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Topic: Islamic science

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Islamic science was originally meant to unleash creativity, to recover the traditional categories of tawheed (unity), ilm (knowledge) and khalifa (humans as trustees) of a science based on an alternative worldview, one that was not modernist in orientation, ie., framed around the values of the nation-state, reductionism, methodological individualism, materialism, and military expansionism.
However, Islamic science in Pakistan during the political terror of the 1980s came to mean science focused on legitimating itself through the categories of the Islamic ontological position.
Islamic science and other non-Western projects lay claim to this future, arguing that colonisation has allowed them to creatively internalize the West and thus create a critical traditionalism that can move the planet forward.
www.proutjournal.org /science/science.html   (1583 words)

  Islamic science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy.
This is not the same as science as conducted by Muslims in the secular context.
Science was encouraged by the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad and they established the "House of Wisdom", an academy of science where they gathered important Sanskrit and Greek manuscripts and paid scholars to study and translate them.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Islamic_science   (1586 words)

 Islam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as derivations of the teachings of Abraham and thus acknowledge common Abrahamic roots.
Islamic laws that were covered expressly in the Qur’an were referred to as hudud laws and include specifically the five crimes of theft, highway robbery, intoxication, adultery and falsely accusing another of adultery, each of which has a prescribed "hadd" punishment that cannot be forgone or mitigated.
Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar...
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Islam   (5735 words)

 Basis of Islamic Science   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Science is generally regarded and generally understood to be the rational pursuit of knowledge by empirical means - that is, through observation, experiment and the use of reason, or logic.
Islamic science itself may be defined as the quest to know and understand, through reason, observation, and experimentation, the realms of both causal and acausal, and to seek to apprehend the Unity which lies beyond both.
Central to Islamic science is the Islamic belief that all beings in the cosmos are Muslim.
alhaqq.jeeran.com /islamscience.html   (4782 words)

 Islamic Science as a scientific research program: conceptual and pragmatic issues Islam & Science - Find Articles
This situation is not surprising given the realization that the idea of Islamization of sciences necessarily demands close, critical engagement with the philosophy, history and practice of both Islamic and modern science.
The articulation of this Islamic Science research program, conceived thus, necessarily requires critical, creative engagement at a deep theoretical level with modern science since it is the default science for which Islamic Science is proffered as the more viable alternative, at least for Muslims if not for humanity at large.
Obviously, the ambitious scope of this research program for the revival of Islamic Science necessarily entails an interdisciplinary collaboration between scientists, technologists and engineers on the one hand, and historians, philosophers and sociologists of science on the other.
findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0QYQ/is_1_3/ai_n13826894   (541 words)

 Islam and Modern Science
Modern science is successful in telling you the weight and chemical structure of a red pine leaf, but it is totally irrelevant to what is the meaning of the turning of this leaf to red.
And as science is not a value free activity, it is fruitful and possible for one civilization to learn the science of another civilisation but to do that it must be able to abstract and make its own.
Islamic philosophy, Islamic science, history of astronomy, history of physics, alchemy, biology, anything you study, miraculously comes to an end in the thirteenth century which coincides exactly with the termination of political contact between Islam and the West.
web.mit.edu /mitmsa/www/NewSite/libstuff/nasr/nasrspeech1.html   (7092 words)

 MuslimHeritage.com - Topics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The achievement of medieval Islamic science is not limited to the preservation of Greek learning, nor to the incorporation in the corpus of elements from the more ancient and more distant East.
For Isaac Newton, a century and a half before Darwin, science was not separate from religion but, on the contrary, an aspect of religion, and ultimately subservient to it.
Science is rediscovering certain very important facts rejected by materialist philosophy and in this way a new concept of science is being born.
muslimheritage.com /topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=326   (4074 words)

 Islamic science Summary
Islamic scientists and their patrons chose which texts to translate, emphasizing and utilizing the portions of the texts that served their own purposes, just as they produced original works that best served their needs.
Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy.
Islamic advances in astronomy were the most advanced in the world at their time, and often calculated they tables with the longitude of Baghdad.
www.bookrags.com /Islamic_science   (7254 words)

 Nasr. Science and Civilization
To understand the Islamic sciences in their essence, therefore, requires an understanding of some of the principles of Islam itself, even though these ideas may be difficult to express in modern terms and strange to readers accustomed to another way of thinking.
Islamic civilization as a whole is, like other traditional civilizations, based upon a point of view: the revelation brought by the Prophet Muhammad is the "pure" and simple religion of Adam and Abraham, the restoration of a primordial and fundamental unity.
Islamic science, by contrast, seeks ultimately to attain such knowledge as will contribute toward the spiritual perfection and deliverance of anyone capable of studying it; thus its fruits are inward and hidden, its values more difficult to discern.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/med/nasr.html   (6500 words)

 USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts
Islamic medicine continued in Persia and the other eastern lands of the Islamic world under the influence of Ibn Sina with the appearance of major Persian medical compendia such as the Treasury of Sharaf al-Din al-Jurjani and the commentaries upon the Canon by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi.
Islamic medicine combined the use of drugs for medical purposes with dietary considerations and a whole lifestyle derived from the teachings of Islam to create a synthesis which has not died out to this day despite the introduction of modern medicine into most of the Islamic world.
Islamic learning became in this way part and parcel of Western civilization even if with the advent of the Renaissance, the West not only turned against its own medieval past but also sought to forget the long relation it had had with the Islamic world, one which was based on intellectual respect despite religious opposition.
cwis.usc.edu /dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html   (4100 words)

 IslamiCity.com - Islamic Science - Rebuilding the past
Fuat Sezgin, professor emeritus of the history of science at the University of Frankfurt, guides his guests through a labyrinth of tiled and mirrored rooms to the white-walled chambers of an exquisite yet little-known museum.
Western science historians know very well that the Arab world was the guardian of the ancient Greeks' scientific knowledge during the Middle Ages, before the European Renaissance rediscovered and extended it.
IslamiCity is making such material available in its effort to advance understanding of humanitarian, education, democracy, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law.
www.islamicity.com /Articles/articles.asp?ref=NA0506-2707   (1669 words)

 IslamOnline - Contemporary Section   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Ten fundamental Islamic concepts were identified as constituting the framework within which scientific inquiry should be carried out, four standing alone and three opposing pairs: tawheed (unity), khilafah (trusteeship), `ibadah (worship), `ilm (knowledge); and halal (lawful) and haram (unlawful), `adl (justice) and zulm (injustice), and istislah (public interest) and dhiya (waste).
The recent special issue on ‘Islam and Science’ of the prestigious journal Islamic Studies, for example, is devoted almost exclusively to the notions of time and space in mystical thought, the cosmology of certain Sufi groups, mystical principles in natural theology and other similar topics.
Islamic medicine and healthcare, for example, led the world for some eight centuries--before the 18th century, when research into and teaching of Islamic medicine was prohibited by the colonising powers.
www.islamonline.net /english/Contemporary/2002/05/Article21.shtml   (2288 words)

 The Miracle of Islamic Science
The words describing the basic functions of this science, sine, cosine and tangent, are all derived from Arabic terms.
What should be taught: Mathematicians of the Islamic Empire accomplished precisely this as early as the 9th century A.D. Thabit bin Qurrah was the first to do so, and he was followed by Abu'l Wafa, whose 10th century book utilized algebra to advance geometry into an exact and simplified science.
What is taught: The science of geography was revived during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries when the ancient works of Ptolemy were discovered.
www.geocities.com /ucsbmsa/islamscience.html   (2273 words)

The rewriting of the history of Islamic science is now receiving large attention both from Muslim and non-Muslim scientists after a lack of interest that lasted almost a century after the fall of the Islamic empire.
In our present time, it is very astonishing to note that the Islamic contribution to civilization is often undermined by the West despite the fact that in several cases, medieval Western scholars diligently imitated, copied and plagiarized the works of Muslim scientists.
In all cases, this first edition is a tentative approach to the history of Islamic science and the list of scholars reported is by no means complete.
www.angelfire.com /il/Fernini/ifscience.html   (1207 words)

For example Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best-known facets of Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled (2).
When taqlid was accepted as the dominant paradigm, Islamic science and technology truly became a matter of history and the practice of Islamic science and technology disappeared.
To train our younger generation into Islamic science and technology there is a need to develop a new curricula incorporating Islamic values in science and technology and also writing of textbooks in science and technology at all levels of education: primary, secondary, and higher education.
www.irfi.org /articles/articles_101_150/islamic_science.htm   (1852 words)

 Islamset - Islamic Science Influence in the Development of Medicine: THE ISLAMIC SPIRIT, ISLAMIC MEDICINE:LEADER, ...
The objective of this work is to obtain a series of events, which show the decisive influence given by the Islamic science, in relation to the development of medicine.
Althou h the decadence of the Islamic worlds influential power on the development of all type of world even s is apparent, the survival of a large series of absurd mistakes and deceptions in the world of medicine has come to a bad establishment of false attitudes.
Thanks to the Islamic science, to the Arab Medicine the accident was able to obt in a large amount of knowledge, which enabled the posterior development of this science.
www.islamset.com /ethics/topics/joseluis.html   (2124 words)

 biblio-ann   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
A bibliography on Islam and science cannot be complete without the inclusion of a number of works indirectly dealing with science and religion issues in a broader context.
Similarly, this nexus is deeply influenced by the question of modernity, education, history of modern science, transmission of the Islamic scientific tradition to the West, Muslim encounter with the West and many other related areas; hence the need to include at least some references to works which focus on these issues.
Bakar, Osman (1991), Tawhid and Science: Essays on the History and Philosophy of Islamic Science, Secretariat for Islamic Philosophy and Science, Kuala Lumpur.
www.cis-ca.org /biblios/bib-anno.htm   (3412 words)

 Holy Warriors & Asiatics Extinguish Islamic Science
Thus the Islamic 'philosophers' tended to be polymaths, intermingled their metaphysical theorising with practical study of biology, chemistry, botany, astronomy,music and medicine (it was as doctors that many earned a living.) Free thought even had a name – 'ijtihad'.
Islamic mysticism –; Sufism –; first arose in Syria and Iraq soon after the arrival of the Arabs in the seventh century.
Fragmentation of the Islamic empire was followed by a partial reunification under the leadership of various barbarous nomads from the steppe.
www.jesusneverexisted.com /wrath-of-god.html   (2924 words)

 Islamic Herald - Islam and Science
These early European colleges were also funded by trusts similar to the Islamic ones and legal historians have traced them back to the Islamic system.
The internal organization of these European colleges was strikingly similar to the Islamic ones, for example the idea of Graduate (Sahib) and undergraduate (mutafaqqih) is derived directly from Islamic terms.
Islamic contributions to Science were now rapidly being translated and transferred from Spain to the rest of Europe.
www.ais.org /~bsb/Herald/Previous/95/science.html   (902 words)

 Science in Islamic philosophy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Islamic civilization of the classical period was remarkable for the number of polymaths it produced.
The second argues that issues of science and values in Islam must be treated within a framework of concepts that shape the goals of a Muslim society.
Ten fundamental Islamic concepts are identified as constituting the framework within which scientific inquiry should be carried out, four standing alone and three opposing pairs: tawhid (unity), khilafa (trusteeship), 'ibada (worship), 'ilm (knowledge), halal (praiseworthy) and haram (blameworthy), 'adl (justice) and zulm (tyranny), and istisla (public interest) and dhiya (waste).
www.muslimphilosophy.com /ip/rep/H016.htm   (2371 words)

 Islamic science -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
This is not the same as science as conducted by any Muslim in a secular context.
In the Muslim view, the term "Dark Ages" is Eurocentric in nature, and implies that for approxiately 1,000 years nothing of value happened either scientifically or intellectually: no discovery, no invention, no progress.
Islamic science • Timeline of Islamic science • Astronomy • Medicine • Mathematics • Islamic Golden Age
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Islamic_science   (1459 words)

 History of Islamic Science 2
Hamed Abdel-reheem Ead, Professor of Chemistry at the Faculty of Science -University of Cairo, Giza, Egypt and director of the Science Heritage Center
To consider only the first half of the century, the leading men of science, al-Kindi, the sons of Musa, Al-Khwarzmi, al-Farghani, were all Muslims; Ibn Masawaih, it is true, was a christian, but he wrote in Arabic.
He founded a scientific academy in Bagdad, tried to collect as many Greek manuscripts as possible, and ordered their translation; he encouraged scholars from all kinds, and an enormous amount of scientific work was done under his patronage.
www.levity.com /alchemy/islam13.html   (2747 words)

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