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Topic: Irish Republican Brotherhood

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In political science, a Republican is a person who advocates the establishment of a republic as a form of government, in contrast to a monarchist.
In politics a Republican is a member, delegate or supporter of a Republican Political party; for example the United States Republican Party, Fianna Fáil the Republic Party in the Republic of Ireland, etc. The politics of these parties varies widely with the context, although there is a common thread of support for an "independent" state.
A republican in the context of Northern Ireland is someone who supports a range of Northern Irish parties, most notably Sinn Féin, from the nationalist community who possess an armed wing and engaged in what are seen as terrorist activity.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/re/Republican.html   (200 words)

 Irish Republican Army - MSN Encarta
Irish Republican Army (IRA), Irish paramilitary organization founded in 1919 to promote Irish nationalism and fight British rule in Ireland.
The resultant Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, split the country into the Irish Free State in the south and a loyalist Northern Ireland in the north.
The anti-Treaty IRA, or the Irregulars, disagreed with the terms of the Treaty, which made the Irish Free State a dominion within the British Commonwealth; they wanted an independent republic and disputed the authority of the negotiators and the Dáil to conclude such a treaty that did not grant this status.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761575144/Irish_Republican_Army.html   (1710 words)

 Irish Republican Army at AllExperts
Physical force Irish republicanism as an ideology had a long history, from the United Irishmen of the 1798 and 1803 rebellions, to the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 and the Irish Republican Brotherhood rebellion of 1867.
However the term Irish Republican Army in its modern sense was first used in the second decade of the 20th century for the rebel forces of the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizens Army during the Easter Rising.
In theory, the IRA was responsible to the Dail and was the army of the Irish Republic.
en.allexperts.com /e/i/ir/irish_republican_army.htm   (5623 words)

 Irish Republican Army   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
All claim descent from the original 'Irish Republican Army', the 'army' of the Irish Republic declared by Dil ireann in 1919.
Though republican history often claimed that the Rising and its leaders had public support, in reality there were widespread calls for the execution of the ringleaders, coming from the major Irish nationalist daily newspaper, the 'Irish Independent' and local authorities.
The Irish delegation was led by Arthur Griffith, after de Valera, newly upgraded to a full 'President of the Republic' by the Dil on his request in August 1921, then insisted that as head of state he could not attend as King George was not leading the British delegation.
knowallabout.com /i/ir/irish_republican_army.html   (1914 words)

 Irish Republican Army   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
All claim descent from the original Republican Army' the 'army' of the Irish Republic declared by Dáil Éireann in 1919.
Though republican history often claimed that Rising and its leaders had public support reality there were widespread calls for the of the ringleaders coming from the major nationalist daily newspaper the ' Irish Independent ' and local authorities.
Attacks on particularly Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) barracks continued throughout 1919 and forcing the police to consolidate in the towns for safety's sake and effectively placing areas of the countryside in the hands the Republicans.
www.freeglossary.com /Irish_Republican_Army   (2092 words)

 Irish Republican Brotherhood - Politics.ie Wiki
The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) grew out of the Fenian movement which was founded in the 1850's by James Stephens in Ireland and John O'Mahony in New York.
In 1898, with the United Irishmen celebrations, the IRB recovered some of the support it had lost, and further gained momentum after the arrival in Ireland in 1907 of Thomas Clarke, a committed revolutionary who had spent 15 years in English jails.
During the Civil War, the IRB split, and members of a new splinter group, the Irish Republican Army Organisation, working within the Free State Army, caused a failed Army Mutiny in 1924.
www.politics.ie /wiki/index.php?title=Irish_Republican_Brotherhood   (344 words)

 Irish nationalism and violence, background
Due to rapid social change the usage of Irish had declined sharply; before the famine it was spoken by, perhaps, half of Ireland’s population but by the late 19th century it seemed in danger of becoming merely an academic subject.
Its activities included the provision of Irish classes, organising of Irish speaking social gatherings, publication of a newspaper, sponsoring of Irish verse and prose and the mounting of campaigns to have the language integrated into the national educational system.
Both were traditional republicans – hardheaded, practical, ruthless, committed to the use of force to gain Irish independence, and convinced that war had provided them with a unique opportunity to achieve this goal.
falcon.arts.cornell.edu /dg78/100.3/documents/ira1.htm   (6180 words)

 IRA - History
The term Irish Republican Army was used first by one of the two Fenian wings (The Fenian Brotherhood in America, which was the American side of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, split soon after the American Civil War) during the invasion of Canada by Fenian forces, in 1886.
The title Irish Republican Army was also used, in a spoken form, during the 1867 rising in Ireland (organised by the Irish Republican Brotherhood).
James Connolly, leader of the Irish Citizens' Army prior to the 1916 rising and commander of all republican forces during the rising ordered that there was no longer 'Volunteers' or 'Citizens' Army' anymore but the Army of the Irish Republic (or Irish Republican Army).
users.net.yu /~shamrock/eire/ira2.htm   (310 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Their subsequent execution aroused Irish public opinion and led to the defeat and virtual extinction of the Constitutional Party at Westminster in the general election of December 1918.
Again the Republicans set up their provisional government, elected by the Irish members of Parliament, at a meeting in Dublin called Dáil Éireann, the "Irish Assembly." This provided an alternative administration when British government was rapidly breaking down except in the northeastern counties.
Simultaneously, the Irish Republican Army (formerly known as the Irish Volunteers) was organized to resist British administration and to secure recognition for the Republican government.
www.bampfa.berkeley.edu /exhibits/irish/easterrising.html   (320 words)

 Irish Republican Army -- Freedom First Then Peace
In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times in the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms.
Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the provisional Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.
In this supreme hour, the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.
www.freewebs.com /republicanarmy   (315 words)

 AllAboutIrish - Heroes of Easter 1916
Sean MacDiarmada, manager of Clarke's journal Irish Freedom, was one of the signers of the Proclamation largely responsible for the expansion of the IRB throughout Ireland in the years before the Easter Rising.
Eamonn Ceannt was the musician among the signers of the Proclamation and led the action at the South Dublin Union.
Michael Mallin was a leader in the Irish Citizens Army and fought at St. Stephen's Green with the Countess Markiewicz.
allaboutirish.com /library/people/heroeseaster.shtm   (795 words)

 Irish Stamps
On the Irish Stamp the Lady Liberty is depicted in front of the GPO and carries the Irish "tri-colour" (green, white and orange) rather than the French colors (blue, white and red).
Irish Volunteers, the military wing of the IRB, became known as the Irish Republican Army or the IRA.
The Irish Republican Brotherhood largely remained loyal to Michael Collins but the IRA split into a pro-treaty faction that became the Free State Army and an anti-treaty faction that continued to call itself the Irish Republican Army.
web.umr.edu /~greggjay/irstamp.html   (2810 words)

 Irish Republican Army FBI Files
Many members of the Irish Volunteers, however, did not know that a rising was intended, and the plotters were limited in their assembly of manpower to the Irish Republican Brotherhood and its close associates.
When the Irish Free State was established in 1922, the IRA remained a force of opposition to Ireland's status of being under the dominion of Great Britain and the separation of Northern Ireland.
Neenan was the former head of the Irish Republican Army in the United States and the founder of the U.S. Irish hospital sweepstakes.
www.paperlessarchives.com /ira.html   (1629 words)

 [No title]
The Real IRA is a hard-line splinter group that broke away from the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in November 1997 on the background of the Northern Ireland Peace Process.
Physical force Irish republicanism as an ideology had a long history, from the United Irishmen of the 1798 and 1803 rebellions, to the Young Irelander rebellion of 1848 and the Irish Republican Brotherhood of 1867.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) exploded two bombs in the British Army Headquarters, Thiepval Barracks, Lisburn, County Antrim (responsibility for the bombs was claimed on 8 October 1996).
www.lycos.com /info/irish-republican-army.html   (580 words)

 Irish Volunteers
The Irish Volunteers were a paramilitary organization established by Irish Nationalists in 1913 "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland", and to enforce the imminent Home Rule Devolution.
The IRB was completely opposed, as it would end their control of the Volunteers, but were unable to prevent the motion from being carried in Redmond's favor.
Following the split, the remnants of the Irish Volunteers were often, and erroneously, referred to as the "Sinn Féin Volunteers", or "Shinners", after the political organization Sinn Féin The term began as a derogatory one, but soon became ubiquitous among much of the Dublin citizenry.
www.irishwolfhounds.org /volunteers.htm   (664 words)

 INA/Irish History 1916 Rising
The Gaelic League's championing the Irish language and the literary revival of the late 19th and early 20th centuries cannot be underestimated as catalysts of revolutionary struggle.
In 1912, an Irish Home Rule bill was put forward but was predictably reacted to with outrage by pro-British Loyalists in the north and political pragmatics in the British parliament who saw the issue as little more than a way to gain and secure political power.
The more militant, Republican coalition was lead primarily by Padraig Pearse, of the Irish Volunteers and IRB, and the leader of the Irish labor movement James Connolly, who also lead the Irish Citizen Army.
inac.org /irishhistory/1916.php   (1597 words)

 Defining the Irish
Republican Sinn Fein: Formed in 1986 after Gerry Adams replaced Ruairi O Bradaigh as president of Provisional Sinn Fein.
Republican Sinn Fein, led by O Bradaigh, does not recognize the governments either of Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland.
Irish Northern Aid: Known as Noraid and INA, it was founded by Americans who raised money for families of Irish republican prisoners, many of whom were interned for years without trial.
www.post-gazette.com /headlines/19991025irishterms2.asp   (365 words)

 Ireland's OWN: History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Irish Holocaust (AKA the Irish Famine) in which between 1845 and 1852 at least a million people died of starvation and a million more emigrated to America, Australia, and Canada.
Those 49 years, however, were an intense political period in which the overwhelming majority of the Irish people continued to express their desire for independence and sought to do so via democratic means; but legislation for Home Rule was defeated in the British parliament in 1886 and again 1893.
The Irish Volunteers became the Army of the Republic, under the Ministry of Defence.
irelandsown.net /IRAhistory.htm   (1619 words)

 Celtic Attic: Celts facts and fiction - Irish Republicanism
To the Republican Movement which maintains direct organisational continuity from Fenian times, through the Irish Republican Brotherhood, past 1916 and the First Dáil to the present day, Republicanism in Ireland has a very strict, yet extremely comprehensive meaning.
In the strict sense, an Irish Republican was one who gave allegiance to the 32-County Republic of Easter 1916 and who denied the right of the British Government to rule here.
For the Republican Movement then, a Republican today is one who rejects the Partition Statelets in Ireland and gives his allegiance to and seeks to restore the 32-County Republic of Easter Week.
www.celticattic.com /contact_us/the_celts/irish_republicanism.htm   (833 words)

 Irish American Brotherhood   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The Brotherhood of Irish Americans wishes to greetings of solidarity to the brave men of HMP Maghaberry in the North of Ireland.
On this the 25th Anniversary of the 1981 Hunger Strike which resulted in the death of 10 brave Irish Soldiers in their fight for Political Status The Brotherhood of Irish Americans will always remember them with pride and will never see Irish Republican Prisoners classed as criminals.
The Brotherhood of Irish Americans judges no Christian by the alter that they kneel on.
www.irishamericanbrotherhood.com   (462 words)

 Irish Revolution
The revived Irish Republican Brotherhood along with support from the Gealic league with other organizations were a major part of the revolt.
Followers of the Irish Republican Brotherhood along with some citizens armies attack and took over the capital of Ireland.
In 1915 with hesitance he joined the IRB with the provision that he was to follow what they said and not to make the decisions (Manus,22).
home.snu.edu /~dwilliam/f97projects/ireland/IrishRevolution.html   (558 words)

 The Easter Rising in Ireland, 1916
They created a new Irish nation within America whilst remembering the injustice of the English occupation of their homeland as well as harboring a deeply felt hatred of landlords and evictions.
Colonel Thomas J. Kelly, was appointed Chief of Staff of the IRB in 1867 and departed for Ireland.
The IRB was reorganised in Manchester in July of 1867 and a supreme council elected.
www.pittsburghirish.org /AOHDiv32/1916.htm   (2233 words)

The Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) which had remained active, though in the background, decided the time was right in 1913 to push the agenda further.
It was the IRB's intention to use Mac NÈill as the focus for nationalist fervour and a figurehead of a new nationalist army.
As a result of the steps taken by the IRB earlier those members of the Volunteers who were members of the IRB were mostly all well drilled and therefore came to prominence and were made officers in the new organisation.
republican-news.org /archive/1998/November26/26hist.html   (1303 words)

 Irish Home Rule
Irish Nationalist2 leader John Redmond’s enthusiasm in 1910 for a Home Rule settlement belies the fact that in the decade following his statement, Home Rule would become one of the most controversial, complicated, and violently contested issues in Irish and British history.
The aristocrats’ picture of the Irish as a “semi-civilized, wholly-uneducated race of near barbarians, who were permitted to exist merely as an act of grace on the part of their English conquerors” rationalized the fact that the Lords could find no pretext to account for past atrocities in Ireland.
The Irish Volunteers swore to ‘secure and maintain the rights of all the people of Ireland.”28 The Volunteers publicly claimed that no existing organization needed to support them, but the IRB, Sinn Fein, the Gaelic League, and the Citizen Army of the Irish Transport General Workers Union all had involvement with the Irish Volunteers.
www.loyno.edu /~history/journal/Sullivan.htm   (3205 words)

 Irish Republican Army information - Search.com
For Irish paramilitary organisations after 1922 that claim or have claimed the to be the linear descendant of that army and have called themselves "Irish Republican Army" see Irish Republican Army (1922-1969), Official Irish Republican Army (1969-), Provisional Irish Republican Army (1969-), Continuity Irish Republican Army (1986-), and Real Irish Republican Army (1997-).
However the term Irish Republican Army in its modern sense was first used in the second decade of the 20th century from the merger of the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizens Army after the Easter Rising.
Irish Republican Army (Army of the Irish Republic) (1919–1922)
www.search.com /reference/Irish_Republican_Army   (5637 words)

 Republican SINN FÉIN Poblachtach | Cumann Mac Curtáin / Mac Suibhne, Corcaigh   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Literally millions of Irish men and women were faced with an inability to pay their rent and subsequently, were cast out of their rude dwellings.
Rossa began writing a column in the Irish World and in it, he chastised his old friend Devoy and Clan na Gael for embracing a policy of co-operation with the constitutional movement.
The Fenian Brotherhood, hopelessly divided and powerless, elected Rossa the last "Head Centre" in 1877, but by 1880 they had begun to disappear, and the group no longer had the financial support or membership it had once enjoyed.
www.rsfcork.com /jeremiahodonovanrossa.htm   (2039 words)

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