for the Group IA metals (after Li) are effectively the same value, yet we all know the first ionization energy for the valence electron in Cs is easier to remove than the valence electron in sodium because the electron is located in a higher energy level.
intro.chem.okstate.edu /WorkshopFolder/1997APQues.html

  
 Ionization Energy
The ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the isolated gaseous atom
There is also a big increase in ionization energy for removal of an electron from an inner shell (lower n value).
First ionization energies as a function of atomic number
wine1.sb.fsu.edu /chm1045/notes/Periodic/Ionize/Period04.htm

  
 Chapter07.ppt
Representative elements show large variation in the 1st ionization energy whereas the transition elements and f-block elements show little variation.
There is electron-electron repulsion between the electrons in the same p orbital which reduces the ionization energy.
Zeffective(B) is a bit less than 2 for the 2p electron because the 2s electrons screen the nuclear charge from the 2p electrons For N, 1s22s22p3, an electron from a half-filled p orbital is lost, and for O, 1s22s22p4, an electron from a filled p orbital is lost.
www.uccs.edu /~rbertran/c103f98/Chapter07.ppt

  
 Problem 7.48
Arrange the following elements in order of increasing nonmetallic character: Se, Ag, Sn, F, C. The most nonmetallic elements are those with very high ionization energies, very negative electron affinities, and small size.
The most metallic elements are those with the smallest first ionization energies, largest size, and most positive (least negative) electron affinities.
Ionization energies decrease moving down a column, and atomic radius increases moving down.
www.sou.edu /chem/ch201/ch7/7_48.htm

  
 JCE 2002 (79) 430 [Apr] Response to Lowe's Potential-Energy-Only Models (re J. Chem. Educ. 2002, 79, 430)
Authors of general chemistry texts often interpret ionization energies as evidence for the shell structure of atoms.
Despite the arguments of Rioux and DeKock ( 1), I continue to maintain ( 2) that their statement that "interpreting the ionization of any atom or molecule requires quantum chemical tools and a consideration of both kinetic and potential energies" ( 3) is too restrictive.
First ionization energies across a series of atoms are most often used for this purpose (which Rioux and DeKock appear to find acceptable), and successive ionization energies for a single atom are sometimes used also ( 5- 7).
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /Journal/Issues/2002/Apr/abs430.html

  
 ionization energy
Similarly, all the elements with the largest ionization energies - the noble gases- have filled s and p electronic configurations - [NG](nd10)ns2np6.
Therefore, the periodicity of the data in the graph is a direct result of the underlying periodicity in the electronic configuration of the elements.
I.E. If we plot these ionization energies versus atomic number the resulting graph below emerges.
www.iun.edu /~cpanhd/C101webnotes/modern-atomic-theory/ionization-energy.html

  
 Periodic Properties of the Elements
The ionization energies of carbon, silicon, and germanium are 1086 kJ/mol, 786 kJ/mol, and 762 kJ/mol, respectively.
Without doing a calculation, rank the elements lithium, sodium, and potassium in order of increasing first ionization energy, IE1.
The first ionization energy of an element is defined as the amount of energy required to remove the outermost electron from a gaseous atom, as defined by the equation:
www.cchem.berkeley.edu /~chem1a/fall95/discussion/week14/solutions.html

  
 ion3
Successive Ionization Energies in kJ/mole for the First 12 Elements
These periodic trends in ionization energy are the opposite of the trends in atomic size within the periodic table.
Using your periodic table from above, plot on a piece of graph paper the Ionization Energy vs Atomic number.
www.ucdsb.on.ca /tiss/stretton/chem1/ion3.html

  
 Experiment 5. X-RAYS AND MOSELEY'S LAW
In 1913, Moseley published measurements of characteristic energies of K x-rays of many elements, explaining them in terms of the then-new Bohr atomic theory.
is the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom, 13.6 eV.
From the slope and intercept determine the ionization energy of hydrogen, the screening constant b.
www.wsu.edu /~collins/Phys415/writeups/Moseley.htm

  
 11ionenergy.doc
Explain why the elements you listed in your answer to question three have such large 2nd ionization energies.
List the elements for which the 2nd ionization energy is significantly higher than the 1st (say, more than four times higher).
List the elements for which the 3rd ionization energy is significantly higher than the 2nd (say, more than four times higher).
www.unit5.org /christjs/11ionenergy.doc

  
 Chemical Sciences: Electronic Structure: Consequences
The values of the ionization energies of the elements are one of the clearest indications of the periodicity of their atomic structure.
The second, third, and successive ionization energies can be obtained as the differences in enthalpies of formation of the successive gaseous cations in the same manner.
The ionization potential, in electron volts eV, refers to a single emission of an electron while the ionization energy is on a molar basis.
www.ualberta.ca /~jplambec/che/p101/p01231b.htm

  
 fillinC18
The ionization energies of the elements show a periodic behavior that systematically changes along a (column, row?)
Pattern: Columns of the Periodic Table are labelled (in Roman Numerals) to indicate the number of valence electrons for the elements in that column.
You do not have to memorize all of the chemical symbols or names of the elements for this class.
maxwell.byu.edu /~masong/HTMstuff/fillinC18.html

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