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Topic: Iraqi no-fly zones

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In the News (Sun 21 Apr 19)

 Iraqi no-fly zones - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south.
Iraqi aircraft were forbidden from flying inside the zones.
When Operation Desert Storm ended in 1991, the United States wanted to ensure the safety of Kurds whom were fleeing from Iraqi persecution from the south. /wiki/Iraqi_no-fly_zones   (403 words)

 No-fly zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The principal part of this 'Humanitarian' intervention was the establishment of a No-Fly Zone over Northern Iraq, designed to prevent bombing and chemical attack by the Iraqi regime.
A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly.
The success, legality and motivation of this operation is debated to this day. /wiki/No-fly_zone   (250 words)

 BBC News MIDDLE EAST No-fly zones: The legal position
France no longer takes part in policing the no-fly zones, and the US and the UK are now alone in the Security Council in insisting that their frequent bombing of Iraqi targets is covered by international law.
However, unlike the military campaign to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait, the no-fly zones were not authorised by the UN and they are not specifically sanctioned by any Security Council resolution.
The two no-fly zones over Iraq were imposed by the US, Britain and France after the Gulf War, in what was described as a humanitarian effort to protect Shi'a Muslims in the south and Kurds in the north. /1/hi/world/middle_east/1175950.stm   (695 words)
The no-fly zones were established after the 1991 Gulf War to protect the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the South, keeping Iraqi warplanes out of more than half of the country.
Iraqi fighters have recently challenged the U.S. and British patrols by veering into the no-fly zones, flying deep into Saudi Arabia last week.
Until recently, the air patrols in the Iraqi no-fly zones were under orders to attack only in self-defence. /cgi-bin/templates/email.cgi?/2003/03/03/no_fly_attacks030303   (272 words)

 House of Commons - Defence - Minutes of Evidence
The Iraqi no-fly-zones were established in April 1991 (north) and August 1992 (south) as a coalition initiative (US, UK and France) in support of UNSCR 688 which condemned, and demanded an immediate end to, Saddam's brutal repression of Kurds in north and Shias in south.
The southern no-fly-zone was extended from the 32nd to the 33rd parallel in September 1996 in response to an Iraqi offensive in the North.
The southern no-fly-zone was extended from 32nd to 33rd parallel in September 1996 in response to Iraqi offensive in north. /news/iraq/2000/07/0041910.htm   (4955 words)

 Air Force Magazine
In fact, the two no-fly zones were, from December 1998 onward, the scenes of a long series of duels between US and British air forces and the Iraqi land-based air defenses, with occasional probes and challenges by Iraqi aircraft, said Cordesman.
Iraqi military aircraft, he said, were also “violating the no-fly zone airspace.” Iraqi fighter aircraft flew into no-fly zone airspace about seven times between Jan. 1 and Sept. 20, said Myers.
In November 2002, Rear Adm. David A. Gove, a JCS spokesman, noted that coalition pilots in the no-fly zones are “essentially flying combat missions. /magazine/Feb2004/0204war.html   (2656 words)

 The Embarrassment and Illegality of the No-Fly Zones
The no-fly zones were unilaterally established by the U.S. government after the Persian Gulf War, supposedly to enforce UN resolutions on Iraq.
How would the American people react, both to Nicaragua's "U.S. no-fly zone" and to the killings of U.S. citizens?
And their decision not to use either "self-defense" or violation of the UN resolution as a justification for invading Iraq is an implicit acknowledgment of that illegality. /comment/com0211h.asp   (502 words)

 CNN - U.N. diplomats debate Iraqi sanctions, no-fly zones - July 30, 1999
UNITED NATIONS -- As Iraqi officials continue to protest what they say are the injustices of a nine-year-old trade embargo and the so-called no-fly zones, Britain is considering easing the sanctions in an effort to get U.N. Security Council support on a new policy toward Iraq.
The no-fly zones were set up by the allied forces after the 1991 Persian Gulf War to protect Kurdish rebels in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south from Baghdad forces.
U.S. and British planes regularly patrol the zones, which cover most of Iraq's airspace, and have attacked more than 400 Iraqi targets since then. /WORLD/meast/9907/30/iraq.sanctions   (659 words)

 Defense: Statement on No-Fly-Zones - 5-15-01
Q Just back to the no-fly zones for a moment.
Q And has there been an upswing in activity in terms of the number of either missiles or shells that have been fired at U.S. or allied planes patrolling the no-fly zones in recent weeks or months?
The February 16th raid was done because of an increased capability that we were observing in the Southern no- fly zone, not Northern. /government/US/Pentagon/dod-quigley-5-15-01.htm   (961 words)

 Iraqi missile installations under attack! : Thunderbay IMC
American and British warplanes have been attacking Iraqi missile installations during air patrols of the no-fly zones, the Pentagon has acknowledged.
The no-fly zones were established after the 1991 Gulf
Iraqi fighters have recently challenged the U.S. and /print.php?id=4214   (259 words)

 Online NewsHour: No Fly Zones- December 31, 1998
PHIL PONCE: And you mentioned that one of the justifications for the no-fly zones, to begin with, was humiliation.
They have been flying Mirage F-1's at the North and South edges of the no-fly zone, and these can be a danger also, although their air force was crippled in Desert Storm and hasn't recovered fully.
The Iraqi government then came down very hard on the Kurdish Iraqis in the North, on the Shia in the South; there was tremendous humanitarian difficulties. /newshour/bb/middle_east/july-dec98/iraq_12-31.html   (1602 words)

 Robert W. Jensen--Iraq, no-fly zones
One simple fact is routinely missing from these stories: The no-fly zones have no integrity because they are, in fact, illegal, and the U.S./UK air attacks are war crimes.
This is all made more sordid by the hypocritical rationale given: The no-fly zones are there to protect the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south.
I doubt that the Shiites who attempted to rise up in 1991 after the war, and were slaughtered by Saddam Hussein’s army under the watchful eye of U.S. forces, are reassured to know the United States is now their protector. /~rjensen/freelance/nofly.htm   (733 words)

 Defence Committee Press Notice No. 20
The report examines both the humanitarian and legal basis for the no-fly zones and concludes that UK participation in the operations is justified on moral and humanitarian grounds.
The UK's contribution to the no-fly zones operations is one of our major overseas defence commitments, involving about 1,000 UK personnel (mainly RAF), at a cost of £30 million in the last financial year.
The Committee is appointed under Standing Order No. 152 of the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Ministry of Defence and associated public bodies. /COMMONS/selcom90/defpnt20.htm   (419 words)

 Asia Times
Provide Comfort originally set up the northern no-fly zone, which bans Iraqi flights north of the 36th parallel, to ensure that Saddam’s aircraft did not harass Kurds and other minorities in the north near the Turkish border after the Gulf War.
Operation Southern Watch flights, which fly from a number of bases and aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf region, began in August 1992 in response to Iraqi efforts to pursue and kill refugees, mostly Shi'ites, fleeing persecution from the Iraqi government.
Both are very close to the Iraqi border, about 100 miles from the H3 complex of airfields that harbor several potential Iraqi missile launch points. /atimes/Middle_East/DH29Ak01.html   (2380 words)

 DefenseLINK News: Coalition Aircrews Target Iraqi No-Fly Zone Violations
Both units are deployed at Incirlik to enforce the no-fly zone over northern Iraq and to monitor Iraqi compliance with U.N. Security Council resolutions.
They struck the radar after Iraqi forces moved a related highly mobile surface-to-air missile system into the Southern No-fly Zone, according to CENTCOM.
Other leaflets were aimed at Iraqi troops, telling them not to position weapon systems near national landmarks and urging troops not to fight coalition forces. /news/Mar2003/n03032003_200303032.html   (748 words)

 DefenseLINK News: U.S. Firm Against Increased Iraqi No-Fly Violations
Since late December, he said, the Iraqis have aggressively challenged the no-fly zones both on the ground with their integrated air defense systems and in the air with periodic jet incursions.
Doubleday said the Iraqis' goal is to end constraints imposed on them since Operation Desert Storm in 1991, including the no-fly zones and U.N. economic sanctions and weapons inspections.
They said the Iraqis fired at least one missile at the U.S. aircraft, which were not damaged and returned safely to base. /news/Jan1999/n01131999_9901133.html   (478 words)

 Operation Southern Watch/ Iraq No-Fly Zone
Uses Iraqi no-fly zones as a case study throughout the paper.
Especially note pages 94-97 discussion of the no-fly zones as an abuse of the doctrine of humanitarian action.
(SecDef) Perry: "We Are Not Playing Games"--More U. Planes Head to the Gulf after Iraqi Attack. /au/aul/bibs/opsouth/opsw.htm   (917 words)

 Airstrikes In Southern Iraq 'No-Fly' Zone Mount (
The U.S. military established the no-fly zone over southern Iraq in 1991 and over northern Iraq in 1992 to enforce U.N. resolutions to protect Shiites and Kurds from attack by the Iraqi military and to keep Baghdad from moving its forces toward Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
The United Nations does not recognize the no-fly zones or the U.S. assertion that it is enforcing U.N. resolutions.
Virtually all of the attacks occur in the southern no-fly zone out of deference to Turkey, which allows U.S. and British aircraft to patrol the northern no-fly zone from Turkish bases and exercises some control over the operation. /ac2/wp-dyn/A57054-2003Jan14   (1026 words)

 'The second Gulf war has already begun'
Last week, for the first time, US and British warplanes began attacking targets that are no threat to their patrols of the Iraqi no-fly zones.
Although the official purpose of the no-fly zones is to protect Shia Muslims in the south and Kurds in the north, the Americans and British attacked surface-to-surface missile batteries, which they say are in range of troops in Kuwait.
Saddam appears nightly on television to reassure Iraqis that the Americans will be no match in a ground battle, and feeding the notion that Iraqis fighting on home terrain will have an edge over their better-armed opponents. /focus/news/860214/posts   (3715 words)

 No-Fly Zones Archived Articles - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council
Iraqi Airways resumed domestic flights yesterday for the first time in almost ten years, and will continue flying through the no-fly zones “until US-British arrogance is broken,” according to Iraq’s foreign minister.
The American Prospect argues that the “illegal no-fly zones could be war's trip wire.” According to this article, no UN resolution exists to legitimize these zones, and current international law justifies Iraq’s attempts to defend its air space.
UK officials admit that the two countries use the no-fly zones to strike out Iraq’s air defense system and that the raids have nothing to do with protecting the population of southern Iraq. /security/issues/iraq/nofly/archive.htm   (1247 words)

 CAAB - Iraq watch operations up in the air - 31/3/03
The fighter jets that for 12 years enforced the U.N.-mandated Iraqi no-fly zones now wage combat runs against Iraq’s government.
The two no-fly zones, one in the north and the other in southern Iraq, were unilaterally created by the United States, Britain and France soon after the 1991 Gulf War.
Late in 1996, it was extended northward, closer to the Iraqi capital, to the 33rd parallel, covering the southern third of Iraq. /caab/articles/iraqwatch.htm   (901 words) - Pentagon considers curtailing Iraq no-fly zone enforcement - May 9, 2001
The United States remains committed to maintaining the no-fly zones as a way to contain Iraq, officials said, but the question under review is whether it is necessary to send U.S. pilots into the face of Iraqi guns on a regular basis.
WASHINGTON (CNN) -- The Pentagon is considering whether to curtail U.S. aerial patrols of the Iraqi no-fly zones, especially in the north, but there have been no formal recommendations or decisions, Pentagon sources said Wednesday.
Sources told CNN that the four-star generals who separately command the northern and southern no-fly zone operations have both expressed concern about the continued risk to U.S. pilots and have questioned the benefit of nearly daily patrols. /2001/US/05/09/iraq.usa.02   (451 words)

 CNN - Turkey rejects Iraqi complaints about no-fly zones - February 15, 1999
Ecevit said he could not persuade Baghdad to recognize the legitimacy of the zones, which were set up after the 1991 Gulf War to deter attacks by the Iraqi military against opposition groups.
The Iraqi government said that five people were killed and 22 wounded Monday when U.S. aircraft attacked several sites in the southern no-fly zone.
Iraq says U.S. attack killed 2 in no-fly zone /WORLD/meast/9902/15/iraq.02   (491 words)

 Jeremy Scahill: No Fly Zones Over Iraq
These zones cover a sprawling chunk of Iraqi territory (more than 60% of Iraq), from the 36th parallel north and from the 33rd parallel south (in 1996 the southern zone was expanded from the 32nd parallel).
No assassination or coup or invasion will erase this from the hearts and minds and memories of the tens of thousands of Iraqi children who have grown up in pure misery, watching their parents humiliated, beaten down, killed.
In Iraqi culture, a woman takes the name of her first-born and is forever known as the mother of that child. /scahill1204.html   (4600 words)

 Breaking News
Today we had five violations of the no-fly zone in the south and one in the north by a total of 12 Iraqi fighters.
The CENTCOM commander pressed the point that civilian casualties "are the cause of actions initiated by Saddam." He noted the tactics the Iraqi leader has pursued in the past by putting civilians at risk including parking Iraqi aircraft within cities, moving military units close to local populations, and using human shields at military targets.
Meanwhile, the U.S. commander said there have been reports of an Iraqi missile buildup in the south of the country near the port of Basra as well as potential movement of Iraqi heavy armored units; neither of which poses a direct threat to Kuwait or U.S. military forces in the region. /1NoFly.htm   (485 words)

 No-Fly Zones - Iraq - Global Policy Forum - UN Security Council
Announced as a means to protect Iraqi Kurds (in the north) and Iraq’s Shi’a population (in the south), the no-fly has offered dubious humanitarian protection, while engaging Iraq’s government in ceaseless military pressure.
US pilots patrolling the Northern Iraq no-fly zone relate their stories, telling of interruptions to their flight schedules so that “Turkish Special Missions” can bomb Kurd villages that the US is (in theory) protecting.
The same powers started to enforce a second “no fly” zone in southern Iraq a few months later. /security/issues/iraq/flyindex.htm   (385 words)

 House of Commons - Defence - Thirteenth Report
The no-fly zones could be withdrawn as an early stage move to a settlement which could include no significant repression in the north and south, normal unobtrusive inspection by the IAEA, and the lifting of economic sanctions.
It is significant that the no-fly zone operation does not have the support of France, Russia and China; and, apart from the use of their land for bases, none of the neighbouring countries in the region have contributed direct military support for the operation.
The Committee considers that the no-fly zone operations, in which UK military forces are a participant, cannot be justified either on moral or humanitarian grounds. /news/iraq/2000/07/45312.htm   (3158 words)

 Defend America News Article -
Operation Northern Watch enforces the no-fly zone north of the 36th parallel in Iraq and monitors Iraqi compliance with UN Security Council resolutions 678, 687, and 688.
Operation Southern Watch enforces the no-fly zone south of the 33rd parallel in Iraq and monitors compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions 687, 688, and 949.
Iraqi Letter to the U.N. Firings at Coalition Aircraft Since 16 Sept. /specials/sep2002/sp093002d.html   (177 words)

 DOD: Excerpted Briefing - Iraqi No-Fly Zones - 11-7-00
Q: When the no-fly zones were first announced, it was said that they barred all flights, fixed-wing and rotary flights, below the 32nd Parallel, originally, and above the 36th Parallel.
The Iraqis have been firing wildly at times at the coalition U.S. and British planes enforcing the no-fly zone.
The no-fly zone was imposed to keep Iraq from attacking its neighbors or attacking its own people; namely, the Shi'a in the South and Kurdish people in the North. /government/US/Pentagon/dod-11-7-00-nfzs.htm   (1051 words)

 Because They Can
"No fly" zones and inspectors on the ground guaranteed that Iraq posed no threat, but the hapless country was ruled by an unsavory tyrant, and oh yes, then there was the oil.
When informed that ordinary Iraqi soldiers and citizens were resisting, we convinced each other that families were being held hostage and would be killed if the fathers didn't fight.
Fertilizer and knives are not exactly weapons of mass destruction and Iraq had nothing to do with either, but once again our B52s were sent to bomb a tiny country, and a new generation of Americans learned what it is to kill. /article3201.htm   (993 words)

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