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Topic: Islamic conquest of Iberia

  Islamic conquest of Iberia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Islamic rule—save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees.
Meanwhile, the Christian Reconquista or reconquest of Iberia became established with Pelayo of Asturias' victory at the Battle of Covadonga in 722.
With the rise of Roderic to the throne of the Visigoths in Hispania, and with the death in 710 CE of the previous king, Wittiza, the relatives and partisans of the latter fled to Ceuta (Septa), the Pillar of Hercules in North Africa on the northern shore of the Maghreb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Muslim_conquest_of_Iberia   (709 words)

 Islamic conquest of South Asia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Islamic conquest of South Asia took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries.
Mohalib expeditions were not aimed at conquest, though they penetrated as far as the capital of the Maili and returned with wealth and prisoners of war.
Islamic and Mughal architecture and art is widely noticeable in India, examples being the Taj Mahal and Qutub Minar.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Islamic_invasion_of_India   (4479 words)

 Islam Encyclopedia Article, Information, History and Biography @   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as derivations of the teachings of the prophet Abraham and thus acknowledge common Abrahamic roots.
Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar.
Within a century of his death, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic ocean in the west to central Asia in the east, which, however, was soon torn by civil wars (fitnas). /encyclopedia/Islam   (5634 words)

 Chapter 1 -- Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
The conquests, then, set in motion a chain of events that was, centuries later, to result in the shifting of the balance of power in Europe from the Mediterranean region northward.
In reaction to the Islamic conquests, impinging upon the European heartland from two directions, there emerged the [21] notion of Europe as a geographical entity which was also the seat of Christianity, a criterion amply justified by the coterminality of the religious and political bounds of the Islamic Empire.
The easy conquest of the peninsula is generally assumed by historians to have been followed by a rapid Islamization of the indigenous population, although the evidence for such an assertion is wholly inferential.
libro.uca.edu /ics/ics1.htm   (13064 words)

 Confused Islamic Apologetics - Campus Watch
Islamic wars are not hurub (the plural of harb) but rather futuhat, acts of "opening" the world to Islam and expressing Islamic jihad.
Iberia (Spain) was conquered in 710-716 AD by Arab tribes originating from northern, central and southern Arabia.
This statement captures the indelible influence of the uniquely Islamic institutions of jihad and dhimmitude on the Shari'a, rendering sacred and permanent the notion of inequality between the community of Allah, and the infidels.
www.campus-watch.org /article/id/1243   (3700 words)

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They attempted to move northeast across the Pyrenees Mountains toward France, but were defeated by the Frankish Christian Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732.
The country broke up into a number of mostly Islamic fiefdoms which were consolidated under the Caliphate of Cordoba.
The Hassaniya speaking Arabo-Berbers or "Moors" live mainly in Western Sahara and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, from which the latter country derives its name.
www.kisanji.org /default.aspx?modulo=wikipedia&arg=Moors   (739 words)

 Islamic Site - Cover's Islam Heritage its historical background and geography
It is considered by Muslims to be the holiest place on and is the focal point of the hajj pilgrimage required of all able-bodied Muslims as one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
According to Islamic tradition, the mosque was built by Messenger Ibrahim peace be upon him with the help of his son.
The Empire was founded by Osman I. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities and the countries of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance through the Balkans.
www.parvez-video.com /islamic_site.asp   (4205 words)

 A General History of the Near East, Chapter 9
Meanwhile, a distinctive Islamic culture evolved, combining the ancient Roman and Persian heritage with Islam and the Arabic language.
Islamic money--gold dinars and silver dirhams bearing verses from the Koran--were minted to replace the Byzantine and Persian coins that were still in circulation.
They also believe in an Islamic form of papal infallibility, meaning that if the caliph sins he must be put to death and replaced with the next qualified candidate.
xenohistorian.faithweb.com /neareast/ne09.html   (13774 words)

 The Ultimate Moors - American History Information Guide and Reference
Some scholars propose that the characterization of the Islamic civilization in Iberia as "Moorish" is a misnomer which implies the predominance of Berber traits in the civilization, rather than Arab and Islamic ones.
The Muslim conquest of Iberia was undertaken by Arab caliphates.
Although, the Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Spain came to be ruled by North African Moors.
www.historymania.com /american_history/Moors   (589 words)

 Chapter 2 -- Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
In early medieval Iberia there were a number of significant ecological frontiers, separating zones in which the components of agroecosystems (dry farming, irrigation, herding, arboriculture) either differed or were conjoined in a different balance.
In both Islamic and Christian territories, frontier zones were, by their very nature, organized on a distinctive basis, inevitably entailing defensive structures embedded in a looser system of state control than was possible in the hinterlands.
These notions were standard throughout the Islamic world wherever irrigation was practiced and gave rise to distinctive patterns of rectilinear fields approaching a square shape, containing low irrigation levees to regulate the flow of water, and with ridges and furrows typically arranged in the form of a comb.
libro.uca.edu /ics/ics2.htm   (15363 words)

 Battle of Covadonga - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
Seven years after the Islamic conquest of Iberia, Pelayo, a nobleman of the country's former rulers, the Visigoths, managed to expel a provincial governor named Munuza from the district of Asturias in the northwestern part of the Iberian peninsula.
He held the territory against a number of attempts to re-establish Islamic control, and soon established the Kingdom of Asturias, which became a Christian stronghold, against further Islamic expansion.
On July 9, 721, an Islamic force that crossed the Pyrenees and invaded the Kingdom of the Franks was defeated by them in the Battle of Toulouse, in modern France.
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Battle_of_Covadonga   (640 words)

 Iberia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
It is one of the oldest cities in Iberia.
This district commences with a compilation of seven sovereigns in two families, separated by a republican era, all of which inhabit legendary tales, and cannot be confirmed or documented otherwise.
Tariq, a Berber, was dispatched by the Muslim governor of Morocco, Musa ibn Nusayr, to probe the defenses and determine the plausibility of an invasion of Iberia.
www.hostkingdom.net /iberia.html   (1430 words)

 A Critique of Islamic Jihad - Asia Finest Discussion Forum
A Critique of Islamic Jihad, A Critique of Islamic Jihad
It is interesting to note that the Spaniards, who were controlled or strongly influenced by the Islamic state, also employed the same method of military conquest and subsequent state coercion in the 1500s to the 1800s in the Americas and the Philippines.
Both Islamic jihad and the Spanish conquests for God and King explicitly had as their primary objective God first, or religious propagation, although economic and political gains were undeniably also of great importance.
www.asiafinest.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=15129   (5195 words)

 Consolidation and expansion (1405-1683) (from Islamic world) --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online ...
Never before had Islamicate ideals and institutions better demonstrated their ability to encourage political centralization, or to support a Muslim style of life where there was no organized state, be it in areas where Islam had been long established, or in areas where it was newly arrived.
The Maghrib, isolated between an almost all-Christian Iberia and an eastward-looking Mamluk Egypt and Syria, was divided between the Marinids and Hafsids.
It is usually expressed as a fractional change in dimensions or volume per unit temperature change; a linear expansion coefficient is usually employed in describing the expansion of a solid, while a volume expansion coefficient is more useful for a liquid or a gas.
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-26927   (1744 words)

 La corónica: “Return to Queer Iberia”
Return to Queer Iberia formally acknowledges and celebrates the rise of one such scholarly community that is in the process of coalescing around queer interventions in medieval and early modern Iberian studies.
Fundamental to Queer Iberia and other similar projects is our awareness of discontinuities and of “textual intimacy”, the Barthesian act of queer history, in which the “touch” of recognition and solidarity closes gaps of time, space and culture (Dinshaw 50).
The editors of Queer Iberia are right to underscore the importance of the yoking of race and sexuality in the past as well in today’s theoretical discussions, as in the work of Ann Laura Stoler, whom they specifically cite (Hutcheson and Blackmore 11).
college.holycross.edu /lacoronica/qi/9-Burshatin.htm   (2680 words)

 This Month in Celtic History - June 2005
When the Islamic conquest of Iberia reached Galicia in 711AD the Moors found the Galicians as tough as their Celt-Iberian forebears.
Islamic rule in Galicia proved short-lived when a series of counterattacks launched from out of neighboring Asturias in 718AD began to force back the Moors.
Galicia now became a springboard for the Catholic Reconquista of Iberia, helped along by the discovery of what were proclaimed to be the remains of the Apostle James in 813.
www.celticleague.org /history_6-05.html   (1058 words)

 MOORS FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
The name of ''Mauri'' was applied by the Romans to all North African natives who were still ruled by their own chiefs, until the 3rd century AD.
The Islamic conquest of Iberia was undertaken by the Moors of the Umayyad caliphate in 711.
These Moors live mainly in Western Sahara and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, from which the latter country derives its name.
www.agseinc.com /Moors   (705 words)

 Ars Magica: Iberia Campaign - Links
Iberia: al-Andalus – Rulers of the various taifa kingdoms.
Map of Andalucia – The area where the covenant is set in southern Iberia.
Islamic Beliefs – A short summary of islamic beliefs and eschatology.
www.tlucretius.net /ArsMagica/Links.htm   (534 words)

 How the Spanish defeated the Islamic Terror - Topic Powered by Groupee Community
The reconquest began almost immediately in 718 with the defeat of the Muslim army at the battle of Alcama by the Visigoth chieftain Pelayo who was one of the few survivors of the battle of the Guadalete river.
In the Christian areas of the north, eleventh-century society was suffering immensely under neavy penal taxation a suffering which was made worse by the recurrent famines, as the Muslim invaders had destroyed all irrigation facilities and built none, where the majority of the population remain Christian.
One of the ironies of the Reconquista was the detrimental effect the Christian conquest had on the entire economy of Iberia.
forums.military.com /groupee/forums/a/tpc/f/8001934822/m/939106135   (5049 words)

 Kingdoms of the Arabs - Islam
The Georgian kingdom of Iberia is taken in 645, and Persia is overrun by 651.
Mamluks set up the Abbasid puppet caliphate in Egypt which continues until the Ottoman conquest.
Control of the Islamic Empire eventually falls to the Ottoman Turks, who govern from Asia Minor.
www.kessler-web.co.uk /History/KingListsMiddEast/ArabicIslam.htm   (208 words)

 Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain
Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain
It became one of the centers of Moslem civilization, and the Umayyad caliphate of Cordova reached a peak of glory in the tenth century.
He took up the pearls, the armour, the gold, the silver, and the vases which he had with him, and found that quantity of spoils, the like of which one had not seen.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/source/conqspain.html   (1689 words)

 Economic History and Economy of Portugal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-09)
The Moslem conquest of Iberia had defeated the Visigothic kingdoms of the south and the Christians who fled to the still-Christian mountains of the north dreamed and plotted the reconquest of Iberia.
The areas of Iberia under Moslem control prospered with the introduction of new crops, new agricultural methods and efficient administration.
Afonso VI of Leon made the region of Portucale part of the dowry of his daughter Teresa when she married Henri, a French Burgundian knight fighting for the Reconquest.
www.sjsu.edu /faculty/watkins/port.htm   (379 words)

 Intro to Hispanic Studies: Iberia (English)
Between 1090 and 1212, Al-Andalus is ruled by the Almorávides and later the Almohades, Berber groups who invade from Africa.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the territory under Islamic rule has been reduced to the Nazarí kingdom of Granada, which is finally taken by the joint forces of Castilla and Aragón in 1492.
Conquest of Mexico (by Hernán Cortés) and Peru (by Francisco Pizarro).
www.dur.ac.uk /m.p.thompson/iberia-eng.htm   (751 words)

 SparkNotes: Early Middle Ages (475-1000): Islamic Expansion and Political Evolution, 632-1000
Along with continuing sentiment in favor of Ali, dissension began to permeate the Islamic state during the tenure of Caiph Uthman (644-656).
In the Islamic West, after generations of political infighting among rival Islamic Amirs, the Ummayad Abd al-Rahman III was able to establish himself a Caliph of a united polity.
The Islamic polity of the 700s, which had encapsulated the majority of the known world of Antiquity in lightning speed, had its roots in pagan Arab tribesmen mired in clannish warfare, and mostly illiterate.
www.sparknotes.com /history/european/middle1/section5.rhtml   (3222 words)

 Food in the Iberian Peninsula-Moorish heritage
After the conquest, some Muslims areas were completely resettled with Christians; other times Muslims were set in ghettos inside the cities.
The last Muslim Kingdom was conquered in 1492, and in 1501 the Moors were forced to convert to Christianity and, by the pressure of the Inquisition, they also were forced to change their dietary practices.
A third way was the result of years of interaction between Moorish and Chistian communities in those cities where, after the Christian conquest, Muslims (Mudéjares) had been set in ghettos inside or outside the urban walls.
www.geocities.com /tdcastros/Historyserver/papers/IberianPeninsula.htm   (1302 words)

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