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Topic: Iron Age

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  Iron Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system for classifying pre-historic societies and its meaning varies depending on the country or geographical region.
The Iron Age in the Near East is believed to have begun with the discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia or the Caucasus in the late 2nd millennium BC (circa 1300 BC).
The Egyptian ruler Tutankhamun died in 1323 BC and was buried with an iron dagger with a golden hilt.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Iron_Age   (1649 words)

 British Iron Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts.
Cremation was a method of disposing of the dead although the chariot burials and other inhumations of the Arras culture of East Yorkshire, and the cist burials of Cornwall, demonstrate that it was not ubiquitous.
There also appears to have been a collapse in the bronze trade during the early iron age, evidenced by the increase in buried hoards which may have been an attempt to control the supply of the material.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/British_Iron_Age   (1872 words)

 Iron Age - Simple English Wikipedia
The Iron Age was a time in history after people began to use iron tools.
In Europe, it is a period of prehistory, because Iron Age people did not write their history down.
And of course, bronze weapons and armor were no match for those made out of iron, so many peoples who did not have iron were conquered by those who did.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Iron_Age   (190 words)

 Bronze & Iron Age Movements
Iron reigned supreme as a prestige good and on the battlefield, but metals were apparently little used otherwise - until 700 BC or even later most tasks were probably carried out with stone, bone or wood.
Iron weapons may have held a similar "historical" role in the eleventh century, setting their owners off from previous generations of bronze users, distancing the elite from the chaos of an unwelcome past and establishing a stable world order.
Iron moved around in a very restricted sphere of exchange, divorced from everyday activity, but it was that sphere which had the greatest influence in the creation of the archaeological record.
faculty.vassar.edu /jolott/old_courses/crosscurrents2001/Lefkandi/bronze.htm   (1439 words)

 IRON AGE - LoveToKnow Article on IRON AGE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In the north of Russia and Siberia its introduction was even as late as A.D. 800, while Ireland enters upon her Iron Age about the beginning of the 1st century.
The knowledge of iron spread from the south to the north of Europe.
The Iron Age in Europe is characterized by an elaboration of designs in weapons, implements and utensils.
22.1911encyclopedia.org /I/IR/IRON_AGE.htm   (570 words)

 Iron Age - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Iron Age
The Iron Age saw the development of hierarchical systems, with tribes and chiefs, and the strengthening of defences, such as hill forts and enclosures.
An exceptionally rich cemetery was excavated at Hallstatt in the 19th century, revealing graves that spanned the transition period from Bronze to Iron Age.
In Scandinavia, the Roman Iron Age and the periods of migrations and Vikings are considered to be Iron Age by Scandinavian scholars, since they are essentially prehistoric (or protohistoric) rather than historic periods.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /iron+age   (913 words)

 Iron Age. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
In Asia, Egypt, and Europe it was preceded by the Bronze Age.
In Europe knowledge of iron smelting was acquired in Greece and the Balkans, and somewhat later in N Italy (see Etruscan civilization; Villanovan culture) and central Europe.
The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène.
www.bartleby.com /65/ir/IronAge.html   (427 words)

 Iron Age on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The use of smelted iron ornaments and ceremonial weapons became common during the period extending from 1900 to 1400 BC About this time, the invention of tempering (see forging) was made by the Chalybes of the Hittite empire.
The Early Iron Age in central Europe, dating from c.800 BC to c.500 BC, is known as the Hallstatt period.
The chronology of the Iron Age `moats' of northeast Thailand.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/I/IronA1ge.asp   (1331 words)

 Iron Age Revolution
This Iron Age was marked by almost constant war, a time in which states of all sizes came into existence only to be extinguished by the rise of still larger empires, which, in their turn, were destroyed by military force.
Iron's importance rested in the fact that unlike bronze, which required the use of relatively rare tin to manufacture, iron was commonly and widely available almost everywhere.
During the Iron Age the obligations of citizenship were extended to enforced military service as a regular and legitimate price to be paid for membership in the larger social order.
www.au.af.mil /au/awc/awcgate/gabrmetz/gabr0008.htm   (877 words)

 Iranica.com - IRON AGE
In Iran the term Iron Age is employed to identify a cultural change that occurred centuries earlier than the time accorded its use elsewhere in the Near East, and not to acknowledge the introduction of a new metal technology.
Iron artifacts, in fact, were unknown in Iran until the 9th century BCE (the cultural period labeled Iron Age II), centuries after the phase designated as Iron Age I came into existence.
Characteristic of the Iron III period in western Iran (known mostly from surveys) is the presence of many local ceramic assemblages consisting of both plain and painted wares, indicating a variety of regional developments, perhaps indicating discrete polities.
www.iranica.com /articles/supp4/IronAge.html   (2487 words)

 A Brief History of Orkney - The Iron Age
The Iron Age in Orkney, as in the rest of Scotland, seems to have been a time of change and unrest.
Throughout the Iron Age, metal goods were being crafted in Orkney, with the metalworking at Minehowe in Tankerness being hailed as one of one of the best assemblages of Iron Age metalworking in Britain.
During the Iron Age, Orkney was far from isolated, with discoveries of Roman pottery and artefacts are a number of broch sites as well as Minehowe in Tankerness.
www.orkneyjar.com /history/ironage.htm   (517 words)

 The Coming of the Iron Age
Iron had been produced in small quantities for centuries before that (“sporadic iron”), but it had never been very important, and at one point iron was a precious metal worth forty times its weight in silver.
The rise of iron roughly coincided with a series of invasions which brought down many of the empires of the Eastern Mediterranean (notably Troy), but the evidence tells us that the invasions came first, and that the heavily militarized conquering nations afterwards developed steel technology for military uses.
If iron is thought of as a marker or a result rather than as a cause, the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age was a reality.
www.idiocentrism.com /steel.htm   (1214 words)

 Archaeology of Btritain-Iron Age Sites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Iron Age (700B.C. to A.D. 43) sites are mainly defended settlements, as these leave the most visible traces on the modern landscape.
Butser Iron Age Farm: Reconstructions of Iron Age round houses at Butser Iron Age Farm in Hampshire.
Brochs: Many Iron Age settlements were defended, and different regions developed their own styles in response to local traditions and available materials.
www.sfu.ca /archaeology/museum/britain/archbr/iron.html   (467 words)

 Iron Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Iron Age round houses are fascinating buildings, as well as being highly practical living-spaces.
The late Iron Age tribes of this area of the West Country were known as the Durotriges, and their main centre was at the magnificent hill fort of Maiden Castle, the largest of its kind in Britain.
On further excavation it was found to be part of a Late Iron Age burial of a wealthy Durotrigian female of about 45 years of age, the skeleton in a typical crouched position facing west to the setting sun.
www.waddon-heritage.co.uk /iron_age_artefacts.htm   (928 words)

 Biblical Archaeology: Iron Age IIA
Iron Age IIA (1050 or sometimes 1020-930 B.C.) is the United Monarchy; and Iron Age IIB (930-587 B.C.) is the divided monarchy.
The first settlement is the old Canaanite city (EB II) covering 20 acres to the south of the Iron Age fortress and on the lower slopes of the hill.
The fortress of the Iron Age is 164 feet square.
www.christianleadershipcenter.org /bibarch8.htm   (5663 words)

 [No title]
Iron II (1000-550) witnessed the rise of the states of Judah and Israel in the tenth-ninth century.
Aharoni, Y. "Forerunners of the Limes: Iron Age Fortresses in the Negev," IEJ 17 (1967) 1-17.
IRON I-II: PILLARED:HOUSES The four-room house with rows of pillar is a defining trait of Iron Age and found both in the hill country and on the Philistine plain.
www.bu.edu /anep/Ir.html   (9191 words)

 Chapter 5: The Age of Iron
Iron is a common element in the earth's crust, but it almost always occurs as a compound: it is very rarely to find it naturally as metallic iron.
Iron that has a tiny amount of carbon in it (about 0.1%, only 1 part in 1000) has properties that are significantly different from ordinary iron.
Iron oxides are among the fluxes useful in copper smelting, and others help the slag to drain from iron ores in a smelter.
www.geology.ucdavis.edu /~cowen/~GEL115/115CH5.html   (6464 words)

 THE IRON AGE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Iron Age, marks the period of development of TECHNOLOGY, when the working of iron came into general use, replacing bronze as the basic material for implements and weapons.
It is the last stage of the archaelogical sequence known as the three-age system (Stone Age, Bronze Age, & Iron Age).
Chronologically, the term is only of local value because iron took the place of bronze at different times in different cultures.
www.bergen.org /technology/iron.html   (70 words)

 Encyclopedia Galactica - Ip to Iz - Human (Anglic) Revised 351st Edition
Iron is the most tightly bound atomic nucleus, and is not used for energy generation in either fusion or fission.
Iron is a component of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells of terragen vertebrates
On Old Earth the use of smelted iron ornaments and ceremonial weapons in Asia, Egypt, and Europe that followed the Bronze Age; generally middle 2nd millienium b.c.e onwards.
www.orionsarm.com /eg/i/Ip-Iz.html   (724 words)

 Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age: the Celts
Rather, iron simply became an alternative metal and many bronze objects have been found that were made in the Iron Age.
During the Iron Age, there was a general consolidation of territories and kingdoms.
In the late Iron Age it was the royal seat of the Ulaid during their rise to power in Ulster, making it certainly the most important such site in Ulster.
www.wesleyjohnston.com /users/ireland/past/pre_norman_history/iron_age.html   (3221 words)

 Ohio State Parks Magazine - Ohio's Iron Age   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The iron ore was first discovered in 1826, and by 1849, twenty-two blast furnaces were operating in the area, producing 56,000 tons of iron annually.
The melted iron flowed through openings at the base of the furnace into beds of sand where the hot liquid iron was molded into blocks called "pigs." This "pig iron" was loaded onto railroad cars for shipment to iron foundries in Cincinnati and Cleveland, to the east coast, and even to Europe.
The iron industry was abandoned, and Zaleski's population plummeted to a mere 862.
www.dnr.state.oh.us /parks/explore/magazine/sprsum98/ironage.htm   (1756 words)

 Pattern Welding/Bladesmithing in Iron Age Europe
Depending on the location and era some few smiths might produce their own raw materials from ore, bog iron, and rarely meteorite but for the most part iron and steel would be purchased or imported from a smelter.
It is a method of purifying the iron by working internal impurities (slag, undesirable alloying elements) to the surface of the billet where they will burn off in the fire.
In better quality blades produced during the early middle ages hard, higher carbon billets were often used to form the blade edge while softer, low carbon steel billets or wrought iron, which would be more shock resistant were used for the core, sides or back of the blade.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Forum/2644/tavis/tpatweld.html   (1537 words)

 The Age of Iron in West Africa | Special Topics Page | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Ogun is credited with introducing iron as well as being the first hunter and warrior, the opener of roads, clearer of fields, and founder of dynasties.
The iron sword of Ogun, a central symbolic motif, is associated with both civilizing and aggressive actions.
Iron had significant ritual status in all these Nigerian states, in which the forge functioned as both a ritual shrine and sanctuary.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/iron/hd_iron.htm   (741 words)

 Iron - History for Kids!
Iron is more difficult to form into metal than copper or bronze, but it is much more useful than copper or bronze as well.
The Hittites kept the secret of making iron for about 400 years, until about 1100 BC, but when the Dark Ages came to West Asia, the Hittite empire fell apart anyway, and the secret of making iron got out to other people.
After the Dark Ages, therefore, all the Mediterranean people started to use iron: the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Kushites, the Jews, the Philistines, the Romans, the Carthaginians, and the Assyrians.
www.historyforkids.org /learn/science/mining/iron.htm   (338 words)

 Bodrifty Iron Age Settlement, Cornwall, UK
A replica Iron Age roundhouse has been constructed in the heart of the ancient landscape of Penwith.
The neglected splat of land they took on, which includes some of the most beautiful scenery anywhere in Cornwall, is also the site of a late Bronze Age and Iron Age village consisting of at least nine roundhouses in various states of preservation.
For two decades as Fred and Penny struggled to make a living and to renovate the farmhouse and the buildings the Iron Age village was a place to walk, to study and to marvel at.
www.bodrifty.co.uk /PressRelease.htm   (1448 words)

 Civilizations in Africa: The Iron Age South of the Sahara
Civilizations in Africa: The Iron Age South of the Sahara
The Iron Age itself came very early to Africa, probably around the sixth century BC, in Ethiopia, the Great Lakes region, Tanzania, and Nigeria.
Iron technology, however, only spread slowly across Africa; it wasn't until the first century AD that the smelting of iron began to rapidly diffuse throughout the continent.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/CIVAFRCA/IRONAGE.HTM   (449 words)

 Iron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Iron Age was underway by 1000 BC; since then, the history of our technology based civilization has been the history of iron.
When in the presence of water, iron readily reacts with oxygen, making rust: a brittle, flimsy, red powder which is mostly useless.
Our students are familiar with iron III chloride, the yellow liquid used in general chemistry as a source of iron ions, staples and filings are used for the metal.
chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu /periodic/Fe.html   (105 words)

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