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# Topic: Isothermal process

###### In the News (Tue 21 May 13)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir (heat bath), and processes occur slowly enough to allow the system to continually adjust to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange. Consider an ideal gas, in which the temperature depends only on the internal energy, which is a function of the mean translational kinetic energy of the molecules, as given by a Boltzmann distribution; if the internal energy is constant, so is the temperature. Isothermal processes can occur in any kind of system, including highly structured machines, and even living cells. www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=isothermal_process   (429 words)

 Textbooks and references Process 2: The compression strokein which the air in the combustion chamber is compressed by the motion of the piston. Process 5: The valve exhaustin which there is a drop in pressure and temperature caused by the quasistatic (reversible) ejection of heat due to the opening of the exhaust valve. Process 5: The vent exhaustin which a drop in pressure and temperature is caused by the quasistatic ejection of heat due to the contact of the combustion gases with the surroundings. www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr /~eeweb/ge308/project.html   (2635 words)

 Isothermal process - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system stays constant: ΔT = 0. Therefore the entire work of the process from A to B is shown with the integration of the previous equation. Isothermal processes can occur in any kind of system, including highly structured machines, and even living cells. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Isothermal_process   (440 words)

 No Title Process 2: The compression stroke in which the air in the combustion chamber is compressed by the motion of the piston. Process 5: The valve exhaust in which there is a drop in pressure and temperature caused by the quasistatic (reversible) ejection of heat due to the opening of the exhaust valve. Process 5: The vent exhaust in which a drop in pressure and temperature is caused by the quasistatic ejection of heat due to the contact of the combustion gases with the surroundings. www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr /~billur/courses/ge308project/project.html   (2612 words)

 JCE 1997 (74) 286 [Mar] An Exceptional Theoretical Process Belandria replies Another common comment considers that the process of Figure 1 is not allowed by thermodynamics because it is impossible that the isothermal compression process with internal entropy coupling requires less work than a conventional reversible isothermal compression for the same initial and final state. During the process heat is released to tank B, where the temperature varies from 373 to 1500 K and both tanks are covered externally by an adiabatic wall. From this outline it is possible to visualize that the process described in Figure 1 is not equivalent to a conventional isothermal compression as Nash considers. jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /Journal/Issues/1997/mar/abs286_2.html   (4624 words)

 Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene - Patent 5856605 In practical use is the adiabatic process which is usually carried out in two radial-flow reactors which are connected in series, with intermediate heating or feeding in of steam, and which are operated adiabatically, and the isothermal process in which a tube bundle reactor with indirect heat transfer is used. The invention thus achieves a combination of all the advantages of the known processes: the high selectivity of the adiabatic process, and the low steam/ethylbenzene ratio due to indirect heat input in the isothermal process. The process according to the invention is additionally distinguished in that three process steps, namely heating, first partial reaction in the tube bundle and subsequent reaction, can take place in a single apparatus. www.freepatentsonline.com /5856605.html   (719 words)

 Cyclic process - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A cyclic process is a thermodynamic process which begins from and finishes at the same thermostatic state. Equation (1) makes a cyclic process similar to an isothermal process: even though the internal energy changes during the course of the cyclic process, when the cyclic process finishes the system's energy is the same as the energy it had when the process began. The adiabatic processes are impermeable to heat: heat flows into the loop through the left pressurizing process and some of it flows back out through the right depressurizing process, and the heat which remains does the work. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cyclic_process   (744 words)

 SECOND LAW The Carnot cycle is a four step process involving two isothermal processes (which are said to be ideal reversible processes) at the temperatures Th and Tc and two adiabatic processes (ie, without heat transfer) which operate between those two temperatures. But the process of increasing the disorder has removed the possibility that the energy that was transferred from A to B can be used for any other purpose - for example, work cannot be extracted from the energy by operating a heat engine between the two reservoirs of different temperatures. And even in this idealized reversible process in which the entropy of the universe was left unchanged, the efficiency of conversion of heat to work is limited by the two temperatures involved in the isothermal steps. www.calpoly.edu /~rbrown/entropy.html   (1529 words)

 Physics 125 Processes which involve the movement of heat are called thermodynamic processes. The path of an adiabatic process on the P vs. V graph is shown, but it is not as straight-forward to predict it. The utility of the isothermal and adiabatic processes arises from the fact (which we'll demonstrate below) that the change of entropy for the process is 0, that is, there is no change in the disorder of the system. www.umich.edu /~amophys/125/tseven/tseven.html   (1534 words)

 Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics Discuss the implications of the first law of thermodynamics as applied to (a) an isolated system, (b) a cyclic process, (c) an adiabatic process, and (d) an isothermal process. A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases by 300 J. If at the same time, 120 J of work is done on the system, find the heat transferred to or from the system. process is a process which occurs at constant pressure. eml.ou.edu /Physics/module/thermal/pasumarthi/firstlaw.html   (2259 words)

 Thermodynamics Entropy Total entropy is a property (extensive) of a substance and therefore the change in entropy during a process, from an initial to a final state, is the same whatever the path taken. In this case although the process is adiabetic because it is not reversible it is not isentropic. An adiabetic process is one which is insulated against heat transfer and an isentropic process is one with a constant entropy. www.roymech.co.uk /Related/Thermos/Thermos_Entropy.html   (820 words)

 I - Glossary of chemical terms Ion exchange is a process involving the adsorption of one or several ionic species accompanied by the simultaneous desorption (displacement) of one or more other ionic species. Isotherm is a line connecting points of equal temperature on a graphical representation of a physical system. Isothermal process is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of the system does not change. www.ktf-split.hr /periodni/en/abc/i.html   (789 words)

 [No title] In an isothermal process the temperature remains constant; therefore, the internal energy of an ideal gas remains constant throughout an isothermal process. Similarly, in an isothermal compression, the work done on the gas as the gas is compressed causes heat to flow out of the gas while the temperature of the gas remains constant. For segment BC, the process is isobaric, that is, the pressure is constant. www.fiu.edu /~tgarcia/teaching/phy2053/ch15.doc   (2395 words)

 1995 Building Publications - Simulation of Isothermal and Adiabatic Leak Processes of Zeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures. Idealized cases of isothermal and adiabatic leak processes are considered in this study as representations of slow and fast leaks, respectively. In the isothermal leak process, the fraction of the more volatile refrigerant in both vapor and liquid phases decreases for either a vapor or a liquid leak. During the adiabatic leak process, the vapor mass fraction of the more volatile component increases, while the liquid mass fraction of that component decreases for both vapor and liquid leak processes. fire.nist.gov /bfrlpubs/build95/art090.html   (248 words)

 Change in entropy in irreversible and reversible process In the famous "quasi-static" isothermal process, total entropy of the system (the gas) is unchanged when the system returns to the original state. In a single isothermal event (one compression or one expansion) heat must flow since work is done and internal energy remains constant. Again, not in the real world: the grains of sand would have to be stored at the height at which they are put on/taken off, otherwise outside work would be necessary; furthermore, perfect frictionless machines would be required to move the grains from their storage potisions to the piston. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=822991   (947 words)

 Thermo Example 5 The second process is an isothermal one, which means the internal energy does not change. The third process is an adiabatic expansion, which, by definition, means there is no heat exchanged. Notice that the change in the internal energy of the gas was the same for both the isobaric and the isochoric processes since they produced the same final temperatures. users.ipfw.edu /maloney/thermoex5.html   (776 words)

 Thermal Processes- IB HL Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) The process is a suitable model for the fuel injection portion of a Diesel cycle. An isothermal process requires a moderate amount of heat input. This process is found in the idealized Carnot cycle. www.intuitor.com /student/thermoProcesses.htm   (107 words)

 [No title] As the piston is pushed to the right we have an isothermal compression in region (1). Example Problem: A 4 liter volume of ideal gas at a pressure of 2 atm and temperature 300 K is allowed to expand at constant pressure to twice its original volume. It is then isothermally compressed back to its original volume, and then is cooled at constant volume back to its original pressure. www.luc.edu /faculty/dtribbl/thermo/sec4.doc   (659 words)

 Process Safety - Setaram, calorimetry and thermal analysis Isothermal calorimeters are used to measure the heat of reactions and their kinetic parameters with just a few grams of sample material. The DRC Evolution was developed jointly with the process safety laboratory of Sanofi-Aventis in Neuville-sur-Saône (France). Study of process in off normal conditions by C80 : synthesis and decomposition of a diazo compound using the C80 safety vessel. www.setaram.com /Process-Safety.htm   (774 words)

 Covaris / Products & Services / E-series In many instances, with the high-speed, iterative Covaris processes, recoveries are higher and precision is improved. For example, in metabolite applications recoveries are increased, samples are processed in less time, and sample temperature may be maintained isothermal during the “mechanical reflux” process. The Covaris process is highly beneficial for ensuring difficult solutes in small volumes are efficiently dissolved, such as those lyophilized in DMSO. www.covarisinc.com /e_series.htm   (268 words)

 Re: The specific heat of the isothermal process in gases The specific heat associated with the isothermal process in gases is infinite. Specific heat is associated with the characteristic exponent and I've suggested changes there, reducing an infinity to a range, but had not found a way to change the range from zero to infinity (the exponent of the volume term) to any more reasonable range. Merely sticking a pitot tube with associated thermocouple into an operating engine isn't that bad, but with continuous functions, noninvasive measurements, designer awareness of component interaction, and computer aided design, drafting, manufacturing, and measurement, the possibilities for optimization are enhanced, allowing purpose built gas machines to be designed and developed rapidly. www.lns.cornell.edu /spr/2000-05/msg0025244.html   (683 words)

 CVI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) In the CVI process, reactants are transported to the interior of a preform by any of several techniques. All of these processes are designed to yield a product with a uniformly distributed coating on the interior, but the latter two allow for much shorter processing times. For example, in isothermal CVI, vacuum conditions are typically used to enhance the diffusivity of the gaseous species and hence provide uniform penetration. www.ultramet.com /cvi.htm   (445 words)

 Page 327   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19) Thus the first law for an isothermal process is simply: Since there is no change in the internal energy in an isothermal process, all of the work done to or by the system is converted into heat and vice versa. This means that an isothermal process moves on a hyperbola in the pV diagram. lectureonline.cl.msu.edu /~mmp/kap12/cd327.htm   (146 words)

 Thermodynamics is a process that occurs at constant pressure. A gas is compressed at a constant pressure of 0.8 atm from 9 L to 2 L. In the process, 400 J of thermal energy leaves the gas. A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases by 500 J. If at the same time 220 J of work is done on the system, find the thermal energy transferred to or from it. electron9.phys.utk.edu /phys136d/modules/m3/secondlaw.htm   (2721 words)

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