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Topic: Japanese internment in the United States

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  Internment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The backlash against internment and its bungled application contributed to the decision of the British government under Prime Minister Edward Heath to suspend the Stormont governmental system in Northern Ireland and replace it with direct rule from London, under the authority of a British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.
Internment was ended in 1975, but had resulted in increased support for the IRA and created political tensions which culminated in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike and the death of Bobby Sands MP.
Japanese and Japanese Canadians were singled out, and thousands of Canadian families had their belongings confiscated, were separated and interned.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Internment   (1180 words)

Within a few weeks the demand spread that Japanese Americans, both naturalized citizens as well as those born in the United States, any of whom might be "saboteurs" or "spies," be removed from the West Coast before the Japanese invaded.
United States (1943), the Court sustained the legitimacy of the curfew, but evaded ruling on the wider implications of relocation.
United States, the Court could no longer ignore the core issue of whether loyal citizens could be summarily relocated to detention camps solely on the basis of their race.
usinfo.state.gov /usa/infousa/facts/democrac/65.htm   (1746 words)

 Asian American Empowerment: ModelMinority.com - The Japanese Peruvian Internment
Japanese began emigrating to Peru in 1899 for the same reasons they came to the United States-land, jobs, and the opportunity to make a better life for their children.
In turn, the ease with which the Japanese Latin Americans could be kidnapped and held hostage made it easier for government officials to justify the internment of Japanese Americans in violation of both international and domestic law, and even to consider stripping them of all rights and deporting them after the war was over.
State Department Memorandum No. 6239 from Ambassador Norweb to the Secretary of State, dated March 3, 1943, indicates that of the 119 Japanese Peruvians who were evacuated on the S/S Frederick C. Johnson on February 24, 1943, 15 were recommended for expulsion by the Embassy.
www.modelminority.com /printout211.html   (4556 words)

 The History of Japanese Immigration -- Brown Quarterly -- v. 3, no. 4 -- Spring 2000
Japanese laborers were not allowed to leave their country legally until after 1884 when an agreement was signed between their government and Hawaiian sugar plantations.
By 1890, 2,038 Japanese resided in the United States.
To appease those agitating for an end to Japanese immigration, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated a "Gentlemen’s Agreement." The Japanese government agreed not to issue passports to laborers immigrating to the United States.
brownvboard.org /brwnqurt/03-4/03-4a.htm   (1445 words)

 Japanese-American Internment - Liberty - Themepark
This action was fueled by fear that Americans of Japanese ancestry might commit acts of treason against the United States.
So Japanese Americans were forced to leave their homes, sell much of their property at enormous losses, and move into detention/internment camps as a result of Executive Order 9066, issued by President Franklin Roosevelt on February 19, 1942.
Japanese Americans in Hawaii did not suffer this same fate because they made up such a large proportion of the population of the territory of Hawaii.
www.uen.org /themepark/liberty/japanese.shtml   (1219 words)

 Court Challenges > The Camps Experience | Exploring JAI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
The Constitutionality of the internment were challenged in the courts as early as 1942 in the cases of Hirabayashi v.
Gordon Hirabayashi, a second generation Japanese American, born and raised in Washington, was a senior at the University of Washington.
Minoru Yasui was an American born citizen of Japanese ancestry, a graduate of the University of Oregon Law School, a U.S. Army reserve officer, an attorney and active member of the Japanese American Citizens League.
www.jainternment.org /camps/court.html   (851 words)

 Internment of Japanese Americans in Concentration Camps
Hirbayashi, an American citizen of Japanese ancestry, was convicted in the district court of knowingly disregarding restrictions made applicable by a military commander to persons in a military area prescribed by him as such, all as authorized by an Executive Order of the President.
There is support for the view that social, economic and political conditions which have prevailed since the close of the last century, when the Japanese began to come to this country in substantial numbers, have intensified their solidarity and have in large measure prevented their assimilation as an integral part of the white population.
American citizen of Japanese ancestry petitioned for writ of coram nobis to vacate his 1942 conviction for being in a place from which all persons of Japanese ancestry were excluded pursuant to a civilian exclusion order.
academic.udayton.edu /race/02rights/intern01.htm   (3655 words)

 Internment - the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
The backlash against internment and its bungled application contributed to the decision of the British government under Prime Minister Edward Heath to suspend the
From 1971 internment began, beginning with the arrest of 342 suspected republican guerrillas and paramilitary members (and no loyalists) on August 9.
Internment had previously been used as a means of repressing Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Army in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
www.aaez.biz /?t=Internment   (954 words)

 Attack on Pearl Harbor - ArtPolitic Encyclopedia of Politics : Information Portal
On March 27, 1941 Japanese spy Takeo Yoshikawa arrived in Honolulu, Hawaii and began to study the United States Naval fleet stationed at Pearl.
It drew the United States into World War II and led to the demise of the Japanese Empire and aided in the defeat of Nazi Germany as well.
For the next six months, the United States Navy was unable to play any significant role in the Pacific War, and with the US Pacific Fleet out of the picture, Japan was free to to conquer South-East Asia, the entire South West Pacific, and even extend its reach far into the Indian Ocean.
www.artpolitic.org /infopedia/at/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor.html   (920 words)

 Korematsu v. United States
Like curfew, exclusion of those of Japanese origin was deemed necessary because of the presence of an unascertained number of disloyal members of the group, most of whom we have no doubt were loyal to this country.
These separate requirements were that those of Japanese ancestry (1) depart from the area; (2) report to and temporarily remain in an assembly center; (3) go under military control to a relocation center there to remain for an indeterminate period until released conditionally or unconditionally by the military authorities.
United States, 284 U.S. There is no reason why violations of these orders, insofar as they were promulgated pursuant to Congressional enactment, should not be treated as separate offenses.
www.tourolaw.edu /patch/Korematsu   (2312 words)

 PBS | The Fillmore: Japanese American Internment Lesson Plan
Find a map of internment camps in the US and identify the number of Japanese Americans imprisoned.Students could create a map of internment camps locations.
In groups of 3, role play 3 generations of a Japanese American family: (1) a grandparent who lived in an internment camp as a young adult, (2) a parent who lived there as a child, and (3) a grandchild who was born after 1970.
Assess students' understanding of historical events, the human consequences of internment, the logic of arguments, and the appropriateness of citations from the Constitution to substantiate their points.
www.pbs.org /kqed/fillmore/classroom/internment.html   (1088 words)

 Japanese-American Internment in WWII Photographs Exhibit, Univ. Utah   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States was gripped by war hysteria.
Leaders in California, Oregon, and Washington, demanded that the residents of Japanese ancestry be removed from their homes along the coast and relocated in isolated inland areas.
Internment camps were scattered all over the interior West, in isolated desert areas of Arizona, California, Utah, Idaho, Colorado, and Wyoming, where Japanese-Americans were forced to carry on their lives under harsh conditions.
www.lib.utah.edu /spc/photo/9066/9066.htm   (261 words)

 Japan Digest | Teaching about Japanese-American Internment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
When the United States entered World War II following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Japanese immigrants and their descendants, including those born in the United States and therefore citizens by birth, were placed in a very awkward situation.
The immigrants were resident aliens in the United States, a country at war with their country of birth.
In February 1943, after the internment of Japanese Americans from the West Coast had been completed, the War Department and the War Relocation Authority required all internees 17 years of age and older to answer a questionnaire.
www.indiana.edu /~japan/Digests/internment.html   (1290 words)

 Lesson Plans
The purpose of this unit on immigration is to make students aware that the political debates raging today are issues that have always been debated, with only the ethnicity of the immigrants involved in the debates changing.
Because the students have been incorporating their reading/writing journals into each unit plan in order to examine their own views and learning experiences, students will be expected to continue using their journals to reflect on their reading and the discoveries they make about themselves while learning about the immigration experience.
Since the situation under examination occurred in 1944 during the Japanese American Evacuation- yet achieved renewed prominence within the movement for Japanese American redress between the late 1960s and the present-this unit may be taught profitably in conjunction with either World War II or recent U.S. history.
bss.sfsu.edu /internment/lessonplans.html   (1901 words)

 Internment Camps in the United States
The Japanese-American Internment of 1942-45 — Suspected of disloyalty, they were rounded up and confined for the duration of World War II.
Internment in the United States during World War II, December 7, 1941 - July 1948 —; German and Italian nationals were interned as well.
Japanese Internment During World War II — Another collection of links on this episode.
www.constitution.org /abus/intern/intern.htm   (545 words)

 Korematsu Japanese Internment Ancestry Reparation World War II
The stated purpose of removing this entire ethnic group was for “protection against espionage and against sabotage.” Congress made it a crime to refuse to leave a military area when ordered to do so.
The attorneys stated that instead of uprooting 120,000 men, women, and children from their homes, the government simply could have barred them from specific military and industrial sites.
The commission concluded that the decisions to remove those of Japanese ancestry to prison camps occurred because of “race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.” In 1988, Congress apologized and granted personal compensation of $20,000 to each surviving prisoner.
www.crf-usa.org /terror/korematsu.htm   (2051 words)

 Japanese Canadian Internment - Information at the University of Washington Libraries and Beyond   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
When war was declared on Japan in December 1941, the cry to rid British Columbia of the Japanese menace was taken up in many quarters, including provincial and municipal government halls and influential local newspapers.
Tensions mounted and early in 1942 the Ottawa government bowed to West Coast pressure and began the relocation of Japanese nationals and Canadian citizens alike.
In 1988, 111 years after the first Japanese entered Canada, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney formally apologized to Japanese Canadians and authorized the provision of $21,000 (Cdn.) to each of the survivors of wartime detention.
www.lib.washington.edu /subject/Canada/internment/intro.html   (463 words)

 Japanese Internment in World War II
Roosevelt's executive order was fueled by anti-Japanese sentiment among farmers who competed against Japanese labor, politicians who sided with anti-Japanese constituencies, and the general public, whose frenzy was heightened by the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor.
More than 2/3 of the Japanese who were interned in the spring of 1942 were citizens of the United States.
Though families were generally kept together in the United States, Canada sent male evacuees to work in road camps or on sugar beet projects.
www.infoplease.com /spot/internment1.html   (750 words)

 Japanese-American Internment
Japanese American internment raised questions about the rights of American citizens as embodied in the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
Pretend that you are a Japanese American housed in one of the interment camps during WWII.
The evacuation of the Japanese Canadians, or Nikkei, from the Pacific Coast in the early months of 1942 was the greatest mass movement in the history of Canada.
www.42explore2.com /japanese.htm   (1346 words)

 Civil Rights - Law and History/Japanese American Internment   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
On December 7, 1941, the country of Japan bombed the United States military base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
However, the federal government and its military leaders decided that no one of Japanese ancestry could live on the west coast of the United States, while people of Italian and German ancestry could remain.
In 1980, the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians was established by Congress.
www.usdoj.gov /kidspage/crt/redress.htm   (358 words)

 WW2 Internment in the United States
Parts of both States, of course, are outside of your district, but it seems reasonable to anticipate that approximately ninety per cent of these arrests will occur within your district [emphasis added].
He stated that he could not as to the Germans and Italians, but that he did not believe there would be very many more arrests of Japanese.
Similar action is to be started by police departments in other cities, towns and villages throughout the United States so that government operatives may be able to put their fingers on any alien in any community at almost anytime..
www.foitimes.com /internment/chrono.html   (1979 words)

 Children of the Camps | INTERNMENT HISTORY
The order set into motion the exclusion from certain areas, and the evacuation and mass incarceration of 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast, most of whom were U.S. citizens or legal permanent resident aliens.
Some Japanese Americans died in the camps due to inadequate medical care and the emotional stresses they encountered.
Popularly known as the Japanese American Redress Bill, this act acknowledged that "a grave injustice was done" and mandated Congress to pay each victim of internment $20,000 in reparations.
www.children-of-the-camps.org /history   (426 words)

 LONG HELD PERCEPTIONS:JAPANESE AND AMERICAN   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
The stereotyping and discriminatory actions of Americans toward Asians are not topics contained in most texts, nor do these texts devote much space to the actions of the United States in limiting or restricting immigration to the United States by Asians.
To understand the roles of both the United States and Japan in the world today, students need to study these and other events which led to different perceptions and eventually to World War II in the Pacific and to the modern world.
Some questions to be included in the interview would cover their perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, as well as what knowledge they had, if any, about the internment of the Japanese-Americans.
www.smith.edu /fcceas/curriculum/ahart.htm   (1315 words)

 The Forcible Removal of Israelis from Gaza - article by Daniel Pipes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
The case of the Navajos in the Joint Use Area with the Hopis in Arizona is also mentioned, as is the use of eminent domain in Australia.
Japanese internment in the United States during World War II: "The United States removed many American citizens of Japanese descent from their lawful homes and placed them in camps during World War II."
As for the Japanese internment, this involved the temporary relocation of citizens, not a permanent move nor the razing of their houses.
www.danielpipes.org /article/2524   (813 words)

 Japanese Internment
Victims of war time hysteria, these people, two-thirds of whom were United States citizens, lived a bleak and humiliating life in tar paper barracks behind barbed wire and under armed guard.
It told what people of Japanese ancestry were supposed to do and how the relocaiton would be organized.
This map shows many of the internment camps in the United States (marked by the bigger squares).
education.nebrwesleyan.edu /eisenhower/partsites/northeastpage/safarik/internmentpage.html   (419 words)

 Reason: Indefensible Internment: There was no good reason for the mass internment of Japanese Americans during WWII.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-07)
Reason: Indefensible Internment: There was no good reason for the mass internment of Japanese Americans during WWII.
Over the last several decades, historians have shown that the chief causes of the Japanese American internment were ingrained anti-Asian racism, nativist and economic pressures from groups in California that had long wanted the Japanese gone, and the panic of wartime hysteria.
Neither did the governors of the Mountain West states, who in April 1942 rejected the federal government’s request to allow Japanese Americans freedom of movement and instead insisted that any Japanese Americans in their states be kept behind barbed wire and under military guard.
www.reason.com /0412/cr.em.indefensible.shtml   (1430 words)

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