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Topic: James Vicary

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  James Vicary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
James Vicary is a market researcher best known for pioneering the notion of subliminal advertising in 1957.
He claimed that an experiment in which moviegoers were repeatedly shown 0.003-second advertisements for Coca-Cola and popcorn significantly increased their sales.
In 1962, Vicary admitted that the original study was fabricated.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/James_Vicary   (93 words)

 The Straight Dope by Cecil Adams* David Icke E-Magazine Mind Control Archives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Vicary described the results of a six-week test conducted in a New Jersey movie theater, in which a high speed projector was used to flash the slogans "drink Coke" and "eat popcorn" over the film for 1/3,000 of a second at five-second intervals.
While Vicary steadfastly refused to release any of his data (or even the location of the theater where the tests were conducted), psychologists who had performed similar experiments gleefully contradicted his results.
In 1962 Vicary granted an interview to Advertising Age in which he called his invention a "gimmick"--the Subliminal Projection Company had been dissolved, and he was working in happy obscurity for Dunn and Bradstreet.
www.davidicke.net /mindcontrol/subliminal/sub111300a.html   (742 words)

  Shortly after James Vicary made his claim he was called upon by the scientific community to produce his machine for a controlled test of his claims.
Vicary finally admitted, albeit much too late, that he had no data from the original experiment because there was no data of any use to be had.
Vicary had committed a self-conscious act of bad science, and science had corrected him by being unable to replicate the experiment.
www.genepool.addr.com /subliminals.html   (1327 words)

 [No title]
Vicary claimed an increase in Coke sales of l8 percent and a rise in popcorn sales of almost 58 percent.
In a 1962 interview with Advertising Age, James Vicary announced that the original study was a fabrication intended to increase customers for his failing marketing business.
Finally, in 1962 James Vicary lamented that he had handled the subliminal affair poorly.
www.textfiles.com /occult/sublim.txt   (3420 words)

 Subliminal Perception
The idea of this experiment was to test the well-known myth created by James Vicary in 1957, when he claimed he had increased the sale of Coca-cola and popcorn in a cinema by flashing the messages "Drink Coke" and "Eat popcorn" onto the screen while the audience was watching a film.
Vicary later admitted that the study was a fabrication (Pratkanis and Aronson, 1992).
If the subliminal exposure has the influence claimed by Vicary, the "brand" (symbol) that was flashed in should be chosen (rated higher) more often by the subjects in the experimental condition than by the subject in the control condition.
www.ramian.dk /icp2000   (398 words)

 Urban Legends Reference Pages: Business (Subliminal Advertising)
Vicary placed a tachistoscope in the theater's projection booth, and all throughout the playing of the film Picnic, he flashed a couple of different messages on the screen every five seconds.
So potent a legend, in fact, that the Federal Communications Commission banned "subliminal advertising" from radio and television airwaves in 1974, despite that fact that no studies have ever shown it to be effective, and even though its alleged efficacy was based on a fraud.
James Vicary's legacy was to ensure that a great many people will never be convinced otherwise, however.
www.snopes.com /business/hidden/popcorn.asp   (603 words)

 Claims about the power of subliminal advertising
According to Vicary, a message was flashed for 3/1000 of a second once every five seconds.
Despite the fact that the customers were not aware of perceiving the message, Vicary claimed that over the six-week period the sales of popcorn rose 57% and the sales of Coca-Cola rose 18.1%.
However, Vicary never released a detailed description of his study and there has never been any independent evidence to support his claims.
www.ciadvertising.org /student_account/spring_01/adv391k/hjy/adv382j/1st/application.html   (725 words)

 newStandard: 4/02/96
That, he said, was a reference to a famous episode in 1957, in which a market researcher named James Vicary claimed that those words, flashed at 1/3,000th of a second on the screen of a movie theater in Fort Lee, N.J., over a six-week period, boosted popcorn sales 58 percent and Coke sales 18 percent.
Vicary had used, was simply not capable of firing a message that fast.
Vicary admitted in an interview with Advertising Age that he had faked the whole thing to increase tachistoscope sales, Mr.
www.s-t.com /daily/04-96/04-02-96/1sublim.htm   (914 words)

 Blogger: Email Post to a Friend   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Subliminal messages were apparently first unleashed on the American public in the 1950s by James Vicary, an advertising executive.
Vicary performed a study at movie theaters in which the words "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Eat Popcorn" were flashed on the screen, yet so quickly that the unwary audience didn't consciously notice them.
Vicary claimed that sales on popcorn and Coke accordingly soared at the concession stands, jumping 57.7% and 18.1% respectively.
www.blogger.com /email-post.g?blogID=6207379&postID=111074024338946933   (240 words)

 Unconscious Processing: Subliminal Perception, Neuropsychology, and the I-Function
James Vicary, one of the market researchers and entrepreneurs profiled in Packard's book, claimed to have developed a machine capable of flashing such unnoticeable, "subliminal messages" within big screen movies.
Vicary had allegedly tested his technique by altering movies so that messages urging viewers to "Eat Popcorn" and to "Drink Coke" were displayed at regular intervals throughout the film for such brief durations that they could not be consciously perceived.
Vicary claimed that his subliminal messages resulted in a significant increase in sales of popcorn and coke (1).
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro99/web2/Hellew.html   (1480 words)

 Subliminal Claims Debunked
In the case of subliminal messages, what is alleged is that simple pictures that do not register on the eyes and that are repeated in relatively close sequences can bring someone to do something he wouldn’t do otherwise.
Vicary claimed that sales of Cokes increased of 18% and the one of popcorns of 58%.
Now, in 1962, Vicary announced that his experiment was nothing but a fabrication.
bernie.cncfamily.com /sc/battlefield_debunk.htm   (1327 words)

 Columbus' Electronic Literary Magazine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Vicary explained that these few were visible because he rigged the mechanism so that the reporters could see what was being done invisibly.
Vicary, head of the motivation research company bearing his name, said the commercial messages are superimposed on a film as "very brief overlays of light." They are so rapid—up to 1/3,000 of a second—that they cannot be seen by the audience.
Vicary said subliminal advertising will be a boon to the consumer, because it will eliminate bothersome commercials and allow more entertainment time.
members.aol.com /psychneuro/subliminal/vicary.html   (321 words)

 The Subliminal Scares: Hidden Persuasion?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Among the new MR specialists Packard profiled was the enterprising James Vicary, the man whose sales scheme would kick off decades of subliminal scares in the United States.
Vicary had conducted MR on various groups of shoppers, and attracted some attention for his studies of the eye-blink rate of female customers in various store settings.
Though Vicary did not produce many details or records of his experiment, the notion that subliminal communication could effect people's thinking and actions spread quickly.
www.parascope.com /articles/0397/sublim1.htm   (827 words)

 Subliminal Persuasion Cargo-Cult Science (Skeptical Inquirer Spring 1992)
According to reports in newspapers and magazines, James Vicary, an advertising expert, had secretly flashed, at a third of a millisecond, the words "Eat Popcorn" and "Drink Coke" onto the movie screen.
Vicary claimed an increase in Coke sales of 18 percent and a rise in popcorn sales of almost 58 percent.
Consider the tragic suicide deaths of teenagers Ray Belknap and James Vance that were brought to light in the recent trial of Judas Priest.
www.csicop.org /si/9204/subliminal-persuasion.html   (5062 words)

 About Subliminal Messages - What they are and how they work
The subliminal message was the brainchild of NY market researcher, James Vicary, who boasted that Coke sales in the lobby increased 58% and that popcorn sales rose 18%.
Perhaps the most widely known claim was made in 1957 by James Vicary, a market researcher.
Despite the fact that the customers were not aware of perceiving the messages, Vicary claimed that over the six-week period the sales of popcorn rose 57.7% and the sales of Coca-Cola rose 18.1%.
www.hypnoticmp3.com /about_subliminals.htm   (2551 words)

After lengthly evidence, the Magistrates ultimately came to the conclusion that there was no offence of sufficient magnitude to justify committing the prisoners for trial, and dismissed the case.
JAMES VICARY, a private in the Royal Marines was brought up in custody to answer the charge of stealing a meerchawm pipe and cigar tube, the property of JANE and ELIZABETH BENTLEY, who keep a tobacconist shop at 18, Broad St. Sentenced to 3 months hard labour in Sandwich Gaol.
JAMES PETTY, boatman, appeared to answer the charge of ALEXANDER PETTET, one of the Borough Police, of being drunk and riotous and refusing to leave the Sun public house when requested.
ancestrydealkent.mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk /page3.html   (579 words)

 The Subliminal Scares: Vicary Tells All   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Though Vicary's subliminal research was "too small to be meaningful," fears of his methods were all too real.
Vicary's subliminal "gimmick" resulted in far more than just another word added to our vocabulary.
His Fort Lee subliminal projection tests have become the stuff of urban legend, and are frequently (if somewhat vaguely) cited by people who assert a belief in the effectiveness of subliminal persuasion.
www.parascope.com /articles/0397/sublim3.htm   (494 words)

 [No title]
Vicary’s contribution to the “science” of subliminal advertising was an experiment in which he flashed “Eat Popcorn” and “Drink Coke” during movies shown in a New Jersey theater.
Vicary reported sales of cola were up 18% and popcorn sales jumped by 58% during the test.
One of the movies shown in Vicary’s study was “Picnic” which included on-screen outdoor eating that might have stimulated hunger and thirst; despite its controversial results, the study has never been replicated to attempt to measure its validity.
www.dushkin.com /text-data/weekly/ad04-30-01.mhtml   (663 words)

 Program Yourself To Succeed
It was in one of these movie theaters that a man named James Vicary changed your life even if you weren't born until years or decades later.
James Vicary was hailed by the theater owners as a rainmaker, a miracle man, an advertising genius.
And he was a genius, for James Vicary had discovered a secret of the human mind that's still as valid today as it was in the 1950's.
www.subliminalezy.com   (1836 words)

 Townhall.com :: Columns :: Flashback by Jacob Sullum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
News of Vicary's experiment caused a sensation, prompting expressions of concern from members of Congress, the Federal Communications Commission, and the National Association of Broadcasters.
But Vicary refused to supply his data, and his results were never replicated.
In a 1962 interview with Advertising Age, Vicary indicated that his study had been a hoax.
www.townhall.com /opinion/columns/jacobsullum/2000/09/19/160165.html   (706 words)

 AdLand ad-rag.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Vicary swore that the invisible advertising had increased the sales of popcorn an average of 57.5 percent and increased the sales of Coca-Cola an average of 18.1 percent.
Vicary claimed he could not discuss these inconsistencies, nor would he divulge the place of study or detail the actual technique used, because it was part of his patent application for his own version of the Tachistoscope.
In 1957 a market researcher called James Vicary hypothesized that it might be possible to flash commands on television screens so fast that the viewer would not be conscious of seeing them, but his unconscious would see them - and obey them.
ad-rag.com /modules.php?op=modload&name=Sections&file=index&req=printpage&artid=57   (1684 words)

 Jim_Vicary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Subliminal advertising first came to the public’s attention in 1957, when Jim Vicary conducted a subliminal advertising strategy of interspersing "drink Coca-Cola" and "eat popcorn" messages on a movie screen so quickly that they could not be seen consciously by the audience.
Later, however, when he was challenged and could not replicate or even produce the results, Vicary admitted that the results of the initial study had been fabricated.
Consumers were concerned that advertisers could now "trick" them into buying products with out their knowledge and/or conscious opposition since the advertising was being conducted at a "subconscious" level.
www.uiowa.edu /~commstud/adclass/craig/jim_vicary.htm   (127 words)

 Does subliminal advertising work?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The American public was first introduced to the idea of subliminal advertising in 1957 by James M. Vicary.
In a press conference announcing the formation of the Subliminal Projection Company, Vicary claimed that he was able to increase sales of popcorn and Coke through the use of subliminal advertising.
According to Vicary, during a six-week test in a movie theater, he was able to drive up sales of popcorn by 57.5% and sales of Coke by 18.1% simply by flashing the slogans "drink Coke" and "eat popcorn" over the movie for 1/3,000th of a second every five seconds.
myitforum.techtarget.com /blog/rcrumbaker/archive/2005/01/04/1239.aspx   (350 words)

 Subliminal message - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This book included results from a study of a theater that supposedly flashed subliminal messages during a movie to increase the sales of popcorn and Coca-Cola at their concession stands.
However, the author of the study, James Vicary, later admitted the study was fabricated.
In 1973, Wilson Bryan Key's book Subliminal Seduction claimed that subliminal techniques were in wide use in advertising.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Subliminal_advertising   (1296 words)

 Subliminal Perception Manual   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Although Vicary never actually published these findings, his reports created a frenzy of consumer concern and government legislation aimed at stopping these forms of seemingly insidious mind control.
Vicary, however, was the first to report impressive behavioral influences in a domain with tremendous money making potential.
Regardless of its truth of falsity, Vicary's report spurred what has now been over 30 years of research into the effectiveness of a new marketing tool: subliminal advertising.
www.csic.cornell.edu /201/subliminal   (12031 words)

 Subliminal Advertising - Wilson Bryan Key, Vance Packard, Hidden Persuaders, Subliminal Seduction
The first, in the late 1950s, focused on James Vicary's claims that he had inserted split-second, invisible ad messages into movies.
James Vicary, a motivational researcher mentioned several times in Packard's book, smelled gold.
To add credibility to his claims of manipulating unwitting viewers, Vicary cited studies showing that subliminal advertising had increased popcorn sales by precisely 57.5 percent, and Coca-Cola sales by 18.1 percent.
www.stayfreemagazine.org /archives/22/subliminal-advertising.html   (6275 words)

 Subliminal Advertising: Subliminal Messages Exposed!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
James Vicary, an advertising expert, went into a 1950s movie theater to test his devious new tool for persuading others: subliminal advertising.
Vicary claimed Coke sales jumped 18.1% and popcorn sales leaped 57.7%.
Vicary's famous movie theater test has been proven to be a hoax.
www.ldpublishing.com /subliminal.html   (516 words)

 Vicary Family Genealogy Forum
Irene (Filbert) Vicary obituary - Tammy Clark 2/20/04
Janie Vicary Denniford (nee Berry) 1860-1936 Devon - CharmianGaud 1/29/02
Re: Arthur Vicary born 1865 - Sandra 11/07/01
genforum.genealogy.com /vicary   (540 words)

 Subliminal CIA
The date of the report is significant; at that time, the United States was in the midst of the first great "subliminal scare" (see Dossier's documented feature on the evolution of this phenomenon).
Vicary later downplayed the effectiveness of the technique, and admitted that his research data on subliminal projection was "too small to be meaningful." But the damage was done.
The document, dated January 17, 1958, said that the ssubliminal method "has achieved some success in commercial advertising" and cited James Vicary's now-discredited movie experiments as proof.
www.geocities.com /Area51/Shadowlands/6583/project196.html   (1268 words)

 Judas Priest Subliminal Message Trial (Skeptical Inquirer November 1996)
In September of 1957, James Vicary claimed to have conducted a study in Fort Lee, New Jersey, in which he projected the subliminal messages "Eat Popcorn" and "Drink Coke" onto a movie screen during movie showings to audiences (see Moore 1982; Pratkanis 1992; Rogers 1993).
Five years later Vicary acknowledged that he had had only a small amount of data-too small to be meaningful.
Implicit, if not explicit, in both Vicary's alleged demonstration, as well as media descriptions of the phenomenon, is the assumption that invisible or inaudible stimuli are inevitably unconsciously perceived.
www.csicop.org /si/9611/judas_priest.html   (5428 words)

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